Christianity Introduced into Great Britain and Ireland.
Christ and Him crucified was preached in Great Britain as early as the first century, especially during the reigns of Nero and Domitian, A.D. 54-68, 81-96, and probably by the immediate companions of the Apostle Paul, while numerous translations of portions of the Scriptures from the Vulgate or Latin Bible of the Western Church were made and circulated during the second century.
It is an interesting circumstance that Bran, a British king, was at Rome as a hostage for the good behaviour of his country, during the imprisonment of Paul in the imperial city. He was probably converted by the Apostle, as on his return to Britain he was accompanied by certain Christian teachers, among whom was Aristobulus (Rom. 16:10). Bran preached Christ in Wales. Succat, a Scotch boy born on the banks of the Clyde, in the picturesque village of Kilpatrick, about A.D. 372, was carried off to the then savage island of Ireland by pirates, and converted there when about 16 years old. On his return to his family he longed to revisit the land of his captivity, and so Succat, better known as St. Patrick, carried the pure gospel to the Emerald Isle. The ancient religion of the country was that of the Druids, whose practices and mysteries were never committed to writing, but were handed down through successive generations by the priests of the system after, it is said, a twenty years' training. Slowly, but surely, however, Druidism and other Pagan superstitions disappeared before the rising sun of Christianity.
The sixth century was a happy and prosperous one, so far as Great Britain was concerned. The famous Columba, a native prince of Ireland (we owe much instrumentally to the Irish), laboured in the north amongst the native Caledonians, while Gildas, the earliest of British historians, a man too of fervent piety and of considerable talent, laboured in the south amongst the ancient Welsh.
The Work of Bible Translation and Value of Books.
Such, too, was the desire to read the Scriptures, not then translated into the vernacular tongue, that many of the natives learned Latin, that they might read for themselves the wonderful works and words of God then only accessible in the Vulgate.
But while portions of the Scriptures, especially the Psalms and the Gospels, were frequently translated, as by the venerable Bede, King Alfred, and others, a complete copy of the Bible was a rare acquisition, and procurable only by the rich. In the reign of Edward I. of England, about 1272, the price of a complete Bible was from £30 to £37, and occupied a careful scribe in his scriptorium about ten months, while the day's wage of a working man only averaged 1.5 pence. When it is borne in mind that it only cost £25 to build two arches of London Bridge in 1240, while the price of a complete Latin Bible was considerably more, it will readily be allowed that only the rich and scholarly had access to the Word of God.
So expensive were books in England at one time that King Alfred gave a large and valuable estate for a book on Cosmography in the year 872. A countess of Anjou, in the 15th century, paid for one book 200 sheep, five quarters of wheat, and the same quantity of rye and millet; and in early times the loan of a book was considered to be an affair of such importance that in 1299 the Bishop of Winchester, on borrowing a Bible from a convent in that city, was obliged to give a bond for its restoration, drawn up in the most solemn manner; and Louis XI., in 1471, was compelled to deposit a large quantity of plate, and to get some of his nobles to join with him in a bond, under a high penalty, to restore it, before he could procure the loan of a book which he borrowed from the faculty of medicine at Paris.
(Here is inserted in the book a picture of William Tyndale, born about 1484, probably in Gloucestershire, martyred at Filford, near Antwerp, 6th Oct., 1536. In the year 1526 William Tyndale gave to the English-speaking people the first complete printed New Testament. He who can measure what the New Testament has been to the English-speaking peoples, can measure what they owe to William Tyndale. He may well be called "the Apostle of England." On the reverse are facsimiles of Exodus 3:1-8 from Tyndale's Pentateuch printed in 1530 and a page - 2 Cor. 10:1-11 - from Tyndale's New Testament printed in 1534. More than half of our New Testament, even in its latest form, stands as it came from Tyndale's pen. The style, the simplicity, the character and the spirit of the translation are what he made them in his devotion to his labour, and in his dependence on God. Tyndale's version was made from the original Greek, its predecessors having been made only from the Latin.)
Libraries, too, were very rare in these old times. Probably the first private collection of books in this country, or perhaps Europe, belonged to Richard de Bury, Chancellor of England, 1341: he gave fifty pounds weight of silver for 30 or 40 volumes to the Abbot of St. Albans. The first public library was founded at Athens by Hipparchus, 526 B.C. Books in general sold from £10 to £40 in 1400. But the Bible is God's priceless boon to man; it contains a message of grace to every creature under heaven; it records the old, old story of undying love to perishing sinners, and so, exactly 500 years ago, the first complete English Bible was produced by John Wycliffe.
The Ignorance of the Middle Ages.
God was preparing instruments and persons for the emancipation of the thousands — yea, millions — who were wrapped in thick folds of ignorance and darkness. That we may have some idea of the gross ignorance which universally prevailed among all classes during the Middle Ages, it may be enough to state the following facts: — It was an exceedingly rare thing to find a layman, however distinguished, who could sign his name; the usual practice was to affix the sign of the cross. Even in the legal profession, the charters and other documents which were written in Latin were oftentimes unintelligible, and led, consequently, to much dispute. Contracts were more frequently drawn up verbally, in presence of witnesses, as many notaries could not write. The clergy were not much, if any, better. Many of the bishops were not a bit ashamed to own that they had never read the Scriptures; while, as a rule, the inferior clergy mumbled over their prayers and services in a language they did not understand.
It has been asserted that in Rome itself, during part of the tenth century, it would have been difficult to have found a person who could read, or even know the letters. Truly the ages were dark when thousands of the clergy, who alone had access to books, could not write, nor translate their Latin prayers into the vernacular, and regarded the Hebrew and Greek languages as new ones and to be carefully avoided, as they produced all the heresies then existing! when libraries, public or private, were almost utterly unknown; and when emperors and kings could neither read nor write, and learning was regarded as an intolerable heresy. Another consideration which contributed to the prevailing and gross ignorance of the times was the scarcity and value of parchment, and, we might add, the dissolute character of the monks, for although each monastery had its scriptorium, the work of transcribing was so tedious and the monks so lazy that oftentimes it was never used. Learning was wholly confined, shut up, we may say, in these monasteries, where all MSS. of sacred and secular literature were copied and preserved.
Both monks and nuns wrought in these writing cells, and sometimes produced really beautiful work, especially in the 8th and 9th centuries. As many as twelve solitary writers in separate apartments might be employed in a large monastery or convent.
The Inventions of Paper and Printing.
Paper made from rags was the invention of the 13th century. It is true that paper from cotton was manufactured, perhaps, as early as the 11th century, but the material was not found to answer so well as parchment, and hence not frequently employed, at least, for copying valuable MSS. Paper was invented and used in China 170 years B.C. In the 14th century, however, the paper produced was generally used and found to suit admirably, so much so that the rapid multiplication of copies created a new branch of trade. Learning began to revive, and the study of the original languages was taught in the universities.
But yet another instrument was needed for the great work at hand. Of this we are fully convinced, that the Reformation owes more to the printing-press — the wonderful invention of the 15th century — than even to the personal labours of the Reformers (Evangelists we would prefer to term them) at home and abroad.
Now, is it not a remarkable circumstance that the first printed book was the Bible? Ah! it was its glorious doctrines, its imperishable truths, its undying records of love and grace which were to emancipate from the thraldom of Popery, deliver from the more awful grasp of Satan, and set thousands in the joy and liberty of the Gospel. The Bible is now [~1900?] to be had, printed and published in 150 languages, and in nearly 200 versions. It is computed that there are about 40,000,000 of Bibles at present in circulation. Yet there are still about 700,000,000 souls without the Word of God!
The first printed book was the Bible, and was executed in Mentz, Germany, in 1450. it is sometimes called the "Mazarin Bible," because a copy was found last century in the library of the cardinal of that name in Paris. It is also termed "Guttenberg's Bible," because he, with two others whom he took into his confidence, printed it. It is a disputed point with some whether Guttenberg was the inventor of the art of printing in Europe. It was certainly known and practised in China centuries before. This Latin Bible is also known and spoken of as "The forty-two line Bible," because each column contains 42 lines. It was beautifully printed, all things considered. A vellum copy of this interesting Bible was sold for £500 about 56 years ago. Printing was introduced into England by William Caxton in 1474, and into Scotland by Walter Chapman in 1508.
The First English Bible.
To John Wycliffe, entitled "The morning star of the Reformation," belongs the honour of giving to the English-speaking populations a complete translation of the Sacred Scriptures in the vernacular tongue. The pious and worthy king, "Alfred the Great," is said to have translated the Bible into the Anglo-Saxon, but this is gravely questioned. It is certain, however, that he translated most, if not all the Psalms, and some other portions besides. It was a common enough custom to write an English translation between the lines of a Latin Bible for those who could not read the Vulgate. This practice specially prevailed before the times of Wycliffe. But, as yet, the people were practically debarred from the enjoyment of their inalienable inheritance — the Sacred Scriptures. God, however, was thinking of England and preparing His instruments in the great and noble work of Bible translation.
John Wycliffe was born about 1324, and was an accomplished Latin scholar; but, according to some, ignorant of the original tongues — Hebrew and Greek. His translation, a close rendering from the Vulgate, was completed in 1380, after nearly 15 years' severe labour, about 70 years before the invention of printing. It has never, we believe, been wholly printed, although his New Testament has been more than once. There are several copies of Wycliffe's Bible in the principal libraries — one in the British Museum is believed to have been written by Wycliffe himself; about 300 of his sermons in manuscript are also extant.
In his controversies with the Romish hierarchy, and sweeping exposure of the morals and doctrines of that most corrupt of all systems, Wycliffe earnestly and constantly appealed to the Word of God — the sole source of all authority. The Popish monks were baffled, and so they pronounced judgment upon the Bible which was being rapidly disseminated throughout the land. "Master John Wycliffe," said they, "by translating the Gospel into English hath rendered it, more acceptable and more intelligent to laymen and to women than it hath hitherto been to learned and intelligent clerks. The Gospel pearl is everywhere cast out and trodden under foot of swine. It is heresy to speak of holy Scriptures in English. Let the people learn to believe in the Church rather than the Gospel."
Wycliffe was feared and cordially hated by the Pope and the entire college of cardinals for his unsparing attacks upon their whole system — root and branch; while, on the other hand, he was almost idolized by the common people, to whom he regularly preached the pure Gospel in their own tongue and with power and eloquence. The Papal party sought again and again his life, but he was protected from their malice by the powerful intervention of the court and several of the nobles, as the Duke of Lancaster and Lord Percy, both in high position in the government.
Dear old Wycliffe, we revere thy memory. Thy name and deeds are graven in tablets that will never perish. They burned his bones 44 years after his death and then cast them into the Swift, near which the old champion of the faith and defender of the Bible lived and laboured. An attempt was made by the Civil power to suppress the circulation of this first of English Bibles. A bill was brought into the House of Lords, having for its object the suppression of the Bible amongst the people, in the year 1390, just ten years after its publication, but the bill was rejected through the powerful advocacy of the Duke of Lancaster and other noble peers, who boldly defended Bible translation and its reading in the vulgar tongue. Another ten years and this time the enemy seemed to triumph, but the skilfully laid plans of Satan always contain the elements of certain defeat; and, although the Bible was forbidden to be translated, and imprisonment and death made the penalty for possessing a copy of the Word of God, the rising tide of cruel persecution only increased the number and strengthened the faith of the followers of the Lamb of God.
Where today are the maligned saints of God? In Paradise, at rest from their labours and sufferings. What about the Bible for which they suffered? Sold to the English-speaking populations of the earth for a few pence instead of from £30 to £40. Where are the enemies of the Lord, and the persecutors of the Saints and Church? Where?
Wycliffe lived four years after the completion of his great life-work, but not till he had the joy of knowing that his Bible and portions of it were circulated throughout all England.
William Tyndale, who gave to the English people in their own tongue the first printed Testament, was born in the year 1484, a year after the birth of Luther, and 100 years after Wycliffe's death. In the University of Oxford, his great delight was to study the Greek Testament of the learned Erasmus, which was published at Basle in 1516 and of which there are several copies extant. He soon equalled, if not outstripped, his teachers in Greek and Latin, and on his removal to Cambridge was joined by the godly Thomas Bilney and the pious and learned John Frith — both afterwards martyred for Christ and the truth's sake. When tutor and chaplain in the house of Sir John Walsh, he had frequent altercations with the ignorant priests, who were excessively annoyed at Tyndale's constant appeal to the Greek Scriptures. Many of them did not even know the alphabet of the language. The illustrious subject of our sketch not only exposed the ignorance of these men, but plainly told them that he would "cause the boy who driveth the plow to know more of the Scriptures" than his ecclesiastical guides, by translating and printing them into the vernacular tongue — the sure death-blow to Papal assumption.
Tyndale, in order that he might devote himself to his great life-work, the translation and printing of the Bible, sought the needed quietness and leisure in the house of Humphrey Monmouth, a rich London merchant, who allowed Tyndale ten pounds a year — a considerable sum in those days. For this offence Monmouth was shortly afterwards committed to the Tower, but after a short detention was liberated. On his trial, he gave the following account of Tyndale's daily life; "He conducted himself as a good priest: he studied most part of the day and night at his book: he would eat not sodden meat by good will, nor drink but small single beer. I never saw him wear linen about him in the space he was with me."
Tyndale, however, after six months, had to leave the house of his friend and patron and betake himself to Germany, where he hoped to prosecute his work unmolested; this was in 1523. From Hamburg he went on to Wittenberg, where it is said he met Luther, and was immensely helped by his intercourse with the great Reformer. The zeal, piety, and devotion to the Word of God so eminently characteristic of the German champion of the Word of God, were as distinctly impressed on the illustrious Englishman. Tyndale, however, seems to have regarded Luther as in some respects a master in Bible translation, as he used the Reformer's German translation, and copied even the order in which the books appeared, first the New Testament, then the earlier books, as the Pentateuch, Jonah, etc. It may here be remarked as an interesting circumstance that the very copy of the Hebrew Bible dated 1494, and from which Luther made his German translation is deposited in the royal library at Berlin.
The English New Testament is said to have been finished in Wittenberg, but printed in Worms; and then, through the agency of a merchant named Packington, the stock was sold for a good price to the Bishop of London for the express purpose on his part of being burned. Previous to the completion of the New Testament, the Gospels of Matthew and Mark, being first printed, were sent over to England to the care of Tyndale's constant friend, Monmouth, which brought that worthy man into some trouble with the authorities.
With the money thus obtained from the Bishop, aided by Monmouth's yearly donation of £10, Tyndale set about preparing a new edition of the Testament. The first entire English New Testament ever printed and published appeared in the year 1526, but nearly all were burned at St. Paul's Cross; and it was made an offence punishable by fine, imprisonment, and even death were a copy found in anyone's possession. The year following 500 were secretly disposed of in England and Scotland, being the fourth edition within a year. Tonstall (the kindly-disposed bishop, who, to inflict as little pain as possible, bought the Testaments) was astonished to find that, in spite of the most rigorous search, the Books still found their way into England. On inquiry, he found that the clever Dutch printers reprinted the Testament, expecting that they would also be bought. Eight years after (1534) a new and more perfect edition of Tyndale's New Testament appeared, in the introduction to which the translator says: "I have weeded out of it many faults which the lack of help at the beginning and oversight did sow therein."
We next find our ardent Bible translator, whom no difficulties could overcome, at Antwerp, assisted by his friend and son in the faith, John Frith, diligently translating the Old Testament from the Hebrew. But the bishops and clergy thirsted for his blood, and the priests Gabriel, Donne, and Phillips were employed to betray him, with, it is said, the connivance of Henry VIII. We are satisfied, however, that the authorities of England were mainly responsible for Tyndale's cruel death, as the priests named were well rewarded for the impious deed. Efforts were made in England, and abroad by the English merchants in Antwerp, by whom Tyndale was greatly beloved, and elsewhere to save him. The martyr was first confined in the castle of Filford, about 20 miles from Antwerp. He was taken from prison on Friday, October 6th, 1536, fastened to the stake, strangled, and his body burned to ashes. The fervent prayer of the martyred Tyndale, when bound to the stake, "Lord, open the King of England's eyes," was about to be answered shortly. The way and means manifested God's sovereign disposal of events and persons; for it is the resource and stay of faith at all times and under all circumstances "that the Lord reigneth." The memory of William Tyndale will be held in everlasting remembrance.
Miles Coverdale, born in Yorkshire, an Augustine monk, and subsequently Bishop of Exeter, was the next indefatigable labourer in the work of Bible translation. The first complete English Bible, as also the first issued by royal authority, was published October 4th, 1535, by Miles Coverdale, just a year before the martyrdom of his friend Tyndale, whom he had also assisted in his work.
It was of this Bible that the king said: "Let it go abroad among my people," and ordered besides that a copy should be chained to a pillar, or fastened in the choir of every parish church in the land. He also for a time encouraged its sale among all classes of his subjects, although afterwards capriciously forbidding it to the lower classes, allowing its use and possession only as a special privilege to the higher ranks. Still, during the latter 20 years of Henry's reign, no fewer than 31 editions of the Bible or New Testament, besides numerous parts of Scripture, were issued.
From all we can gather, we quite endorse the opinion of another, that "Coverdale had neither the creative power nor Biblical learning of Tyndale." His was a translation made from the German and Latin, and it has been questioned whether Coverdale was not entirely ignorant of Hebrew and Greek, as it is evident that the originals were not consulted in the preparation of the work. The German and Latin translations — not by any means correct — were the sources from whence the Old Testament was prepared, while Tyndale's New Testament was largely appropriated without acknowledgment.
This Bible is believed to have been printed abroad, but where, is a keenly-contested point. Two years before its publication, Convocation had urged "that Holy Scripture should be translated into the vulgar tongue," but not satisfied with the accuracy of this version, they petitioned the king, Henry VIII., for a new translation, or at least a thorough revision of this one. Coverdale dedicated his work to "the dearest, just wife, and most virtuous Princess, Queen Anne." We believe Coverdale to have been a good man, but his religious character does not stand so high in our esteem as that of Tyndale and some others.
Henry presented the Bible to the bishops, and ordered it to be placed in the churches, although the privilege was but short-lived, and the translator was subsequently promoted to the See of Exeter. In the second edition of the work, which had been petitioned for by Convocation as already remarked, the dedication was transferred from Queen Anne to Queen Jane, so as to please Henry in his new love amour. Subjection to the powers that be is a plain Christian duty (Rom. 13:1), but a witness for Christ is not a trimmer; not a man who adapts his testimony to the worldly policy of the day, as we fear dear Miles Coverdale did to some extent. We believe that Henry's zeal for the Holy Scriptures, and his order to have them placed in every church and read to the people, was the Lord's answer to the prayer of the dying Tyndale, "Lord, open the King of England's eyes."
During the brief reign of but seven years of Henry's son by Jane Seymour, the English Bible rapidly passed through eleven editions, besides six of the New Testament. Edward VI. was, perhaps, one of the most godly kings that ever sat on the throne of England. He had an intense love for the Word of God, and had it carried reverently in the procession on his coronation-day.
In Queen Mary's reign Coverdale was deprived of his bishopric and imprisoned, but was released and allowed to go abroad on the intercession of the King of Denmark. On the accession of Queen Elizabeth to the throne of England he returned, but did not resume his ecclesiastical office, and died at a good old age. The name and memory of Miles Coverdale will never be forgotten, as the man who gave to the English-speaking people the first complete printed Bible in their own tongue.
(Here, in the book, is inserted a facsimile of a section of the Great Bible, so-called because of its size, its pages being 9 by 15 inches. A revision of the Tyndale-Matthew Bible, undertaken by Miles Coverdale, at the request and expense of Cromwell. It was the first Bible that was authorised to be read in the churches. Printed in 1539. The portion reproduced is 2 Kings 20:1-7. On the reverse is reproduced Rev. 6:1-4 from the Authorised Version. Undertaken under the personal direction of King James I., and issued in A.D. 1611, this version was the work of three double committees of revisers, who were occupied nearly three years on its preparation. While not a faultless version, it is unrivalled for its simplicity, for its force and vigour of language, as a compendium of literary excellencies, and as a faithful translation of the very words of the Holy Spirit.)
The next Bible translator was a man of fervent piety, of deep learning, of singular eloquence. we refer to John Rogers, born about 1500, near Birmingham, and educated at Cambridge, and the first martyr in the reign of Queen Mary.
Henry VIII. was no friend of Luther's; for the book he wrote against the German Reformer and his writings procured for him from the Pope the high-sounding title "Defender of the Faith." Though he was neither Protestant nor Papist, for he committed to the flames both alike, yet on various occasions he favoured the work of Bible circulation, besides which there was a growing and deepening conviction in England that the Scriptures must be translated and circulated in the vulgar tongue. It was at an opportune moment, therefore, when "Matthew's Bible" appeared. This second complete English Bible can scarcely be called an original translation, although a very decided improvement upon Coverdale's version, which was never regarded as a highly satisfactory work.
The King's printers, Grafton and Whitchurch, engaged John Rogers to revise Coverdale's Bible. Probably they could not have commissioned a more scholarly and pious person for the task. Besides Rogers' special fitness for such a work, he had enjoyed the personal friendship of Tyndale and rendered considerable help to that able Bible translator. Rogers adapted Tyndale's New Testament after carefully comparing it with the original and also with the German. As to the Old Testament he again followed what Tyndale had previously translated, from Genesis to the end of 2 Chronicles, the rest, being Coverdale's own, was carefully revised. The work, with prefaces, notes, and numerous wood-cuts, was dedicated to Henry by the so-called Thomas Matthew, hence the term "Matthew's Bible." It was printed at Hamburg, and published in the year 1537.
We cannot but regard John Rogers as guilty of deception in thus assuming the name of Thomas Matthew. It will be observed that the new Bible was a combination of the labours of Tyndale and Coverdale, but carefully revised throughout. Cromwell, Cranmer, and others in power thought so much of this Bible, that in conjunction with the King's printers they sought to make it the only authorised version. It will be seen from the following letter from the Archbishop of Canterbury to Cromwell, Earl of Essex, then high in power, that this edition of the Scriptures was highly regarded. Of the first edition only 1500 copies were printed, and sold at a sum equivalent to about £7 of modern money per copy. This Bible was reprinted several times, but in the later editions the annotations and notes were deleted, as they were considered objectionable and faulty by many.
"My Special Good Lord,
After most hearty commendations unto your Lordship, these shall be to signify unto the same, that you shall receive by the bringer thereof a Bible, both of a new translation and of a new print, dedicated unto the King's Majesty, as farther appeareth by a pistle unto his Grace in the beginning of the book, which, in mine opinion, is very well done; and, therefore, I pray your Lordship to read the same. And as for the translation, so far as I have read thereof, I like it better than any other translations heretofore made; yet not doubting that there may, and will be found some fault therein, — as, you know, no man ever did, or can do so well but it may, from time to time, be amended. And forasmuch as the Book is dedicated unto the King's Grace, and also great pains and labour taken in setting forth the same, I pray you, my Lord, to exhibit the Book unto the King's Highness, and obtain of his Grace, if you can, a license that the same may be sold and READ of EVERY person, without danger of any act, proclamation, or ordinance heretofore granted to the contrary, until such time that we, the bishops, shall set forth a better translation, which I think will not be till a day after doomsday. And if you continue to take such pains for the setting forth of God's Word as you do, although in the mean season you suffer some snubs, and many slanders, lies, and reproaches for the same, yet one day He will requite altogether. And the same Word, as St. John saith, which shall judge every man at the last day, must needs show favour to them that now do favour it. Thus, my Lord, right heartily fare you well.
Your assured ever,
At Forde, the 4th day of Aug., 1537."
Soon after the accession of Mary to the throne, John Rogers was summoned by the Lords of the Council to remain in his house as a seditious preacher, then he was committed to Newgate, and on the 4th of February, 1555, was cruelly burned, but the Word of God for which John Rogers lived, which he so dearly loved, and for which he died — liveth and abideth for ever. Its pages are precious, its truths are imperishable. Blessed Scriptures of our God! we prize them for their priceless value, and will continue to hold in loving memory those men who devoted their lives to their translation and circulation, and who sealed their holy, eternal truths with martyrdom.
This Bible was simply a revision of the "Matthew's Bible" with its notes, but without the woodcuts. In the margin the reviser added numerous notes and references of his own, besides titling the chapters. The work was done at the request of the King's printers and published in 1539. Taverner in his preface suggested that a complete and perfect revision of the Holy Scriptures should be undertaken by a number of competent scholars, the work of private translation not being regarded with favour by the then ecclesiastical authorities. There was a folio and 4to edition of this Bible published. The smaller size was also issued in parts for the convenience of many who could not purchase an entire Bible. The New Testament was also issued separately, and a year after was again printed and published in 12mo size.
Richard Taverner was born near Norfolk, in 1505, was licensed as a preacher, but studied law and was made High Sheriff of Oxford. He died on the 14th of July, 1577. Taverner was one of Cardinal Wolsey's favourites; then, on the fall of that prelate, he came under the favourable notice of Cromwell, Earl of Essex. We can only hope that the burning words and truths of Holy Scripture became the seed of eternal life in the soul of Taverner. He is a man of whom little is known.
The Great Bible.
This new edition of the Sacred Scriptures was printed in large folio, its pages 15 inches in length and more than 9 inches in breadth, and hence from its size was generally spoken of as "The Great Bible." It was printed in Paris by Regnault, under the editorship of the indefatigable Miles Coverdale; the expense being borne in part, if not in whole, by Cromwell, Earl of Essex. "The Great Bible" is simply a revision of the Tyndale-Matthew Bible, and is in no respects an original translation. It is true that the editor was assisted by several learned Bishops, but the times were not safe enough for their names to appear. The translations and revisions made were from the Latin, and principally affected the Old Testament. In the 53rd chapter of Isaiah about 40 alterations occur — a chapter of exceeding evangelical interest, and one yet capable of godly and learned translation from the Hebrew.
The King of France, Francis I., granted permission to have the Bible printed in Paris, but the ecclesiastical authorities were on the alert, and the Inquisition set itself in determined hostility to the publication and circulation of the Word of God. What does Popery fear so much as the entrance of that word which giveth light? The machinery of the Inquisition was more powerful than that of the king. The Bibles were seized and most of them burned; some, however, were saved and completed in London, by Rychard Grafton and Edward Whitchurch, the king's printers, in 1539.
In the following year, April, 1540, appeared the "Cranmer Bible," which was simply the "Great Bible" partly revised. Its title is derived from the circumstance that the Archbishop of that name wrote a lengthy prologue to it, and otherwise lent his powerful aid in procuring for it royal sanction.
The Psalter used in the service of the Church of England is verbally printed from this very old and first fully authorised edition of the Holy Scriptures. The price of this Bible was 10s. unbound, and 12s. bound, per copy. The Vicar General, then Cromwell, Earl of Essex, who played such a conspicuous part in the reign of Henry VIII., and who did much to promote the circulation of the Scriptures, issued a peremptory order that in every parish church a Bible should be placed under a penalty of 20 shillings or thereby. Bishop Bonner also, to his honour be it said, directed that six copies of the Bible were to be placed in St. Paul's Church, at his own expense. Every person in the land who could read had thus access to the Word of God, and even those unable to avail themselves of the privilege, through want of education, could have it read at least every Sunday.
We regard, therefore, the year 1540 as a memorable one in considering the history of our English Bible. It was then that, for the first time in this country, the civil and ecclesiastical powers combined in one great effort to make the Bible accessible to the common people. There were various royal and ecclesiastical proclamations issued at this time, having for their special object the unhindered circulation of the Word of God, and its public and private reading by all.
In 1542 the Popish Bishops got an order suppressing the circulation of the Bible and its place in the churches; but on the accession of Edward VI. the order was revoked, and the Bible stored as before; but again it was forbidden to be read or circulated by Popish Queen Mary, till the first year of the reign of Elizabeth, who did so much, politically and individually, to further the cause of the Reformation at home and abroad. We wish we could number Queen Elizabeth, of illustrious name and memory, amongst the saints of God. From the first publication of the "Great Bible," 1539 till 1568 (30 years), numerous editions were issued, and it became the only authorised version in use, save during the brief and bloody reign of Mary of about five years.
The Geneva Bible.
During the bloody reign of Queen Mary, whose distinct and pronounced Romanism cost many a saint of God life, liberty, and goods, a number of godly and learned men fled to the continent, and in Geneva found a home and welcome, 1555.
Amongst the number of refugees were Whittingham, whose wife was Calvin's sister; Coverdale, the indefatigable Bible translator; John Knox, who "never feared the face of man," and many others. The Bible was their first thought, and so a new translation was at once commenced. In 1557 the New Testament was completed with annotations, italics, and distinguished by verses — the parent, in this, of all succeeding Bibles. Three years after the publication of the New Testament, the complete Bible appeared, 1560 (the second year of Queen Elizabeth's reign), and soon became exceedingly popular — rapidly passing through, it is said, more than 100 editions. Thus two Bibles were then in circulation — the Bishops' Bible and the Geneva edition. King James could not tolerate this latter version; yet it was printed and circulated frequently for more than 30 years after the publication of the authorised version of 1611.
The Geneva Bible was the first complete translation into English from the originals throughout. It was addressed to "the brethren of England, Scotland, and Ireland," and first published in 4to size; it was afterwards sent out, however, in various sizes. There were two Bibles at this time in general use in England. The Geneva Bible was the more popular of the two, and was generally read in the household and in private study of the Word by the people. The Cranmer or Bishops' Bible was the one, however, which obtained most favour amongst the clergy and was read in the churches.
The Bishops' Bible.
The "Great Bible," which had been suppressed during the reign of Mary, became once more the authorised Bible under Elizabeth. As already observed, it was in no wise an original translation — the first English Bible entitled to be regarded as an original work being the Geneva edition; but its annotations were, in numerous instances, regarded as unscriptural, some of which were pronounced by King James to be positively seditious in their character.
It was felt by many, however, that the "Cranmer," or "Great Bible," needed careful revision, hence eight years after the first publication of the "Geneva Bible," appeared the Bishops' Bible, or revised edition of the "Cranmer" version; this was in 1568. It was again subjected to a still more careful revision, and the result appeared in an improved edition four years afterwards — 1572. It was certainly an improvement upon any previous edition of the "Great Bible," but from its learned character, and lack of that purity and vigour of language, which has so justly made the present authorised version so distinguished, even in a literary point of view, it never possessed a popular character.
Archbishop Parker, of Canterbury, was the master mind in the preparation of this new edition of the Holy Scriptures, assisted by about 15 scholarly men. He distributed the "Cranmer Bible" into parts, assigning portions to various learned bishops, the whole being subject to his own personal supervision. The large number of the revisers being from the Episcopal bench gave name and character to this Bible. It was printed in large size, and beautifully executed. It was adorned with numerous cuts; its notes were brief, and, like the "Geneva Bible," was divided into verses. It was used in the Churches for about 40 years. Various revised editions of the "Bishops' Bible" were published. Soon after the appearance of the Authorised Version of 1611, the "Bishops' Bible" — the last edition of which was published about five years before its noble successor — fell into general disuse; it was accorded, in the opinion of many, well-merited universal neglect.
Rheims New Testament and Douay Bible.
The Roman Catholic Church being baffled in numerous and determined efforts to stop the circulation of the Word of God in the common language of the people, resolved to execute a version of their own. Accordingly, William Allyn (afterward created a cardinal), Gregory Martyn, and Richard Bristow translated and printed at Rheims, in 1582, the New Testament "out of the authentical Latin;" the notes were by Thomas Worthington. Nearly 30 years afterwards, in 1609, the whole Bible was completed and printed at "Doway, by Laurence Killam, at the sign of the holie Lamb." This has been pronounced by the learned as a most objectionable version, while its notes have evidently been prepared in the interests of the Papacy, pure and simple. Mary is said to be "full of grace" (Luke 1:28). Jacob is said to have "adored the top of his rod" (Heb. 11:21); see also 1 Cor. 10:16; Heb. 13:16; 1 Peter 3:19; Eph. 5:32.
We gladly transcribe the following passage of interest: "The Rheims, in an important class of religious terms, unmistakably influenced and benefited the Authorised Version, and has carried over to it many of the peculiarities of Wycliffe. To this is due the extraordinary fact that while there is hardly a seeming parallelism, and not a solitary demonstrable one anywhere between Wycliffe and Tyndale, the parallelisms are many between Wycliffe and the Authorised Version. This is another of the points of interest and beauty in that remarkable version, which, in its aggregations, stands almost unique as a miracle of Providence and history — the symbol of England itself, whose greatness has so largely sprung from appropriating what others have produced, and actualizing what others have dreamed."
The Authorised Version of King James.
We have had Wycliffe's unprinted Bible, the first ever given to the English people, in 1380; nearly a century and a half afterwards appeared the first printed English New Testament by the godly and learned Tyndale, this was in 1526; shortly before the cruel martyrdom of Tyndale, Coverdale presented to his countrymen the first complete printed English Bible, in 1535; two years afterwards, dear John Rogers gave us his revised edition of Coverdale's Bible, familiarly known as "Matthew's Bible," 1537; another two years or so, and the "Great or Cranmer Bible" was published, which was simply a careful revision of what had gone before, 1540; twenty years of stirring events and Geneva becomes the birth-place of the first complete English Bible translated throughout from the original tongues, 1560; another period of about eight years, and in 1568 appeared what we would term "The Ecclesiastical Bible," known as the "Bishops' Bible," a simple revision of the Cranmer edition; soon after this the Romish Church began to think of England and of the clamant demand of her people for the Word of God in her native tongue, and so gave the New Testament in 1582 — the link between Wycliffe's Bible and King James' translation; then appeared the Douay Bible under high ecclesiastical sanction, possessing certain marked excellencies, but, on the whole, exceedingly faulty, 1609; two years after the complete Roman Catholic Bible was published, the noble and renowned work known as "the Authorised Version" — the result of seven years' diligent labour appeared, and thus crowned the work of Bible translation and printing, 1611.
We have already referred to the two versions of the Scriptures in public use during the prosperous reign of Elizabeth, and at the commencement of King James' — namely, the "Bishops' Bible," used at Court and in the Churches, and the "Geneva Bible," in more common use in the households of the people. Neither gave universal satisfaction, and it was felt by all parties that sooner or later an entirely new version must be prepared. It was brought about in a simple way, as most great undertakings are. There was a conference held at Hampton Court, on January 16, 1604. Certain Church differences and questions were discussed in which the King took great interest. In the course of the proceedings, the Puritan, Dr. Reynold, proposed a new version of the Bible. The King, to please the Puritans, and attach them more firmly to his throne and constitution, and also because of his strongly expressed dislike to the two translations then in use, consented. The King's cordial approval silenced the opposition of the conformist party. The superintending hand of God was apparent even in the preliminary arrangements.
The measures adopted to secure a new version of the Holy Scriptures were of the most complete and satisfactory kind, and the result has been an edition of the Word of God unrivalled for its simplicity, for its force and vigour of language, a compendium of literary excellencies, and, what is still better, a faithful and accurate translation of the very words of the Holy Ghost. It is not a faultless version, far from it. Whatever critical helps we use in our private study of the Word of God, we ever and again turn to the authorised version for communion with God.
The New Testament of 1881 is a disappointment to many. It certainly corrects many of the blemishes and blunders of the edition of 1611, but, in the judgment of many, neither the scholarship nor piety and marked reverence for the Word of God, which distinguished the revisers and translators of the former work, are found in the latter one, and no doubt it will simply come to be regarded in course of time as a mere critical help in the study of the sacred volume.
The late revisers were in a much better position to construct an accurate Greek text than were those nominated by King James. Valuable MSS. and other sources of information have of late years been at the disposal of our Biblical critics, which have been largely taken advantage of by pious and learned men. The three oldest and most valuable of our Biblical MSS. were unknown to the translators of King James' time. The "Codex A," now in the British Museum, was presented to Charles I. in 1628, about 24 years after the Authorised Version was begun, and 17 years after it was finished. The "Codex B," now in the Vatican at Rome — perhaps the oldest MS. in existence — was only collated early this century, and published in 1858. The jealousy of the Papacy has hitherto practically debarred scholars from access to, and careful collation of, this valuable and venerable document. The "Codex Sinaiticus," discovered in 1859 by Professor Tischendorff, and now deposited in St. Petersburg. The first is supposed to date from the 5th century; the two latter from the 4th century. On the whole, therefore, the high expectations formed by many have not been realised, expectations based upon the rich and accumulated stores which the revision company of 1881 might have used, and which the revision company of 1611, not exceeding half their number, had nothing like in quantity or value.
King James named 54 pious and scholarly persons — and who were empowered to communicate with "all our principal learned men within this our kingdom," so that the scholarship of the country was consecrated to the noblest work which could engage the heart, the mind, and the pen of man — the production of our admirable English Bible. Seven of the number, through death and other causes, were unable to serve, so that the list was reduced to 47.
It may be interesting to know how and to whom the work was distributed. There were six committees chosen, two of which sat at Westminster, two at Cambridge, two at Oxford. The whole were presided over by Bishop Andrewes, who, besides possessing an intimate knowledge of Hebrew, Greek, Chaldee, and Syriac, was familiar with 16 other languages. As each set or committee of translators finished the particular part assigned to them, it was then subjected to the criticism of the other five sets in order; so that each part of the Bible came before the whole body of the translators. When the 47 finished their work it was then carefully reviewed by a final committee. Dr. Myles Smith, Bishop of Gloucester, wrote the preface.
It will be readily perceived from the instructions given to the translators that our English Bible is not a direct translation from the original tongues throughout, but might be more fitly spoken of as a combined revision and translation, the Bishops' Bible being used as the basis of the whole work. Although printed by his Majesty's special command, and appointed to be read in churches, it was not forced upon the acceptance of church and people by the civil power. On the whole, the wise measures adopted, and the number and character of the translators engaged in the work inspired general confidence, while the translation itself — so accurate, so artless, yet withal so vigorous in style and diction — commanded universal love and respect, and has continued to do so, for now nigh 300 years, The "Bishops' Bible" and "Geneva Version" soon went out of date and fashion.
It may interest the reader to have a copy of the instructions and rules issued by the King for the guidance of the translators, as also a list of their names and ecclesiastical positions, with the separate portions of Holy Scripture assigned to each committee for revision: —
1. The ordinary Bible read in the church, commonly called the "Bishops' Bible," to be followed, and as little altered as the original will permit.
2. The names of the prophets and the holy writers, with the other names in the text, to be retained, as near as may be, accordingly as they are vulgarly used.
3. The old ecclesiastical words to be kept, as the word church, not to be translated congregation.
4. When any word hath divers significations, that to be kept which hath been most commonly used by the most eminent fathers, being agreeable to the propriety of the place and the analogies of faith.
5. The division of chapters to be altered either not at all or as little as may be, if necessity so require.
6. No marginal notes at all to be affixed, but only for the explanation of the Hebrew or Greek words, which cannot, without some circumlocution, so briefly and fitly be expressed in the text.
7. Such quotations of places to be marginally set down as shall serve for the fit reference of one Scripture to another.
8. Every particular man of each company to take the same chapter or chapters; and, having translated or amended them severally by himself where he thinks good, all to meet together to confirm what they have done and agree for their part what shall stand.
9. As any one company hath despatched any one book in this manner, they shall send it to the rest, to be considered of seriously and judiciously; for his Majesty is very careful in this point.
10. If any company, upon the review of the book so sent, shall doubt or differ upon any places, to send them word thereof, to note the places, and therewithal to send their reasons; to which if they consent not, the difference to be compounded at the general meeting, which is to be of the chief persons of each company, at the end of the work.
11. When any place of special obscurity is doubted of, letters to be directed by authority to send to any learned in the land for his judgment in such a place.
12. Letters to be sent from every bishop to the rest of his clergy, admonishing them of this translation in hand, and to move and charge as many as, being skilful in the tongues, have taken pains in that kind, to send their particular observations to the company, either at Westminster, Cambridge, or Oxford according as it was directed before in the King's letter to the archbishop.
13. The directors in each company to be the Deans of Westminster and Chester, for Westminster, and the King's professors in Hebrew and Greek in the two universities.
14. These translations to be used when they agree better with the text than the Bishops' Bible: Tyndale's, Coverdale's, Matthew's [Rogers's], Whitchurch's [Cranmer's], Geneva."
15. By a later rule "three or four of the most ancient and grave divines, in either of the universities, not employed in translating, to be assigned to be overseers of the translation, for the better observation of the fourth rule."
Names and Official Standing of the Translators.
Genesis to the end of the Second Book of Kings.
Andrewes, Bishop of Winchester, President.
Overall, Bishop of Norwich.
Saravia, Prebendary of Westminster.
Clerke, one of the six Preachers.
Layfield, Rector of St. Clement Danes.
Teigh, Archdeacon of Middlesex.
Kinge, Bishop of London.
Bedwell, Vicar of Tottenham.
First of Chronicles to the end of Ecclesiastes.
Lively, Regius Professor of Hebrew, President.
Richardson, Master of Trinity.
Chaderton, Master of Emmanuel.
Dillingham, Rector of Dean, Beds.
Harrison, Vice-Master of Trinity.
Andrewes, Master of Jesus College.
Spaldinge, Fellow of St. John's.
Byng, Archdeacon of Norwich.
From Isaiah to the end of the Old Testament.
Hardinge, Regius Professor of Hebrew, and President of Magdalen, President.
Rainolds, President of Corpus Christi.
Holland, Rector of Exeter College, and Regius Professor of Divinity.
Kilby, Rector of Lincoln College.
Smith, Bishop of Gloucester [writer of Preface].
Brett, Fellow of Chelsea College.
Fareclowe, Provost of Chelsea College.
Duport, Master of Jesus, and Prebendary of Ely, President.
Braithwaite, Master of Gonville and Caius.
Radcliffe, Fellow of Trinity.
Ward, Master of Sidney Sussex.
Downes, Regius Professor of Greek.
Bois, Prebendary of Ely.
Ward, Prebendary of Chichester.
The four Gospels, the Acts, and the Revelation.
Ravis, Bishop of London, President.
Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury.
Montague, Bishop of Winchester.
Thompson, Dean of Windsor.
Savile (Sir Henry), Warden of Merton.
Perin, Regius Professor of Greek.
Ravens Harmer Regius Professor of Greek formerly, and now Warden of Winchester,
Barlow, Bishop of Lincoln, President.
Spencer, Fellow of Corp. Ch. Camb.
Fenton, Prebendary of St. Paul's.
Sanderson, Archdeacon of Rochester.
Dakin, Gresham Professor of Divinity.
The Revised New Testament of 1881.
The movement for a revision of the authorised version of the Holy Scriptures commenced on May 6, 1870, in the Convocation of Canterbury. An influential committee was at once formed, consisting mainly of distinguished scholars and divines within the pale of the Established Church, but with power to consult or add to their number eminent Biblical scholars of all denominations. Many of its members were truly eminent for godliness and of distinguished ability, but it may be gravely questioned whether the constitution of the Committee as a whole may be compared with that nominated by King James, for piety and extreme reverence for the Word of God.
Soon after the formation of the English Committee another was organized in America for the same purpose and in conjunction with the English one; so that the Revised New Testament is the result of the joint-labour of both Committees. The English revisers met regularly in the Jerusalem Chamber, Westminster; the American Committee in the Bible House, New York. The English Committee was divided into two companies, one devoting itself to the revision of the Old Testament (not yet finished), while the other attached itself to the New. The American Committee was similarly arranged.
Both Committees were in constant and confidential correspondence, so that as far as possible there might be mutual agreement in the result of their combined labours. It was a wise determination not to solicit the aid of the civil power or imprint its authority on the title page. It will thus stand or fall upon its own merits. It presents the result of ten years' research and labour. Whether we have in the revised New Testament an ample reward for the time and scholarship expended is questioned by many competent persons, but probably a little while will show. The Old Testament is not yet finished, and its publication is awaited with interest and anxiety by many Bible readers.
Both the English and American Committee adopted the following principles for their guidance:—
1. To introduce as few alterations as possible into the text of the Authorised Version consistently with faithfulness.
2. To limit, as far as possible, the expression of such alterations to the language of the Authorised or earlier Versions.
3. Each company to go twice over the portion to be revised — once provisionally, the second time finally.
4. That the text to be adopted be that for which the evidence is decidedly preponderating; and that when the text so adopted differs from that from which the Authorised Version was made, the alteration be indicated in the margin.
5. To make or retain no change in the text, on the second final revision by each company, except two-thirds of those present approve of the same; but on the first revision to decide by simple majorities.
6. In every case of proposed alteration that may have given rise to discussion, to defer the voting thereon till the next meeting, whensoever the same shall be required by one-third of those present at the meeting.
7. To revise the headings of chapters, pages, paragraphs, italics, and punctuation.
8. To refer, on the part of each company, when considered desirable, to divines, scholars, and literary men, whether at home or abroad, for their opinions.
The following is a list of the English and American Revisers*: —
(* See "Biblical Revision: its Necessity and Purpose.")
1. — English Revision Committee.
(1) Old Testament Company.
The Rt. Rev. E. H. Browne, D.D. (Chairman), Farnham. The Right Rev. Lord Arthur C. Hervey, D.D., Wells. The Right Rev. Alfred Ollivant, D.D., Llandaff. The Very Rev. Robert Payne Smith, D.D., Canterbury. The Ven. Benjamin Harrison, M.A., Canterbury. The Rev. Wm. Lindsay Alexander, D.D., Edinburgh. Robert L. Bensly, Esq., Cambridge. The Rev. John Birrell, St. Andrews. Frank Chance, Esq., M.D., Sydenham, London. Thomas Chenery, Esq., Reform Club, London, S.W. The Rev. T. K. Cheyne, Balliol College, Oxford. The Rev. A. B. Davidson, D.D., Edinburgh. The Rev. George Douglas, D.D., Glasgow. S. R. Driver, Esq., Tutor of New College, Oxford. The Rev. C. J. Elliott, Winkfield Vicarage, Windsor. The Rev. Frederick Field, D.D., Heigham, Norwich. The Rev. J. D. Geden, Wesleyan College, Manchester. The Rev. C. D. Ginsburg, LL.D., Wokingham, Berks. The Rev. Frederick William Gotch, D.D., Bristol. The Rev. William Kay, D.D., Chelmsford. The Rev. Stanley Leathes, B.D. , King's College, London. The Rev. John Rawson Lumby, B.D., Cambridge. The Very Rev. J. J. S. Perowne, D.D., Peterborough. The Rev. A. H. Sayce, Queen's College, Oxford. The Rev. William Robertson Smith, Aberdeen. William Wright, Professor of Arabic, Cambridge. William Aldis Wright, Esq. (Secretary), Cambridge.
O. T. Company, 27.
Note. — The English Old Testament Company lost, by death, the Right Rev. Dr. Connop Thirlwall, Bishop of St. David's, d. 27th July, 1875; the Ven. Henry John Rose, Archdeacon of Bedford, d. 31st January, 1873; the Rev. William Selwyn, D.D., Canon of Ely, d. 24th April, 1875; the Rev. Dr. Patrick Fairbairn, Principal of the Free Church College, Glasgow, d. 6th August, 1874; Professors M Gill, d. 16th March, 1871; Weir, 27th July, 1876; and Davies, 19th July, 1875; and by resignation, the Right Rev. Dr. Christopher Wordsworth, Bishop of Lincoln; the Rev. John Jebb, Canon of Hereford; and the Rev. Edward Hayes Plumptre, D.D., Professor of N. T. Exegesis, King's College, London (resigned 17th March, 1874).
(2) New Testament Company.
The Rt. Rev. C. J. Ellicott, D. D. (Chairman), Gloucester. The Right Rev. George Moberly, D.C.L., Salisbury. The Right Rev. Joseph B. Lightfoot, D.D., Durham. The Very Rev. Edward H. Bickersteth, D.D., Lichfield, The Very Rev. Arthur P. Stanley, D.D., Westminster. The Very Rev. Robert Scott, D.D., Rochester. The Very Rev. Joseph W. Blakesley, B.D., Lincoln. The Most Rev. Richard C. Trench, D.D., Dublin. The Right Rev. C. Wordsworth, D.C.L., St. Andrews. The Rev. Joseph Angus, D.D., London. The Rev. David Brown, D.D., Aberdeen. The Rev. Fenton J. Anthony Hort, P.D., Cambridge. The Rev. William Gibson Humphry, London. The Rev. Benjamin Hall Kennedy, D.D., Cambridge. The Ven. William Lee, D.D., Dublin. The Rev. William Milligan, D.D., Aberdeen. The Rev. William F. Moulton, D.D., Cambridge. The Rev. Samuel Newth, D.D., Hampstead, London. The Ven. Edwin Palmer, D.D., Christ Church, Oxford. The Rev. Alexander Roberts, D.D., St. Andrews. The Rev. F. Henry Ambrose Scrivener, LL.D., London. The Rev. George Vance Smith, D.D., Carmarthen. The Rev. Charles John Vaughan, D.D., London. The Rev. Brooke Foss Westcott, D.D., Cambridge. The Rev. J. Troutbeck (Secretary), Westminster.
N.T. Company, 25.
Active Members in both Companies, 52,
Note. — The English New Testament Company lost, by death, the Right Rev. Dr. Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of Winchester, d. 1873; the Very Rev. Dr. Henry Alford, Dean of Canterbury. d. 1871; the Rev. Dr. John Eadie, Professor of Biblical Literature in the United Presbyterian Church, Glasgow, d. 1876; and Mr. Samuel Prideaux Tregelles, LL.D (who was prevented by ill health from taking any part in the work), d. 1875; and, by resignation, the Rev. Dr. Charles Merivale, Dean of Ely.
(The Rev. F. C. Cook, Canon of Exeter, the Rev, Dr. E. B. Pusey, who were asked to join the O.T. Company, and the Rev. Dr. J. H. Newman, who was asked to join the N.T. Company, declined to serve.)
2. — American Revision Committee.
General Officers of the Committee.
Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D., President. George E. Day, D.D., Secretary.
(1) Old Testament Company.
Prof. W. H. Green, D.D., LL.D. (Chairman), Princeton, N.J. Prof. G. E. Day, D.D. (Secretary), New Haven, Conn. Professor Charles A. Aitken, D.D., Princeton, N.J. The Rev. T. W. Chambers, D.D., New York, Professor Thomas J. Conant, D.D., Brooklyn, N.Y. Professor John De Witt, D.D., New Brunswick, N.J. Professor G. Emlen Hare, D.D., LL.D., Philadelphia. Professor Chas. P. Krauth, D.D., LL.D., Philadelphia. Professor Charles M. Mead, D.D., Andover, Mass. Professor Howard Osgood, D.D., Rochester, N.Y. Professor Joseph Packard, D.D., Alexandria, Va. Professor Calvin E. Stowe, D.D., Hartford, Conn. Professor James Strong, S.T.D., Madison, N.J. Professor C. V. A. Van Dyck, D.D., M.D., Beirut, Syria. (Advisory Member on questions of Arabic).
O. T. Company, 14.
Note. — The American Old Testament Company lost, by death, Tayler Lewis, LL.D., Professor Emeritus of Greek and Hebrew, Union College, Schenectady, N.Y., d. 1877.
(2) New Testament Company.
Ex-President T. D. Woolsey, D.D., LL.D. (Chairman), New Haven, Conn.
Prof. J. Henry Thayer, D.D. (Secretary), Andover, Mass. Professor Ezra Abbot, D.D., LL.D., Cambridge, Mass. The Rev. J. K. Burr, D. D., Trenton, New Jersey. President Thomas Chase, LL.D., Haverford College, Pa. Chancellor Howard Crosby, D.D., LL.D., New York. Professor Timothy Dwight, D.D., New Haven, Conn. Professor A. O. Kendrick, D.D. , LL.D., Rochester, N.Y. The Right Rev. Alfred Lee, D.D., Bishop of Delaware. Professor Matthew B. Riddle, D.D., Hartford, Conn. Professor Philip Schaff, D.D., LL.D., New York. Professor Charles Short, LL.D., Columbia College, N.Y. The Rev. E. A. Washburn, D.D., Calvary Church, N.Y.
N. T. Company, 13. In both Companies, 27.
Note. — The American New Testament Company lost, by death, James Hadley, LL.D., Professor of Greek, Yale College, Conn. (who attended the first session), d. 1872; Professor Henry Boynton Smith, D.D., LL.D. Union Theological Seminary, New York (who attended one session, and resigned, from ill health), d. 1877; Professor Horatio B. Racket, D.D., LL.D., Theological Seminary, Rochester, N.Y., d. 1876; and Professor Charles Hodge, D.D., LL.D., Theological Seminary, Princeton, N.J. (who never attended the meetings, but corresponded with the committee), d. 1878; and by resignation, Rev. G. R. Crooks, D.D., New York, and Rev. W. F. Warren, D.D., Boston (who accepted the original appointment, but found it impossible to attend).