The Psalms, part 4.

J. N. Darby.

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(Notes and Comments Vol. 3.)

Psalm 46

This Psalm is the song of the Remnant, in the turning point of the circumstances of the latter day, that the God of Israel was, and had proved Himself to be their God - that He was true to them as His chosen - the exercise of faith, on the deliverance and interposition of the latter day, recognising God, and so putting themselves into the position of His people.

123 Psalm 47

This Psalm - the triumph of the Remnant - is quite plain and calls to "all people." Verse 9 is the only one which calls for enquiry, and the expression is a very interesting one, though, in the first instance, the construction is difficult. "People" is ammim, a word we have often noticed - Gentiles, brought in, having the name of a people. Now, on re-forming the Jews, or ever He was aware, His soul set Him in the chariots, "Thy people willing" (ammi nadiv), so here the willing people (n'divi ammim, the princes of the peoples) are gathered together, for "To him shall the gathering of the people" (ammim) "be." The difficulty is the apparent disconnection of "people" (am), but it is, I suspect, as ever, in the Hebrew, the strength of the sense - they are gathered into unity with the people of the God, of him who received as his name "The father of many nations." It is the exaltation of the people (am) of the God of Abraham - the people of the Jews; that they are brought in, under the then pressure of God's calling power, into blessing and gathering, so that He should be God of the whole earth (Elohey kol-haarets) Isaiah 54:5. "Gathering" is one of the names of Christ - "gathering into one the sons of God" (B'ney Elohim) that were scattered, and then of all, as here, or "earth" in Israel, for the shields of the earth belong or are, in fact, now to God, who is greatly exalted, for "the Lord alone shall be exalted in that day." God is the "Shield" of Abraham also, therefore gathering in heaven and earth all into one. It is a very interesting Psalm; kol-haaerets (the whole earth) is its title, along with being sung by them, l'mal'kenu (to our king).

Psalm 48

This Psalm also is manifest; it is the destruction, or disappointment of the Antichristian confederacy, and enjoyment by the believing Remnant of their former, but renewed mercies - "As we have heard, so have we seen." Nothing can be more touching than verse 9. Verse 10 is worthy of notice; His name is what indeed God is to His people, as revealed to their faith, but it is, and has been matter of their faith and reliance upon Him, but now He had accomplished that which His name declared.

124 Psalm 49

This Psalm seems to me an address of the Spirit, in the mouth of the Remnant, in the latter day, I think flowing from the state of the Jews who have taken, unbelievingly, the promises in a merely earthly way, and therefore not of God, i.e., who are living at ease in Palestine, but also as to the ungodly Gentiles who think to have the world in possession. It is however the security of the world che-led (this age - transitory character of time) which passes away as a moth pilling a garment. It is the security of the people of God, being redeemed from the power of the grave which would gnaw upon and destroy the hope and security of those who are not God's. It is enabling faith to say what the Lord said of the Remnant, "Blessed are ye poor" - it is the instruction qualifying our faith to unite in that expression of the Son of man. The mas'chil (causing to understand) the contrast between the world's attempt to build itself, selfishly and individually, a house, and the redemption of the Jews and rejected godly ones is simple and manifest. The redemption from the power of the grave does not affirm resurrection, but deliverance from it.

Psalm 50

This Psalm is the actings and principles of God, towards Israel, at the time of God's showing Himself. The thesis is manifest. The application and force of the argument towards Israel, as to its condition intermediately, is very plain. It is the summons of the saints - witnesses of God's righteousness intermediately - and Israel thereon brought into question, with the assertion however, and founded on, "I am God, even thy God," when God manifests Himself, when God is Judge Himself. It is the judicial act, wherein the saints, in covenant with God in Christ, are assessors, and the Jewish people, His earthly company, called up to plead when God, the God of the Remnant of the Jews, speaks, and comes, calling the earth from the rising up of the sun to the going down of the same. It is applied to the distinction and ordering of those who recollect and forget God among the Jews, in warning for that time. To verse 6 it is the forming of the session, then from verse 7 it is the stating of the pleading on God's part.

This Psalm brings out the great scene of judgment, and celestial glory, connected with this - the great summons fulfilled in the coming of Christ, to which, of this part of it, Zion is the centre, and in fact to the world here treated of. The whole of these Psalms take in the circumstances of the Jews pre-millennial, i.e., their real condition after being driven out by Antichrist - without the gate with Christ; thus forced upon "the place of dragons" - not being communion with sin. At last, through the intervention of Christ, bursting forth into all the splendour of Christ's coming, in millennial day, before the world, and from the heavens and over the earth; see verses 5 and 6, and also 4, and indeed the commencement entirely.

125 After the general statement, and the bringing in of Messiah, we have the judgment of moral evil when the heavens declare God's righteousness, and God is Judge Himself; and then (Psalm 51) the confession of the Remnant (as of the nation) including the death of Christ (v. 14). Then details are gone into, as usual, and the feelings which are the effect of the evil one's power, and, though the principles are the same, yet it is no longer so much moral discernment in the midst of the ungodly, as the breaking the covenant, and the power of the ungodly one. Evil is open and unashamed - holds its head on high. In Psalm 50 Jehovah judges out of Zion, but bringing in heaven to witness the judgment. It is on the ground of godliness, not sacrifice. In Psalm 51 sacrifice is dropped also, and true inward contrition, reaching to the acknowledgment of the death of Christ, is shown in confession to God.

Psalm 51

The application of this to the sin and restoration of the Jews has been observed by others, and the mere carrying this idea through the Psalm, will give its application too obviously and forcibly to need comment. There are some points however of which I am not at present master - for example, is there any type in the circumstances, and what?

The confession of sin in this Psalm is most complete in its principles, profound in the sense of their transgressions; and "shapen in iniquity," misery begins - sacrifices of righteousness close the purpose.

- 4. This is Jewish properly. Their sin was entirely against Jehovah, and Jehovah could pardon it. The sin of the Gentile economy was much worse, against grace and the revelation of grace by the Spirit when possessed amongst them. They had all manner of sin - sin after illumination - not as Peter says, "In ignorance ye did it." Therefore Paul, in Romans 3, concludes the just judgment of God - He receives the Jews, and judges and condemns the world; here the Church is prerogatively saved for heavenly places. The summons of Psalm 50 is in fact answered in this Psalm.

126 Remark the difference and connection of these two Psalms. Psalm 50 is God's judgment. It takes up those who have made a covenant with sacrifice. God is Judge Himself, and judges His people in order to shine out of Zion, and call all the heathen up thither. But while He gathers His saints by sacrifice, in judging Israel He owns none of theirs. He rejects all ceremonial service, and requires real righteousness, setting before them what they have done. In Psalm 51 is the people's (the Remnant's) confession after this. Here we find sin in the heart fully judged - it owns indeed the sins, and then, when reconciled, will teach others, but bloodguiltiness, in respect of Christ, is owned. No outward legal sacrifices offered (they would have been, if acceptable) but a broken heart. That is, though Israel be guilty of Christ's death, they are here taken in God's judgment on their own ground. They are judged for ungodliness, practical ungodliness in their pretended boasting in law In the saint's confession, inward sin is owned, and inward divine teaching and grace looked for, and Christ's death owned, indeed all the blood shed, but especially Christ's death. God's mind is understood in the former Psalm - plain conscience looked for in a people pretending to be religious. Previous legal relationship only in moral reality in Psalm 50, and heartfelt need of God, and Christ's death in the divinely touched Remnant. What God does not require, the divinely taught mind does not offer - what must be in relationship with God, it looks for from grace. The ungodly offer what God does not want nor heed - fails in what conscience ought to know - and, as to Christ's death, never is aware of his guilt under it through hardness of heart. The contrast is very distinct.

Psalm 52

I see nothing especial to remark in this Psalm. It is the helpless but perfect assurance of the believer - the beloved, in the Remnant, contrasted with the enmity, presumption, and therefore destruction of the last enemy, the Edomite, and its consequences. It is simple and pointed.

127 We have the energy of the Spirit of Christ, risen up after Israel's confession of sin, to contrast the position and character of Antichrist and the righteous Remnant - in fact of Antichrist and Christ in Spirit. Violence, self-confidence and deceit constitute the character of the man of the earth - the contrast is dependence. This is always the character of Christ in the Psalms.

Psalm 53

I do not think this Psalm and Psalm 14 are the same thing; that is the blessing of the faithful Jews by the Lord in spite of the ungodly - this is the destruction of the ungodly Gentiles also by God. Compare Psalm 14:5, and verse 5 of this Psalm.

The thesis is in verse 1, "the fool"; the folly of saying "There is no God," proved by God's being in the congregation of the righteous. This, in His character of "the Lord," by His confounding and scattering the camp of their enemies, proved there was a God, and proved it to them.

This is a remarkable Psalm from the connection between the evil ones of Israel and the enemies, and the position in which they find themselves. We know from the Apostle (Romans 3) that those under the law, Jews, are spoken of. But the principle averred of them, stating a general principle is "No God" - God's judgment, looking down, is "None that doeth good, no, not one." It is, in effect, the revelation that, when God looked down He found no good, not even in the Jews - His people nominally. This always true, then manifested - He views them as God, not in Jerusalem but looking down from heaven at men; for Israel are lost, as men thence, and indeed Lo-ammi. It is every one - man bn'ey Adam (the sons of Adam). "The workers of iniquity" is the general character - the Jews are found in it. In Ezekiel 34 the conduct even of the Jews may be seen - it left Him a "prey to the beasts," the heathen. "My people," the Remnant are called here in effect, according to Psalm 46, consequently they, the unrighteous Jews, were in fear where there was no need for fear. The sinners in Zion are afraid, though they have made a covenant with death, and are at agreement with hell. But there was no need to fear from this pride of men, for God scattered the bones of those who were encamped against Jerusalem. God, there is the question of righteousness - the others said en Elohim (no God) - despised them. Then the desire of the Spirit of Christ in the Remnant - when God does that, they wait, for He, that is, "brings back the captivity of his people." It is out of Zion first in a Remnant; compare Psalm 126. Jacob and Israel, the whole people, shall rejoice, and Israel be glad. The existence and judgment (and afterwards actings) of God are the great question in this Psalm, partly adduced by the Apostle to determine all question of righteousness for man, as in man - salvation is another thing; it is cited as said to those under the Law.

128 This class of Psalms, i.e., from Psalm 42 to the end of Psalm 72, takes up the condition, not merely of what Christ found Himself amongst the Jews, but in and as a separate Remnant, who were concerned in the union of the evil, antichristian power, the apostasy, and the body of the Jews driven out, even as we have seen in Psalm 42, but the character of God in question in the earth from heaven, when He is what He is - not the Lord in covenant in Jerusalem - the deliverance and interference of God in mercy to the Jews, properly, guilty of bloodguiltiness. God, in pure grace, begins with the worst through Messiah whom they rejected, but united in His love with this separated Remnant, then y'chidim (solitary ones). Deliverance being given in Zion, God having scattered the bones of those who encamped against it, the desire for the deliverance and joy of Israel and Jacob bursts forth, and withal is accomplished, as noticed already, in Psalm 126. The next Book takes up, I think, Israel and Zion restored, therefore bringing in Jehovah and the position of God therefore also. After that, save in Psalm 107 which is a special circumstance, there is mention of Jehovah only.

We have then five divisions of the Psalms. First Psalm 41 - the principles of the presence of Christ's Spirit among the Jews. Psalm 72 - His connection with the Remnant separate as to, and manifested in Zion, when antichrist and the Jews are connected; the world wicked - universal. Psalm 89 - Zion, the nation, Israel, still to be looked after or brought in, with Christ's dealings, God Jehovah's dealings with them; Psalm 106 - a wider scene - the connection of Christ, Israel, and the heathen, and the glory and blessing of Creation - the world ever opposed; the halo of what the millennial glory shall be in its introduction - Christ the Creator, if the Man of sorrows, as well as Head of Israel, and Jehovah - Psalm 150. Then, I take it, some fuller development and special relationships of Israel - their condition, circumstances, and praises in such a time as the earthly centre of such a time. I have not so fully looked into this.

129 Psalm 54

This Psalm is Christ as the object of God's deliverance or saving power, including its desire and acknowledgment - both important as showing the position of Christ. It takes Him, in His whole position as a Jew, from His first trial to the deliverance of the Jews in that day. The Name is the manifestation of the internal and essential power, and character, precisely what is obscured and refused in this world of confusion and evil. The judging is just the intervention of that Name in power, so as to vindicate the consistency of Christ with it - the thread of order, of which Christ was the witness, and which was attached to His name in the midst of evil, because He was it, and therefore the vindication of it was the vindication of God's name; and so the saving by His name was peculiarly appropriate, for indeed it was the declaration of the identity of that Name in God with Christ, as in the world, for He had that Name in weakness. Therefore He says, "Judge me by thy strength," i.e., "Vindicate, as to me in weakness, that character and name which is thine in strength, by the putting forth of thy strength, as vindicating itself." Now this is true as regards man, by its conformity, and as regards the object even, on account of its very weakness, because graciousness of love, and faithfulness of kindness is part of the very Name to be revealed. This cannot be pursued further here. "Thou hast loved," etc. is part of it - "O righteous Father" is again another - and "My God, my God," etc., and "Therefore doth my Father"; so "Not unto us," etc., and even "Be merciful unto my sin, for it is great," proceeds on the same principle.

This is a subject full of interest, because the Church can always go on this ground of unfailing righteousness, and say "Not unto us." The Church is in the character of God, and in this weakness therefore it cries, and therefore it cries for the vindication of this character. So Christ was enabled to say "I know that thou hearest me always," but therefore also "Judgment must begin at the house of God." Thus Christ put Himself under these things, and "It became him" etc.; but "If these things be done in the green tree, what shall be done in the dry?" For the judgment and character of God run on unchanged, and as He judges by, so will He judge in His strength. But Christ is the vindication of the principles of God, because He is their personification in that very weakness, in which the question arises. The application of God's power settles it; see note on the transaction after Christ's baptism. But we must not pursue this further here.

130 It seems to me that this Psalm also would seem to make Christ speak in the language of mediatorial praise, as well as affliction; and observe the reason.

In this Psalm it is, unusually, the name of God, and the strength of God which is appealed to, but, as we have seen, before God is proved (an only refuge actually for the position in which Christ sees things) in contrast with all men, it puts the relationship in which the Spirit of Christ finds itself consequent upon the truth of Psalm 53. They are strangers - God is not before them - God is His helper. It was not now a matter of covenant, for all this was forsaken, but abstract faith in God. But this faith produces - sense, and application of covenant. Christ is alone in "Me" (v. 2), but "Jehovah is with them that uphold my soul." The sense of favour, on God's principles towards others, is the restoration of one's own soul in righteousness; not "with me," for He was as an outcast for our sake, because perfect, His trust in God as the one only perfect Man, but this induced and became the object of all concentrating grace afterwards. Therefore it is Jehovah, and all the trouble in result is passed - the moral history of all that shall arrive in that day.

Psalm 55

This Psalm is Messiah's complaint of the Jews, from whom He had expected sympathy and concurrence.

- 3. Rasha (wicked one).

- 9. Note the judgment as of Babel in the Lord's actual coming.

This Psalm is the departure, as it were of Christ (in Spirit, in the Remnant) from the city in that day. He has discovered - they have discovered their true character. He retires, and His Spirit would retire ever so far from such a scene and state. It is still spoken of, however, from the sense of what is in the city; in Psalm 63 we find it as actually in the wilderness, yet the confidence and boast grows as they are more entirely separated to God. From Psalm 51, the humiliation of the Remnant, these Psalms proceed with the effects of Antichrist's presence.

131 But there is the energy of righteousness more marked in this Psalm (I speak not of its perfection), and the name of Jehovah is more speedily brought in. "How long shall I be with you?" said the Lord; and even Moses said "Respect not thou their offering." Treachery of those nominally associated with Him - the Jews with hostile power, which gives it this character (as in Ahithophel) - it is the consummation of the evil of antichrist - the union of wickedness - there was none good - all gone together. Then their character is very remarkable all through here. There was nothing to be had unless God, whose character changed not if the prosperity changed - not a friend. A religious associate was the worst, because the nearest enemy. How this was personally verified in the blessed Saviour, all know; but it is carried out to all that solemn scene of the latter day, when those that are faithful must follow that faithful One and Guide - led of Him without the camp. Blessed be His name, who has taught us how and where to trust! Praise waiteth for Him in Zion. Oh! that salvation were come thence! He shall hasten it in its day. Amen. Compare Zechariah 11 all through.

Psalm 56

This Psalm is the complaint of the Beloved as trusting in God's word - the faithfulness of God to His trust in Him, when He had to wander, not having where to lay His head, in that land of which He was born and anointed King; compare Hebrews 5:7, Psalm 69:13, 14, and Isaiah 49:8. This last is a chapter singularly indicative of the union or identity, in the mind of the Spirit, of the Lord and Israel. The thread is quite evident; verse 3 is literal, but in verse 5, this assumption of the Remnant into His character is marked. In verse 10, "His" is put in; it is the testimony on which the trust rests. We may notice the expressions "God" and "Lord"; both are the object of faith.

What is first present to His mind is man swallowing Him up - then God's Word. In Psalm 57, it is the shadow of God's wings, and thence God's sending even from heaven to save Him This enlarges the sphere, otherwise these two Psalms run in the same stream of thought.

- 7. Ammim (peoples).

132 This Psalm applies itself also specially to the state of exclusion and exile, in which the Spirit of Christ found itself, and specially from the midst of those who ought to be His, but, as we have seen, they are all watching together against Him. It is man He finds - Jew or Gentile - man. God only was His refuge - all were as Philistines for Him. Consequently not as united to Israel, speaking of man (a-dam) but all people (ammim). Man would swallow Him up as an outcast, as wandering. The former Psalm saw more the evil within, here without. He feels well what man is. They are active against Him. It is not so much treachery, there is the pursuit of those who have been treacherous against Him, but in effect, the ammim (peoples) are all there. In God only is trust - His position throws Him on this, and throws Him on the faithfulness of God. God is for Him. The Word of God takes the place, as it were, of company. The word and promise of God is His resource and assurance. So ever, when cast out by man, and the word is sure. As the word of God is sure, so is He debtor to God, as one vowing to Him, and when the promise of His word is fulfilled, praises for the accomplishment of it will then burst forth. He is so sure of the truth of the word that He looks to, and knows He shall, "render praises."

- 13. This is the principle, so often found, of the power of deliverance from death - the resurrection, the centre of this. Our portion is to suffer with - theirs to be delivered from.

Psalm 57

This Psalm is at once the distress and confidence of Messiah, when identified with the sorrows of the Jews - the Remnant - when ready to be swallowed up. Its result, in full manifestation of the divine power in the heavens, and His glory over all the earth, is manifest.

- 6. The reader of the Psalms must be familiar with this verse, as the destruction of the enemies in the latter day.

- 9. Ammim (peoples).

Here, in the same troubles and increased, the godly man looks higher - not only trusting in faithfulness in the word, but the Daystar has arisen in his heart, for the night, if long and dark, is far spent, until these calamities be overpast - to heaven, the earth is full of wickedness, but God shall send from heaven. Accordingly, at the close the praise is not varied but from a fixed heart, and called to awake, and praise, among the people (ammim), proposed "For thy mercy," etc.

133  - 11. This is the actual millennial glory, viewed as in the glory of God, and Messiah deserving it for His God's sake - yet in fact He who sought it for God; in Himself, only and really is it accomplished. It is thus a beautiful Psalm. Verse 3 well brings out the beautiful expression of His position. These calamities evidently are the situation of the full development of evil in that day. The principle is ever true for the Spirit of Christ - it is then manifested.

Psalm 58

This Psalm is the glory of the righteous judgment of God against the Gentile oppressors. It is the righteous, most righteous appeal, in judgment, to the wicked - to men themselves. A sense of righteousness of situation rising over the manifest character of the wicked - character distinctly manifested by that situation; rather, in the approach to God therein, the righteous judgment manifests itself to his spirit. The Jews are the expression of righteousness on the earth. Hence this, and righteousness, is a right thing, "So that," in a word, "men shall say," etc. (v. 11). This position is one of great importance - the Jewish manifestation of righteousness. The earth is the place of the manifestation of righteousness, i.e., judicially, though the heavens shall declare it, heaven is the place for grace, "That in the ages to come," etc. (Ephesians 2:7). But God judges in the earth, and the Jews are the people whom He hath known for this; and, in the connection of Christ with the Jews, this can be accomplished, and fully brought out, as seen here. Righteous in His promise to Abraham and his seed, and Christ in grace associating (in righteousness) a Remnant herein to Himself, but here describing the position, as in Himself as perfect in all ways in it from God and in man, and wickedness being therefore fully manifested, and then, after all the grace to them, judgment - a righteous desire! It proves, in the union with hostile Gentiles, to be a deeper principle - man - "He knew what was in man." Long His patience and grace! Wonderful the salvation of the Church! How it all came fully out! Then judgment - but it is from a place of destitution and righteous faith that it is thus set forth.

134 Till Christ took perfect humiliation, in perfect righteousness accomplished it - there, in the midst of them (rejected) in perfect grace towards them - justice had not its way; "If I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin, but now they have no cloak," etc. God could simply, in righteousness, have punished iniquity, but He would not have displayed Himself; but now then, in Christ, He could in uttermost grace - manifesting a Head of righteousness! On this being despised, and spitefully entreated, even after all (and the enemies of God pierced, verse 7) the righteous will rejoice when they see the vengeance, sent suitably to not being come in judgment. Christ could feel, as to the Pharisees, "My soul loathed them" (Zech. 11), but in the humiliation of Christ with the Remnant, in the latter day, when wickedness is then accomplished, it is brought out into yet much greater relief. He shall stand up yet for the people (all written in the Book) - a time, such as never was, of trouble. This these Psalms describe, by the Spirit of Christ entering actually, as He alone could, into all their estate.

Psalm 59

This Psalm is a remarkable instance of the identification of Christ with the house of Jacob in their latter-day extremity. We learn also the mistake of looking for the full meaning of any Psalm in any of the circumstances merely of the writer, as verse 5 abundantly shows.

The former point is brought before us in comparing verses 1, 2, 3 (1 and 2 are the thesis), 5, 10 and 11, and also 16. Verse 12 gives the character of the enemies; compare Daniel 7:11. Verse 13 gives the end, the object of all this; verse 6 shows also their character; verse 14 their disappointment.

Though the subject of these Psalms be the same, we must not suppose they are tautological. Various are the characters in which sin, now come to a head, presents itself - pride, lust, tyranny, and ignorance of, and enmity against the Lord Christ taking part in the afflictions of His sin-afflicted and enemy-afflicted people; and many, correspondently, are the ways in which the position of Christ is shown towards God, towards them, and towards their enemies. In these characters, different Psalms represent Him, and them, and the faithfulness of God drawn down towards them in Him, and due in Him. Therefore He says, "O righteous Father, the world hath not known thee, but I have known thee, and these have known that thou hast sent me, and I have declared," etc., "that the love," etc.

135  - 1. Me y'vay (from my enemies).

We return in this Psalm again to outer enemies, the heathen. It is now "My God," and "O Lord God of hosts, the God of Israel." He has taken up Israel as His people, dealing with the heathen, showing that "God ruleth in Jacob unto the ends of the earth."

- 3. This is the character of their evil. It is not now a matter of correction, but pride; in fact, their character is plainly marked.

- 11. This exhibits Christ owning them as His people, in this intercessional Psalm.

Note the "evening" and "morning" in verses 6, 14 and 16.

Psalm 60

This is the half doubting, through sense of casting off, but returning confidence of the Spirit of truth, in the house of Jacob, though the sense that their enemies are not overcome, but that the promises go to results which include that; in a word, it is the sense of the Spirit in the house of Jacob, when their enemies' pressure brings them into the full sense of their casting off, which indeed was (though the reconciling of the world spiritually, yet) the abrogation of judgment in the earth, and the leaving of it by God, but at the same time led them to that looking to God which at once brought them, under grace, to all the promises, and to the "Through God we shall do valiantly."

We have here, in verse 5, the appropriation of the Davidical name to the Remnant, and the identification with him in name. The question arises here, Edom, as a place, seems to be redeemed as by the go-el (redeemer) though, as the strong people and city, it is utterly ruined, and there is no return; see Ruth, Jeremiah, etc.

It appears from this Psalm that Israel is fully recognised with Judah, and Judah in his last character before God begins to act with them, on the enemies around, within the territory, and the Jews possess themselves of Edom. After their recovery from positive oppression and trials, they call upon God for help, in their weakness, for action - verse 4 shows the latter, as verse 3 the former.

136  - 10. This verse invites the God who had cast them off as the God of their help. He had not let them stumble for their fall. They now stay no more upon those that smote them, but upon the Lord, the Holy One in truth.

God and man are again contrasted, but in honest faith and sincerity, humble yet sincere truth after being put out of the positive trouble, under the sense of it, looking for the strength which shall order and establish them as against their enemies, going with their armies - acknowledging it was the casting-off of God - accepting the punishment of their iniquity - owning they were cast off - still as with a trembling heart as to themselves, yet true, holding the banner of God given to them and calling themselves "His beloved." The truth is to come out in connection with them - God is to tread down their enemies - an old position on much better ground to a humbled, renewed people, in whose heart God has put His laws, and revealed their Messiah as Jehovah in righteousness, whom they once rejected; but here it is specially God and the people, and the work in them, not the revelation to them. Here He stands at their head receiving God in their return. The Spirit of Christ having spoken all through, Psalms 55-60 are consequent, it seems to me, in the sense we have seen all through.

Psalm 61

This Psalm seems to be the address of the Messiah, Christ, to the Father, as rejected and expelled by the Jews, of whom He was anointed King, that from the end of the earth driven (in this Enos character) among the Gentiles, He would still look unto Him to be led, to the Rock that was higher than He, as He said, "For my Father is greater than I"; see Psalm 16. In this, as the persecuted Christ, He would abide for ever, for "He put his trust in him." This was His mind in His humiliation.

Then we have, with the exception of verse 7, which seems the interlocution of the Jewish Remnant, His thoughts as under His deliverance, i.e., having brought the Remnant upon Himself, He would now act as became Him, in consequence of the responsibilities so acquired - He would daily perform His vows. Here then we have the Messiah as the exalted Man, occupied with rendering His vows for the salvation of the Remnant felt in Himself (as Hebrews 5) to Him who had been the power of its deliverance, hearing Him so crying. This, with verse 7, is a subject of very deep interest; compare here Psalm 56:12 with verse 8 of this Psalm, and also Psalm 65:1, where the form of the blessing is entered into. I do not here state the enquiry, whether this paying of vows by the Lord Christ is only as the Head of His people in the millennial glory, or in the ages of eternity; of the former we have evidence as to the Jews here, for it is in this character, and as connected with them, He specially pays the vows, as with the saints He is in glory reigning. I have omitted to refer to Psalm 22, where the subject and the result of Christ's vows are fully entered into.

137 The latter part of verse 5 here is worthy of our attention.

I also find Psalms 61-68 are a Book together. Instead of being Christ, or the Spirit of Christ in the presence of His enemies and the people's (or Remnant's), it is in the presence of God in their circumstances. The calm appeal and judgment of circumstances in His presence - His Spirit conducts Him as a Man, and so the Remnant, to a Rock higher than He, qua man or themselves. Shut out from His holy presence, in His temple He God is His tabernacle - God who has heard His vows; He has the heritage of those that fear God's name - His confidence is in Him. It is always among the Jews; this is Christ among the Jews, not properly Israel. Verses 6, 7 and 8 (Psalm 61) are the expression of the character of this confidence. "Generation and generation" (margin) it shall be, yea, for ever; and says "Prepare mercy and truth," which then shall meet together - a time of praise!

I think from this Psalm, the tone of the Book changes. Already indeed He had thought of God's rights temporally, and promise and aid, but this Psalm takes another ground, or is in another state. He looks not at the enemies and God as His help, but directly to God Himself, as between Himself and God. From this moment there is progress up to full confidence as to the way of blessing. Psalm 62 rests in God peacefully, though seeing the evil, verses 1, 5-7, and indeed throughout. Psalm 63, though no deliverance be yet come, so enjoys God that He looks back at first covenant enjoyment, and, because His favour is better than life, can praise fully during a life of trial. God is His delight and His security. Psalm 64 applies this to the malice of the enemy, and prophetically celebrates the effect of divine intervention. Psalm 65 so reckons on God, that it declares they only wait for deliverance, to praise in Zion, to draw near in the Temple - counts on God's terrible intervention, and the full blessing of all the earth. Psalm 66 celebrates, in calling all the earth to rejoice, the deliverance itself, and explains the sorrows of the Remnant, and God having heard them. Psalm 67 explains that on their full blessing all the peoples will celebrate God in blessing, under His ways. This is the effect of looking directly and simply to God. Doubtless the cry to God in distress in the sense of circumstances, leads on to looking to and resting in God Himself, but the progress is instructive and interesting. Psalms 68 and 69 show how Christ takes part in deliverance, and how the body of Israel come to be judged and tried.

138 Remark, also, how these systems of Psalms, when they have brought in the prospect and power of deliverance, return to the condition of personal humiliation, whether in view of Christ's rejection and low estate, or the wretchedness of, so to speak, an aged and justly smitten Israel, Psalms 70 and 71; the latter probably occasioned by Adonijah making way for Solomon or the millennial glory.

Psalm 62

This Psalm particularly describes the jealousy of Christ's enemies against Him, and their feebleness because God was on His side - His expectation. From verse 8, is His comment upon this, and the statement of His experience in this to His companions, "the people"; and so "refuge for us." It also glances at the vengeance, as mercy of deliverance to the afflicted children of God. They are indeed bold and unhindered now, but God will recognise me - God will render to every man according to his work. Therefore trust in Him, and always; trust not in oppression, see also verse 3.

- 3. (Heb. 4). Note, here, it is man (ish). This Psalm is in the midst of all the circumstances. He calls his soul to wait only upon God - calls the people (am, verse 8, Heb. 9) to pour out their heart before God, for He is "a refuge for us."Men are all vanity - power belongs to God - mercy shown in justice, soon to be manifested for the patient oppressed. The expression of soul in this is in Psalm 63 - its application to spiritual joy, its character and confidence in this desert world. How often have they been the joy and instruction of my heart! But here I only follow the sense or explication. It is most sweetly rich in joy. The "King" (v. 11), marks the place and consequence, as in Psalm 61.

139 Psalm 63

This Psalm seems to me to be the desire of Christ - now that He has come into the far country from God, in the midst of and under the sin, and misery, and desolations of man wandering, yea, departed from God, as utterly estranged - for Him, and looking at the full glory of the nation, after that glory which He "had with thee before the world was." It is the recollection, so to speak, of Christ applying itself to that which belonged to Him (I see much of this running through John, who is full of the glory) as He says in the very case, "And now, O Father, glorify thou me with" (apud Te ipsum) "thine own self, with the glory which I had with thee before the world was," i.e., the Person and place-glory, as Proverbs 8:22 et seq. It is then the thoughts of Christ, in His time of need, of the glory as His delight, which He had with the Father before the world. The enemy that was against Him should be destroyed - who did not know, or "they would not have crucified the Lord of glory."

It implies also perfect purity of affections, for they, only in this way, find it a barren, thirsty land.

- 11. Who is "him" in this verse? Is it the king, or He in whom the king rejoices?

The last three verses are judgment. What precedes the perfection of the soul knowing God when in this world, and, as to circumstances, away from God. It is Christ really in its perfection, and human nature, but divine perfection in it as knowing God. The soul knows God in the sanctuary, has seen Him there in His own perfection, and is wholly absorbed by the desire of Him known in this perfectness. Hence the state and sentiment in this world is not victory over attractions, nor the resistance of them, but the absolute sterility of the world to the divine nature in Man. Not anything to refresh it, "My soul thirsteth for thee, in a dry and thirsty land where no water is." This is a very perfect state. But God is known, not in the enjoyment of covenant blessings, or relationship, but as God outside them, still in personal link to and with Him - "My God." This is not only appropriation, but subjection of soul. It is "My," but it is "My God"; and this subjection is of all importance for holiness and man's, the creature's perfection as man, creature. Yet I believe never possible but in Christ, or those in whom Christ is their life. I doubt Adam could have felt it. Christ, though a divine Person, yea, because a divine Person, felt it as Man. I doubt the angels could feel it. They cannot be individual enough, nor feel the isolation which Christ felt perfectly, and Christians feel in the midst of evil.

140 There was no sanctuary to Adam where he knew God, and where he was not, and which made the world a desert where no water was. This was the subjective state, and is wonderfully perfect.

The practical effect also is active diligence - "Early will I seek thee." Such a knowledge of God, and delight in Him, makes this earth a desert with no water in it - absolutely and diligently seeking Him. Life is sorrow, as to its place. Man belongs to a place where, through divine feeling, he is without a drop of water, yet an earth to which, in one sense, he belongs, so that it is felt, and a cutting off from all. But then another thing comes in. Life is consequently death. But divine favour is better than life, therefore such can praise while they live, before they see God's power and glory, as they "have seen in the sanctuary," where their hearts have known Him (for us Christ in glory). Hence, God is praised and blessed here. Then verse 7 is help; verse 8, is the whole - it is the perfection of a soul in its state, and in its confidence.

We see too how "subjective" and "objective" are necessarily the same in a creature, in a dependent being. In Psalm 84, as often remarked, the soul is a passenger, not a stranger. He is occupied with circumstances, blessed or tearful, yet with God.

In Psalm 63 My God is El. "To see thee" (lir'oth uzz'cha, to see Thy strength), "as I have seen" (khazithikha, I have beheld Thee) - "contemplated," "had the vision of." Thus verse 1 shows the state of soul - absolute perfection in desire (moral perfection); verse 2, the condition longed for; verse 3, the present result in blessing; verses 4, 5, 6, its application; verse 7 is the other point of thankful trust. In both He is a known God.

141 Psalm 64

The malicious and calumniating enmity of the haters of the Lord - of Christ - shall draw out the wrath of God, and thus, unexpectedly, shall they be taken in their own wickedness. The character of their own enmity against Christ, the Perfect One, exhibits the principles of their own state, and, when drawn out to a head in the account of their own exultation, draws down the vengeance of God - the very same perfection in power, as Christ was in humiliation.

The Psalm is the depth of the secret counsel of the wicked - malice and encouragement; see verses 5 and 6. But God shoots at them, whose thoughts are deeper. Still they shall be a sign of their own folly and God's judgment. Men, "all men," shall fear. Then, afterwards, the Lord shall be the joy of the righteous upright.

Psalm 65

That this Psalm is the restoration of the Jews, or, more properly speaking, the replacing of the Remnant (now a nation) in their old place with God, on the mediation of Immanuel, as introducing millennial blessedness, is, I think, evident. The Jewish portion of this is stated in verse 1, as expected, and appointed, and that in the most beautiful manner possible in the union, if one may so speak, of God's interest and man's in it, according to the promises; in verse 2 it is the Gentiles. In order to this, Christ must take it up; accordingly that which has prevented is stated in verse 3, but in Christ's Person, as for the Jews, as in Isaiah 53 - the latter part being the expression of this by the Jewish Remnant. This leads them to celebrate their acceptance in the Beloved, the Man whom God chose. Then comes the manner of their deliverance, as in answer to their faith; the extent of this over all the earth, and the fruition of blessedness by the removal of the curse from the earth. Such is the scope of this beautiful Psalm. The Psalms here open out more into the glorious results of the union of Immanuel with men - rather the Jews.

142 This Psalm presents Zion as the plain, accordingly, where "praise waits" for God. As soon as ever the Remnant, His people, are set there, praise will begin, and now they have it ready there in their hearts - their sins hindered - they are to be purged away. Verse 4 is the character and anticipation of this; verse 5 the manner of its accomplishment. Its effect and consequences on the earth, as life from the dead. It is a joyful Psalm, full of blessed hope - very beautiful in its spring of holy hope. The answer to the cherished hope and vow of the sorrowing righteous, long estranged but righteous, just ready to burst forth - exceeding beautiful!

Psalm 66

This is blessing of the nations in the deliverance of the Jews in the latter day. Christ at the head of the Jews, or rather as the Head of the Jews, ready to pay the vows uttered in the time of their trouble. It is the voice of the upright Remnant, He being so really, they in acceptance having integrity, as spoken of in Scripture, as Noah, etc., to God, but really truly only in Him, and therefore all this is spoken in His Person, and He has fulfilled all this, i.e., what in His own Person made Him capable of so taking the lead. To verse 4 is the blessing arising from the dealings of God to the nations, called to praise Him.

- 5. This verse in reference to old doings, calls them to see present similar ones putting down the rebellious.

- 8. This verse turns to the acknowledgment of for whom, and in what, all this is shown - "Bless our God . . . he hath tried . . . hath also but delivered us." Note "people" (ammim); so Psalm 67:3.

- 13. Christ here takes up the word, having His mouth opened, as it were, by the blessing of His people, all along in His heart.

It is then progressively developative from the general call to the nations, to the special feelings of Christ.

This Psalm is a consequent summons to all the nations or lands. It is the song of the righteous, proved such, after their acceptance, and so far restoration, but before the submission of the nations. The judgment (which delivered them, the Remnant, from their immediate oppressors, Antichrist, etc.), of whom, we have seen, is the occasion of this summons to the nations of the earth at large. Having been in fullest trouble, they can now say "Our God" in deliverance. Christ is the foundation of it, in the close.

143 Psalm 67

There are two things in this Psalm - that the blessing of the Jews is the way of saving health being known to all nations, and next, that the praise of the peoples (brought in) is the object of their desire, and caused by the judgment and government of God, and that the bringing in of the people, their restoration to God, was needful to, and occasional of the full blessing of the Jews in detail, that operating the fear of Him who blessed them; see Jeremiah 33:9.

This Psalm turns, being delivered, entirely to blessing - looks, being blessed, for full blessing on them, Israel - so the earth, to be blessed - the nations rejoice - the earth yields her increase - the blessing of God, their own God, being upon them. He judges the people righteously, and guides the nations on the earth. It is the desire of the Remnant of the Jews in Jerusalem, feeling blessing, for the full outshining of blessing, that God may be glorified everywhere, even their God, "God shall bless us."

Psalm 68

This is a noble Psalm; it triumphs in the thought of the presence of God. The preface is longer than usual, and though the first verse is as a general heading, yet it extends itself to the end of verse 6 - the celebration of blessing, because of the assumption of this place in the heavens by Him of the ancient Name - His character in association with this, especially as regards the Jews; compare the desolation of Edom in Jeremiah 49. God arises - the God that is all this. "The solitary," I should translate "those separated" into the unity of estrangement from the evil of those that were around them - the Remnant and their estate; He maketh them a house, delivers the captives, and brings desolation on the rebellious servant - the body of the Jews. It is the constant, I should almost say technical term for them. The Jews are the object of this arising, but it is the wicked and the righteous, referring then to the presence of God in the wilderness, and the preparation of an inheritance in which, refreshed with rain from heaven, the incorporation of y-khidim (the solitary) should dwell. Then comes (v. 11) the development, when Adonai yitten amar (gave the word).

144 It is a Psalm sufficiently remarkable and characteristic to need little comment. It is the whole course and relationship of God with Israel from beginning to end, as acting on the very same principles - His principles - throughout with, and manifested in, them - taking the name and word in which He went before them, in their first deliverance, in the wilderness, and identifying it with Christ in the heavens, Adonai ascended. Verse 18 shows the address to Christ, as One who had effected all this. "Solitary" are y'khidim. It is a principle of action which we have seen all through, i.e., we have seen the y'khi-dim in their cry; compare Psalm 22:20. "Lord," in verse 1, is Adonai, i.e., Christ recognised on high; in verse 16, it is "Jehovah"; in verse 17, Adonai; in verse 18, JAH; in verse 19, Adonai; in verse 20, Jehovah Adonai; in verse 22, Adonai; in verse 26, Adonai; in verse 32,* Adonai.

{*Add one to the numbers of all these verses for the Hebrew.}

It is, recognising JAH, the existing God, Elohim, God in covenant, i.e., in Himself, in consistency of character. Jehovah, the Accomplisher of all spoken in Israel - in a word, of promises - properly Adonai, especially who is celebrated in verse 18, recognised as Christ risen, but the same act, mercy, and protection or powerful deliverance, as first in the desert, "Let God arise," Num. 10:35. In a word, it is all God's glory and truth, as centred and developed in Israel, accomplished and celebrated by Israel in Christ - Christ ascended, their Adonai - God giving, delivering, God giving strength and power unto Israel His people. The triumph is complete and detailed, not only as their ancient God, their God of old, but as in the heavenly glory of Christ, as at the close; see verses 33, 34, 35. Compare Daniel 7:9, 13, 22, 27, and verses 17, 18 of the Psalm, noting el'yonim (the heavenlies) and verse 27, am kaddishey el' yonim (people of the saints of the heavenlies).

Note the very frequent, and, save in verse 18, exclusive use of Adonai (Lord) in this Psalm; but in "Lord God," God is "Jehovah."

145  - 1. "Let Elohim arise. Let his enemies be scattered, and they which hate him flee before him." This is God manifested as before the ark; i.e., among the Jews.

- 2, 3. "As smoke is driven away, drive," or "Thou shalt drive." "As wax melteth in the presence of fire, let the wicked perish in the presence of Elohim." "And let the righteous be glad: let them rejoice in the presence of Elohim; let them be glad with joy." This is the contrast thereupon of the wicked and the righteous - the great Jewish principle.

- 4. "Sing to Elohim, praise his name, make your triumph in him that rideth," or "rode," "in the deserts in JAH, his name; exult in his presence." The structure of the sentence convinces me that Sol-lu (extol) is used in a derived, not a primary sense, though I at first thought it was. "Make his way ready," a well-known expression, but I think certainly not the sense here. This recognises Elohim (God) as the JAH (Jehovah) that was with them in the wilderness - "I AM hath sent me unto you."

- 5. "A Father of orphans, and Judge of widows (is) Elohim in his holy habitation." This is the character of God as Preserver of the desolate, in which He is towards the real Jews in that day; see Jeremiah 49:11.

- 6. "Elohim settling," or "establishing" "the separated ones in a house" (see the note previous) "causing the bound in chains to go forth in prosperity; but" (on the contrary) "the rebellious shall dwell in a dry land," i.e., in desolation.

The manner in which this is exhibited in result, distinguishing the poor isolated Remnant and the captivity, and setting them in a house, and the body of the Jews bringing as rebellious into desolation; thus much is the full title subject - the Elohim as manifested.

This verse is the character of God as arisen in respect of the Remnant and the rebellious body of the Jews. While evil prevails, there is no unity but in separation. When He comes whose right it is, then He will gather into one all things in heaven and earth, and it will not be so. The y'khi-dim (solitary ones) are then the united ones - those driven into separated (solitary, if you please) union with Messiah in hope, but by His Spirit separated from the mass, and thereby made essentially one, then shall be settled in a house. That is one fruit of God's arising - next He brings the bound out of captivity, loosing the bands, and, as to the rebellious, the revolters exercising proud will against Him and the poor, them He puts in desolation in a dry land.

146  - 7, 8. "O Elohim, in thy goings before thy people, in thy marching through the wilderness, the earth shook, the heavens also dropped before the presence of Elohim. This Sinai, before the presence of Elohim, the Elohim of Israel."

Here he refers to Elohim's presence amongst them before. "Marching" is a bad word. It is a word of solemnity rather, often used of God's going.

- 9, 10, 11, 12. "A rain of plentifulness" (liberalities) "Thou didst pour, O Elohim, of thine inheritance; when weary, thou didst establish it." "Thy incorporated people" (Thy body) "shall dwell in it; thou hast prepared in thy goodness for the poor, O Elohim."

"Adonai gives the word; great the host of publishers."

"Kings of armies" (hosts) "flee, flee; and the housewife divides," or distributes, "spoil."

- 11. Elohim having prepared the inheritance and being about to place the Remnant now made into an incorporated people - the poor whom He had prepared for in goodness - Adonai (Jesus, as we shall see just now) gives the word, and a multitude carries the message of His goodness abroad. Compare Isaiah 66.

- 10, 11. Further, as to the inheritance of His people, rather His inheritance, it is not left as a dry land. God is interested in it, compare Deuteronomy 11:11, 12. Perhaps it might be translated: "O God of thine inheritance, when weary thou didst establish it" - for at-tah (Thou) I suppose to be emphatic. Khay-yath'ka (living assembly) is a different word from congregation. The living incorporation of His people as contrasted with the state when they were y'khi-dim (solitary). Abraham, or the children of Israel in Egypt were y'khi-dim, they were kha-y'tho (His living assembly) when established in the land, though indeed never properly or fully so till Messiah joins them; they are then His earthly body, His house, as we His heavenly. Ka-hal (assembly) we have afterwards - the gathering of the people in assembly (v. 26), for worship or praise. When Adonai was at their head, and gave the word, sorrow and dismay might seem before their portion, but then the messengers (of the good tidings of His presence and intervention) were a great host. This I suppose to be not merely Jews. Compare Isaiah 66:19, 20.

147  - 13, 14. This is the Jewish Bride or body. The establishment of God's throne, not over but in Jerusalem, similarly as in Sinai; so it is according to its power and enactments.

- 13. "Though ye lie among the grates, as the wings of a dove overlaid with silver, and her feathers with yellowness of gold, shall ye lie." Sh' phat-taim (pots) is a difficult word. It seems to me to be a place of ashes, or refuse, put under some other place to receive them from it. Its general force is sufficiently evident.

- 14. "In Shaddai's dispersing kings in her, she is covered as with snow in Salmon" - i.e., white and glittering with beauty. The language is very sententious - she was covered with snow as Salmon.

- 15. "The mountain of Elohim (is as) the mountain of Bashan, a mountain of summits (as) the mountain of Bashan."

Perhaps Bashan had its name from Shen (a tooth, or cliff).

- 16. "Why are ye jealous, ye mountains of summits?" (It is, or at) "the mountain of desire of Elohim, for his resting place" (or rest); "yea Jehovah shall dwell for ever" ("in it," or "them").

They shall be ashamed for their envy at the people; Isaiah 26.

- 17. "The array of cavalry" (or chariots) "of Elohim are multitudes of thousands multiplied" (redoubled), "Adonai is in them, Sinai, in the holy place."

- 18. "Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive: thou hast received gifts in Man, and even the rebellious for the dwelling (there) of JAH Elohim."

Here we have Adonai recognised; it was thus that gifts were ensured for man, and the rebellious became a dwelling-place of JAH Elohim.

The preposition b' (in) gives a very simple force, not answered by any English preposition, as before "dispersing kings in her"; it is not merely as being in her, nor merely for her or her sake, but in her case as putting Himself as the agent of power in her. It is the sphere or place of God's action or blessing, etc., as the case may be.

This verse is also the recognition of those in whom these things were wrought, and has: "Thou" i.e., their Adonai "hast ascended on high, and received gifts as Man, even for the rebellious" (the Jews) "for the dwelling of JAH Elohim"; the Apostle therefore does not quote this in referring to the gifts in Ephesians. The rest of the Psalm scarcely requires a note, taken as referable to the latter days. "The congregations" (v. 26) are not the same word the JAH Elohim in the heavens. The Strength and Salvation of Israel shines through the Psalm. It is a magnificent Psalm. From Psalm 65 to this seems a sort of little Book of themselves - a common subject.

148  - 19. "Blessed be Adonai, that day after day heapeth upon us (blessings). The El who saveth us."

- 20. "The El that is for us is the El for salvations" (or Our El is the El of salvations") "and to Jehovah Adonai are" (belong) "deliverances" (goings forth) "even as from death."

The prepositions here are all 1' (to); there is the ha (the) emphatic to the first El (God). "From death" does not express it perhaps, the force might be expressed, though not the literal meaning by "even from death" "even as to this which they, as a nation, had been obliged to go through." Deliverance belonged to Jehovah Adonai and He was their El too.

- 21. "But Elohim shall smite" (or break) "the head of his enemies, and the crown of hair" (the scalp) "of him that goeth about" (walketh, qui se promene) "in his wickedness."

- 22. "Adonai spake from Bashan, I will cause to return, I will cause to return from the depths of the sea."

Return to blessing, or from captivity.

- 23. "So that thou mayest plunge thy foot in blood. The tongue of thy dogs (has) its portion from enemies."

Min-ne-hu (in its kind). Clearly I should think "its allotted portion," the kind of thing it had to eat, precisely the force of the sentence. We have the word in this very form in Genesis

- 24. "They have seen thy goings, Elohim. The goings of my El, my King, in the sanctuary."

- 25. "The singers go first, the players on stringed instruments after; between" (or in the midst) "the chorister damsels playing on the tabrets."

The structure of the word "singers" I do not exactly understand.

- 26. "In the congregations bless ye Elohim Adonai, ye descendants of Israel."

- 27. "There (is) little Benjamin their ruler, the princes of Judah their company, the princes of Zebulon, and the princes of Naphtali."

Ri-g' ma-tham (their council) literally "a heap" i.e., "of stones" from ra-gam (to stone).

149  - 28. "Thy Elohim hath ordained thy strength; confirm O Elohim that which thou hast wrought for us."

- 29. "Because of thy house at Jerusalem, to thee shall kings bring presents."

"Because of thy house" - it is used for the temple as being the house or palace of God.

- 30. "Rebuke the beast of the reed, the company of the bulls or strong ones, with the calves of the peoples, submitting himself with pieces of silver - he hath scattered the peoples - they shall desire to approach."

This term "Rebuke the beast of the reed," is well known as strong, untamed and proud enemies, as in Psalm 22. It means strength. The general sense of this verse, taking its connection with the preceding and succeeding, is plain and interesting. It is on the rebuke of Antichrist, Pharaoh the beast of the reed, and the complete subjection or scattering of the peoples, the setting them aside as incorporated before, that the peoples shall come willingly up to worship at Jerusalem; but the construction of the latter part is so abrupt as to be extremely difficult. I at one time thought mith-rap-pes (treader down) might be the Rebuker treading down among the calves or bullocks of the people and the pieces of silver.

Bits-tsar (scatter). In construction also with the other, b' (in), but the only other Hithpael of ra-phas (tread down) is used in submitting oneself. The connection of the two last words with the following verse is extremely strong. Otherwise it would be "trampling on the calves of the people, on the pieces or fragments of silver, he hath scattered the people. Altering the points makes it "he delighted in silver." Commonly "calves of the people" is joined with "bullocks," but the structure is precisely the same as "on pieces of silver" and I think it is transitional.

K'ra-voth (translated "war" in A.V.) may perhaps be used for "war," but with the ha* it is regularly "to approach" as "to offer."

{*Sign of the causative species in verbs.}

- 31. "The Khashamnim" (or princes) "shall come from Egypt; Cush shall speedily bring her power or submit to Elohim" (cause her hands to run).

150  - 32. "Ye kingdoms of the earth, sing ye to Elohim - celebrate Adonai."

- 33. "To him that rideth on the heavens, the heavens of old. Lo, he uttereth his voice, a voice of strength."

Adonai (Jesus) is the same Elohim who rode on the heavens - exercised the former authority (sh'mev kedem, heavens of old) in the wilderness, see Deuteronomy 33 26; i.e., the Person who exercised that authority over the Jews, is the same Person who now, over the same recognised Israel, ruleth in the heavens. And this is Adonai Jesus.

- 34. "Ascribe ye" (give the praise of) "strength to Elohim; over Israel (is) his Majesty" (or excellency) "and his strength is in the clouds" - the glory of manifested power from the heavens.

- 34. Bash-sh'kha-kim (in the clouds). The clouds, the seat of celestial authority (faithfulness and blessing) - the place where the Lord rideth where He exerciseth power, the visible seat of authority. The epourania (heavenlies), compare Deuteronomy 33:26, and so Psalm 89:5, so, analogously as to the fact; Daniel 7:12, 13.

See Deuteronomy 33:26-29 to which all this refers, or however to that which is there spoken of, now fulfilled over Israel. See the note on bash-sh'kha-kim (in the clouds) before It might be "Ascribe ye strength to Elohim over Israel," i.e.; here it is in that place He assumes and exercises the strength which the nations are to recognise, even as Adonai (Lord). His majesty and strength are in the clouds, that is, though exercised over Israel, He has the celestial glory. The sense is pretty much one. On the whole I rather prefer the former, but not the rejection of the latter.

- 35. "Wonderful" (fearful, or to be adored) "art thou, Elohim in thy sanctuary. The El of Israel, he it is that giveth strength and might to the people. Blessed be Elohim."

It is remarkable how this is the word applied to Israel on their restoration in Isaiah 18. I believe the plural to mean sanctuary as Psalm 73; whence in Greek hagia hagion (holy places) that which was within the veil (so we know Him) to which He was now returned in power on behalf of the children of Israel.

If this be compared with Deuteronomy 33, and the return of God to Israel in strength be seen, nothing can be more bright or plain or beautiful, than this Psalm.

As to the names of God, we find Jah, Jehovah, Eh'yeh. I do not know how far I am justified as to the difference, for they are from the same root. In Jah we have the name in itself - simply, "He who exists." Eh'yeh is the expression of it by Himself. So "I" comes in - there is the conscious will of existence, which, in a divine Being, goes with the existence in itself. In Jehovah, Jah is developed into "Is, was, and is to come" - the Securer of promise, in which we have continued existence, time coming into account - continuity present, past and future.

151 This Psalm has led me to look at these names of God, as God. Jah seems to be the existing One objectively. There is One, and only One who is - Eh'yeh is His own assertion of it - conscious existence in will. Jehovah, He who does so exist, but is in relation with others, and revealed in time. He always is, but "was and is to come" is brought in. There is existence, but not only an eternal "now," but a past, and what is to come. He is in relationship, and in connection with time, and so a Securer of promises. And we read of His mercy enduring "for ever." But then another name comes in, which is related to none of these - Adonai, which carries the thought on the face of it of lordship and rule. It is a relation of another kind, not connected with His Being and Existence, but of office and position, flowing indeed from a necessary and essential title, but which necessitates other existences, and a state of things - an office that may be taken or given. The root of the word is simple - "Adon," is "lord" or "master." Abraham was Sarah's "lord," and Eliezer's "master." But there is more than this when it is used of God - it takes the form of the plural, of majesty so called. How used, we will look into a little.

Adonai Jehovah is a constant expression; in the Authorised Version usually "Lord God," which also represents Jehovah Elohim - only Lord. But Adonai is used where it is Jehovah, as in Isaiah 6:1; "I saw the Lord" (Adonai) "high and lifted up," etc., and at the end, "Woe is me . . . for I have seen the King, the Lord of hosts" (Jehovah Sabaoth). So the Seraphim in verse 5; yet Adonai suits. Thus Adonai is identified with Jehovah. This is quite clear and simple. But it is of this passage John 12 speaks, that the prophet saw Christ's glory, and spake of Him. It is Adonai, but it is Jehovah.

Then there is another class of passages as in Psalm 2, where the place of Christ with Jehovah is spoken of - The kings of the earth rage against Jehovah, and against His Christ. "He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh, Adonai shall have them in derision." And then He is Son, as born into this world, I and to be set as King in Zion, and the kings and judges of the earth are called upon to "kiss," "do obeisance to" the Son, who is about to speak unto them in His wrath, yea, rule them with a rod of iron. But here it was received, "Ask of me, and I will give thee." The Son in a recipient's and servant's place, yet Ruler over all the earth; compare Psalm 8, where He takes it as Son of man, compare also John 10, at the end.

152 These two are remarkably connected in Psalm 110. There David's Lord, David's Son, is called to sit on Jehovah's right hand. This is plain. The Lord Himself uses it, as the riddle for the Pharisees, i.e., how the two could be true. Yet there it was as to One they owned to be Messiah, David's Son; He was to sit there "till" - as He is now. It will be sent out of Zion, when He shall rule in the midst of His enemies - all that is David's Lord and Son," and "His people willing in the day of his power." Also He would be Melchizedek, a Priest on His throne, and the counsel of peace between Him and Jehovah, in favour of Israel, but then there is much more He is Adonai at the right hand of Jehovah; He who is now such will "strike through kings," and "judge the heathen." It is the same as in Psalm 2, but then as Son of God born into this world. Psalm 2:4, 5 applies before Psalm 110; He is not Son of man yet in Psalm 2 - that comes in, in universal power, in Psalm 8 there. In Psalm 2:8, the application of Psalm 110 comes in. The previous part is prospective, or rather, all as it stands in God's mind. Still it is Adonai; the One to whom divine rule belongs at God's right hand.

With divine title and glory, Adonai gives us the divine title and character in rule - Him who is Jehovah, as in Isaiah 6:1, and John 12. But He was Son of man who was to suffer many things, and to enter into His glory. And He has been "straightway" glorified (John 13) without waiting for His manifested glory coming in the clouds of heaven. And this is fully declared in the New Testament, as in 1 Peter 3:22, "Who is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of God; angels and authorities and powers being made subject unto him." So in the first testimony of the Holy Ghost; Acts 2:33-36. This is added to the testimony of His resurrection (the subjective basis of all - Man in His new estate). The Man who suffered on the Cross, then, Jehovah, I AM, is now Adonai; but the things, Hebrews 2, not yet actually put under Him - it is Psalm 110. It is Psalm 2, only this takes in more the whole scene, and half of Psalm 8.

153 And it is worthy of note here, how this affects the ministry of Paul and Peter. The latter, as remarked of old, takes up the rule of God - His government - while laying clearly the foundation of the great principles of salvation. He, both in his sermon and his epistle, goes on to the exaltation of Christ, and His Lordship, and all being subject to Him; Acts 2 and 1 Peter 3:22. Not so Paul, Acts 13 - he stops at His resurrection, and the Gentiles have the glad tidings of their salvation. And in Ephesians 1 it is His personal exaltation, and then the counsels of God to bring in the Church associated with Him in His Psalm 8 place. If Hebrews be taken as his, it only puts Him in half Psalm 8, saying that the putting all things under His feet is not yet fulfilled - He is expecting, "at God's right hand till his enemies be made his footstool." Paul's time was "meanwhile," i.e., Christ personally in glory, and the connection of the saints, the Church, with Him then and there, though the mystery hidden. Stephen closed the ministry of forgiving patience with Israel. He saw the "Son of man" standing at the right hand of God, but at his last sigh, so to speak, Christ sat down, "expecting till his enemies be made his footstool." Hebrews was really to get the Jewish converts frankly into the Pauline place. John 13 and 17 are not unconnected with this, only it is more His personal glory; John 13 is the work of the Son of man glorifying God, in virtue of which He is set on high in the glory of God - John 17 is the Son going back into the glory which He had with the Father before the world was.

It is a wonderful mystery. He, who is Jehovah, wields all power there, and this He could not were He not Jehovah. Yet He is Man exalted in consequence of what He has been, and has done as Man, and sits at the right hand of Jehovah, having all power in heaven and on earth, hereafter to be brought into one under Him, but not yet put under Him, but He gathering His joint heirs, sending forth the Holy Ghost, the Revealer of what is the earnest of what is to come.

The whole Psalm is the effect of: "Let God arise!" Jesus is the Lord Adonai (as Jehovah) in the clouds. Compare Psalm 45.

154 Psalm 69

The rich affectingness and object of this Psalm needs no comment - "He was heard in that he feared." Only we may note the character of the things in supplication by the Lord - His deliverance, as we have seen before, made the occasion of confidence to the humble. "The humble shall hear this and be glad," so they become the objects of His solicitude (v. 6, etc.). His identification with the Jews herein is manifest, and stands forth in distinctness also in verse 34.

This Psalm thus stands alone in presenting, personally, the great Sufferer - the key to all the rest.

I do not see how it is possible to avoid seeing the appropriation of the sins of the people by the Remnant, i.e., Christ, which is just righteousness, as they went to John the Baptist.

- 6. Adonai Jehovah Tsebaoth (Lord God of Sabaoth). The use of this is remarkable here. It is present not prospective, as in Psalm 68:16, 18, and elsewhere; so Psalm 70, but that must be considered apart. The Lord takes the place too of the Remnant, yet stands alone in it, as indeed He did in every respect.

Christ here explains His part in going without the camp, as, in effect, the Sin-offering, bearing all reproach, but really of a wicked world against God the Lord, the God of Israel. We have seen the circumstances of Israel, as obliged to go without, towards men, towards God - here of the great Sufferer, not in sympathy but, in fact, alone; and He explains this in His appeal to God first, then to the Lord as to its effect on the poor, and scorned, low laid Remnant around Him - for it was for the Lord of Israel's sake.

Then He pleads the whole case in His own sorrow before God the Lord. He had done all, even He could do, to win them. What had He not suffered for them? His heart had been broken. What had He received? There were none to pity - then judgment, but He, poor, set up on high, praising. The humble hear thus - they rejoice and are glad; it is the sign of their confidence and deliverance. All will praise Him, for after all (the wicked have been judged) God will save Zion, and build the cities of Judah, and there will be an heritage for those that love His name - a seed of His servants.

155  - 26. Here again, though characteristic, we find the blessed Lord alone, yet others associated with Him.

- 29. The distinction of the poor of the flock, and also Christ's taking this place, is evident.

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I must say the more I read this Psalm, the more I see it does not treat of atonement. It goes into the time and circumstances in which also atonement was made. It is perfectly monstrous to make the effect of atonement to be adding "iniquity to iniquity," and judgment which excludes them from "the book of the living," that cannot be. But I see two distinct things consequent on the attacks on my statements as to this, making me look more completely into it, for one ought to examine thoroughly all that may touch the Lord, to see nothing dishonours Him. One is the full absolute knowledge, in trial, of good and evil - evil in its power, Himself being the good, and so perfectly tested and proved to be. Experimentally learned because He, being perfectly good, and knowing good and evil in moral capacity, had all the evil in man (as one of whom He had come) which showed itself outwardly against Him, estimated, and felt in pressure on His soul, in its true character of evil, treachery, unrighteousness, sad indifference even in His disciples, the absence of all conscience in His enemies - a dreadful thought, for He was a Man to feel it, the hatred to God in them, not surely felt as a passion, for then it gratifies itself for the moment, but felt as He only could feel it as evil - "One of you shall betray me." Good and evil were brought up to their absolute character in love to God (to His Father), and hatred of God against Himself, "Me and my Father." Then, having gone to the end of this, He died to sin. This was perfection of love and obedience in Him. This, besides bearing our sins and being forsaken of God, though this last was what in an absolute way tested the perfectness of His obedience and love - the cup given Him to drink.

Then comes another, more dispensational, character - the cutting off of Messiah - the setting aside, as to Israel in the flesh, the beloved people of all the promises - the utter failure of man in this refusal of Him bringing them love and blessing, and the people of God, as far as their responsibility stood, losing all, rejecting the counsel of God against themselves - a nation lo chasid (not holy), and the beloved people the very scene of Satan's power, so that this terrible word could be said of them, "This is your hour and the power of darkness." This was dreadful, and His place with man in life with it. All that He had as Man come amongst men, turned by His goodness to bitterness, and so making the bitterness more absolute; see, as to the latter, Psalm 102. These are closely connected, as in Psalms 62 and 63, but they are distinct. The first far the deepest morally; the latter, as regards the promises and favour of God, the more sorrowful. But I believe He suffered all that could be suffered. The latter is connected with government, the former with the eternal character of good and evil. What a suffering! What a work! How perfect a one it was!

156 Now therefore He lives to God, and that only. Always perfect in His offering Himself up to Him, and living really to Him, yet He had to do with sin, and, having dealt with it perfectly, He has done with it completely - "He lives to God." He will judge evil no doubt, but in His life He has no more to do with it. He had constantly to do with it (save what grace did, with nothing else), and was made it before God. Perfect to God in the place of sin, and made it, He has died and done with it, died to it all - that He lives, and in that He lives, it is to God. Between Him and God, as living in every thought, feeling - speaking reverently, all that expresses life, there is only God. To live thus (through Him) we are called. In that He liveth He liveth unto God is all, necessary of course though free with Him, but a wonderful thing, a wonderful thought! And, Oh! to have an end of sin! For Him, by His own perfectness, having had to the end of it to do with it; for us as crucified with Him - what a blessing! But it shows wonderfully what the life of Christ, as a Man, is now - what ours ought to be. He died to sin once - was out, by dying to it, out of the whole scene of His connection with it - a connection with, a relationship to it, which only showed, and there by personal perfectness, His absolute carrying out of good when tried fully with evil; and evil being fully searched out, sounded, and brought to a climax with good on the Cross, was passed out of by experimentally dying to it for ever. Good only remained, and God the fulness of it, and everything for man, only with perfect love therefore to those that were His.

157 Such is the perfectness of Christ; only my words are poor, imperfect expression of what God, in a word or two, reveals. Still, searching, if it be with reverence, is good.

_______

I have been reading this Psalm again, and I cannot doubt that the interpretation I have heretofore given to it is the just one. His death is not spoken of - the deepest troubles are, and men's heartless insults and outrage, but what characterises Psalm 22 is not there, there is no appeal out of these to God, and finding forsaking, which is the essential point of the suffering of that Psalm. It is judgment on those who were hostile to Him. It views the historical fact of His rejection, and the consequence to those guilty of it - judgment of the wicked and unbelieving Jews, and so blessing in Zion. The point of the Psalm is that He was heard, not that He was not. The Remnant are in the deepest distress, and know and confess that it is through their sins. Now Christ did enter into this, and in bearing them in the way of atonement (but that is not the aspect here) He prays it might not be a stumbling block to any. Reproach was on Him for the Lord's sake, and His prayers to Jehovah were in an acceptable time. But the Lord hears the poor, and saves Zion that the Remnant may dwell there.

I do not write now to give the proofs that it is not expiation though it was that too - verses 22-29 prove that - but what the true force of the Psalm is, which seems to me perfectly clear, and falls in with the whole tenor of the Psalms. The conflict in sorrow, is in verses 32, 33. It is the judgment of the haters of Christ, and the deliverance of the Remnant to dwell in Zion with blessing. The Lord heard the poor - Christ was the proof of it to the oppressed Remnant, and, when He was there, it was not their sins (now confessed) were not before God, but Christ is a delivered, praying Man, and His enemies judged. Hence the blessing in Psalm 22 is of a far different and wider kind.

In this Book the Remnant are outside, and it is a question of enemies, Gentiles and the nation. Psalms 42 and 43 are their enemies, and Messiah their deliverer; God arising at the end, but the Remnant finding in a suffering Christ the stay of their souls in the deepest of their sorrows. The delivering power is in Psalm 68, but founded on Psalm 69, which is their comfort till deliverance comes. Historically, Christ's sufferings will be their stay, though in the depths, for He had been there. It is when they look on Him, whom they had pierced, that they recognise atoning grace.

158 Psalm 70

This Psalm follows Psalm 69 in this, that He makes the difference (consequence of that Psalm) between the wicked of Psalm 69 and those who sought Jehovah - these are to rejoice though He, as regards the earth, rested in sorrow on to the end. The answer is in heaven, or at the end. Then in Psalm 71 as regards Israel, if He remained poor and needy, Israel, come into its old age and sorrow, is to be spared and exalted, and in verses 19, 20, there is exaltation and blessing. Yet even the language of the Psalm shows that Christ fully entered into it in Spirit. But though there is quite reason not to exclude the writer of the Psalm, yet I feel more strongly than ever, in reading this Psalm, how Christ entered into the sorrows of Israel as manifested by His speaking in the Psalms.

Though the object of this Psalm is the same, yet its character is different; there is more confidence, I say not more faith - more appealing to God on the certitude of His favour; its word also is (for it is brought more to a crisis) "Make no long tarrying." Also the humiliation of Christ, the way of His joy, is affectingly brought forward, "Let others," saith He, "rejoice"; as for me, I am content, to be humbled, to do Thy will for Thy sake; I am poor and needy, but content to be in humiliation, but my joy is in this, making others to enjoy.

It seems to present Christ and the poor as the object of deliverance, not of suffering - a result, in fact, of His faithfulness in the other; He poor, the occasion to secure by intercession the gladness of those that trust in deliverance, but, in His poverty, He pleads that they, at least, may be glad. It is in this spirit Paul says, as to the Church, "So death worketh in us, but life in you"; only there in combat, here in intercession.

Psalm 71

This Psalm, though I believe the literal David to be the subject of it, applies, it appears to me, to the anomalous position (wherein they see Him separated from His own proper position) of the Jews on the setting up of Antichrist, but Christ as David driven out by Absalom. This type will fully explain the Psalm, looking to the Jews, as similarly placed, in the latter day, but finding a new place in resurrection, as in Daniel 12:2; though that rather applies to another portion of the Remnant, yet scattered, and this to a body of them in, but now driven out of, the land, though not permanently - the last time of Jacob's trouble, closing the typical David's life, for then He takes the Solomon power or estate. Verse 7 was personal feeling, therefore of David properly - verse 8 is prayer, result of exercise, therefore not as of Him, though in spirit identified with them - verse 9, is also association with the same circumstances, though, being the personal sufferings, we have the whole cry from the beginning of the reconciliation to the end - verse 10 was when He was separated from His people, they acted in the same spirit at the close - verse 12, is the position and feeling of faith of the Remnant, as far as they are in the position, in which David was on the setting up of Absalom, on the setting up of Antichrist in Jerusalem.

159 This Psalm is the positive application of what we find in Psalm 70, to the state of the Jews, as apparently utterly cast off again in the close (compare Isaiah 46:3, 4) the very close of their eventful history - verse 20 is the confidence. But there is the faith, of God's elect, in the Lord now after the sufferings of Christ explained, clearly recognised in the outset. It was a Jewish faith of old. It was however to be as in a resurrection, not in what was old - Solomon, not David, was to build the house - still not forsaken till God's strength and salvation was shown in them to that generation and those that should come. They should not bear fruit so, i.e., according to that generation, but they should introduce a better hope as a risen people. It is as Absalom and Adonijah, these Psalms.

Note, the Jewish people shall be dealt with, in the close, upon their old principles, but they shall bear fruit upon new, under a new alliance. Therefore we have "old age" as in the trial, "bringing up again from the depths of the earth" as in the confidence. Psalms 42 and 43 probably are when, through Absalom, driven across Jordan - so Christ with the sufferers driven out. But His connection in Spirit with the Remnant while in trouble, and connected with or oppressed by, under the sufferings of and estrangement from and by, because they were in power, from Zion, and the temple and worship itself, is very different from His appearance in Person, to deliver and give joy to the separated Remnant whom sorrow and evil around them have separated and driven out. So even compare Isaiah 65, and so the words of Christ to His disciples even as to the world. For, as we have seen here, they were the world. Aye! if called "gods" even, they would die like men - their princes were the princes of this world. This, John's Gospel clearly shows - "Ye are of this world, I am not of this world" - "Ye are from beneath, I am from above," and, at length, "Ye are of your father the Devil, and the works of your father ye will do." He was of God - of the Father.

160 Psalm 72

The manifestation of Christ as Solomon in this Psalm is too plain to need comment. "Thy people" and "Thy poor" are distinctly mentioned, but all the earth is blessed, and under His blessing and reign. It includes, nevertheless, deliverance, quod nota.

Psalm 73

It seems clear, from the third Book of the Psalms, or Israelitish chapter of them, that the ten tribes, at least the Remnant of them, are in the land when the last events are occurring. This Ezekiel 20:43 would, as to their repentance, confirm. But I do not see that they have more in the land than the last confederacy and Gog - Psalm 83 depicting it, and its judgment, according to Ezekiel 39:23 to the end. In Psalm 87 we have Zion owned; they had seen its devastation, Psalm 79. Psalms 88 and 89 are the moral side - law and grace. In Psalm 84 they are going up to Jerusalem again, and in Psalm 85 restoration takes place.

This makes the Book very interesting - all the various exercises of the people are developed in it. They are back, but Gog not destroyed, and Jerusalem yet trodden down. It is with the Assyrian, Israel, the ten tribes had to do. It is "after the glory" (Psalm 73:24, see Zechariah 2:8) they will be received. God's judgment to cut off had dealt with them in the wilderness. But Gog is not destroyed till the glory appears, which destroys the beast and Antichrist; so that the desolation of Jerusalem was still there.

161 In the fourth Book, the whole nation is taken up (Psalm go) as of old belonging to God. In Psalm 91 Messiah owns the God of the Jews as "Most High"; Psalm 92 is the judgment of the wicked, and the abiding blessing of the righteous; Psalm 93 is the reign, and coming in of the First-begotten. Psalm 101, Messiah takes the government; Psalm 102, His rejection, and divine perpetuity; and then the earth, and Israel had mercy and restoration through trial. Psalm 107 begins the last supplementary Book.

In the third Book, it is properly Israel and promises to Israel, Kol Israel (all Israel) shall be saved. Hence the prayers of the son of Jesse were ended, in Psalm 72, in the glory of Solomon, i.e., the millennial Christ. These Psalms, i.e., of Book 3, are, save the three last, not of David, and there is all the difference of One who feels Himself the Centre of the people, identifies Himself with them, bears their interests, their sorrows in His own Person. There are, in many respects, the same interests, but viewed as those of the people, not "my sins," "my foolishness" (surely He hath borne "our"). It is the general deliverance of Israel, and sung with holy interest by One interested therein, who is to have the deliverance, but does not take all into His own Person. He rehearses the ways of God, the acts of the enemy, and that with details of history, as Psalms 78 and 79; we have the conduct of Ephraim, and the subsequent election of Judah and Zion and David, and the desire that God would be with them as in the cloud in the wilderness. They go up to Jerusalem, and the captivity of Jacob is brought back. Faithfulness and mercy are the foundations of their hopes, as Psalms 85 and 89, only, as we have said, in Psalms 86-88, in the first we have His own Person as the Centre of Israel's hopes presented intercessionally before the Lord - in Psalm 87, Zion is set up, and in recounting the glories of cities and empires, she is celebrated in this, that in writing up the divine register, this Man is counted to be born there - in Psalm 88, we have the Lord, I believe, suffering the judgment of Israel as, under the terms of Jehovah, condemned under the guilt of death. The wrath of God was upon Him, and death, as such, upon His soul; see Psalm 86:13. It is another point of view of the death of the blessed Lord looked at as associated with Israel; hence also it is in the mouth probably of Heman, not of David, as expressive still of the life of faith, whatever His sorrow, though I do not absolutely rest in the titles.

162 From Psalms 73 to 89 we have Israel viewed as a nation, not the Jews; and, moreover, the circumstances in Zion, not the Remnant driven out. Still Antichrist seems to be in Jerusalem. It is the Spirit of Christ judging and pleading then for all through the history, not as the Remnant fled in the evil day. Psalm 73 explains the whole experience of the Remnant in this respect - "God is good to Israel, but as for me, my feet were almost gone" - but "good to such as are of a clean heart," He is just in His goodness, i.e., consistent with His character.

- 10. This verse discovers this trying circumstance - that, in consequence of the unhumbled boastings of the enemies of God, the foolish and wicked full of prosperity, as yet untouched, God's people (so Israel is here viewed in mass) join the ungodly, their heart not being for God, saying, "How doth God know?" - comparing the consequence of their being as they supposed, and formally, God's people, to wit, chastisement and the untouched prosperity of those who did not care for God "They say" reaches, I apprehend, to the end of verse 14, but, where the Spirit of God was, there was that which stopped saying thus. But there was no understanding. It perplexed the spirit. The sanctuary of God alone gave the secret - they are "in slippery places" till Jehovah awakes, then there is an end of them; yet, verses 21-23, though so foolish, this poor Remnant, who in darkness and trial wait for the revelation of the sanctuary, was kept and held up by God - very foolish, but with God in spirit, and preserved.

- 24. Why this is translated "Afterward receive me to glory," I know not. It is, "During this time of trial and desolation, thou wilt guide me; after glory thou wilt receive me." It is the same as in Zechariah 2:8. If akhar kavod (after the glory) may mean "according to," that may be, but simply it is, "After the glory of God has been manifested, thou wilt receive me."

- 25-28. This is the great result of the true people.

Psalm 74

This Psalm views the enemy prevailing, externally, in violence, breaking down the sanctuary and defiling it to the ground.

163  - 3. It is oyev (the enemy) who did this, but the zor'rim (enemies) are in the midst of the congregations - "they set up their signs for signs."

- 9. God's people had no signs.

- 10. Both characters of the enemy are introduced; in verses 18-20, the Lord, the covenant, and the beloved people are introduced.

- 12. The ancient deliverances of Israel having been mentioned, the enemy that reproaches Jehovah's name is oyev.

The character of Asaph's Psalms, exceedingly confirmed to me with that of the whole Book, has been noticed. It appears to me that this Psalm represents the position of the Remnant's understanding, upon the evil doings of the enemy (Antichrist), yet in the perception of the rising up of the tumult of all of them; but the reference of the believer is to God in it. It would appear the temple would be destroyed, quod nota. Though one as to hostility to the Jew, we may remark distinction in verses 3 and 4, "enemy"; also the last two verses seem to maintain the distinction; verses 18 and 22 again identify - the same thing as is also in verse 3. In that alone (v. 18) also is Jehovah brought in in respect of the reproach upon and blasphemy of His name. A "putting in remembrance is the tenor of this Psalm - a calling in God, in the spirit of intercession on the part of the Spirit representing the Jewish Remnant before God. The whole is exceedingly instructive in this light, as well as to the prophetic import.