J. N. Darby.
(Notes and Comments Vol. 4.)
Epiphaneia. Appearing. This word is 'appearance,' not 'revelation' as coming forth from being concealed, though necessarily in nature opposed, but the fact of being seen or visible.
As a verb:
See Luke 1:78, 79. "The dayspring from on high hath visited us, to 'shine upon' them that sit in darkness."
In Acts 27:20, it has the same sense. The stars did not 'appear' - 'shine,' Titus 2:11. "The grace of God . . . has 'appeared.'"
Titus 3:4. Kindness and philanthropy 'appeared.'
As a Noun:
2 Timothy 1:10. Grace given before the world, but made manifest (phanerotheisa) by the 'appearing' of Jesus.
2 Thessalonians 2:8, the 'appearing' of His presence.
1 Timothy 6:14, the 'appearing' of Jesus, which the only Potentate shall show.
2 Timothy 4:1. He shall judge the quick, and the dead, at His 'appearing' and His kingdom.
2 Timothy 4:8. A crown for those that love His 'appearing.'
Titus 2:13. Waiting for that blessed hope, and the 'appearing' of our great God and Saviour, Jesus Christ.
I conclude that it is the fact of His being seen, appearing as the sunshine. Christ has appeared in the world, and He will appear again, i.e., there will be a state of things in which He will not be hid, nor non-existent but to faith, but apparent. But epiphaneia (appearing) is not the act of coming forth as apokalupsis (revelation), but the state of shining forth so as to be visible. That will be true at the instant of His phanerosis (manifestation) and of His apokalupsis, but it will continue to be true after, withal.
Phaneroo. To manifest, or bring to light.
Colossians 3:4. When Christ, our life, shall be 'manifested,' we also shall be 'manifested' with Him (now it is 'hidden with Him in God').
1 Peter 5:4. When the chief Shepherd shall be 'manifested,' ye shall receive a crown.
1 John 2:28. That when He shall be 'manifested,' we may have confidence.
1 John 3:2. That which we shall be has not yet been 'manifested,' but we know that when He shall be 'manifested,' we shall be like Him.
152 'Manifest' is in contrast with being previously hidden though in existence, though known to be so. It is applied to us only when our life is said to be 'hid with Christ in God.'
Luke 17:30. So shall it be when the Son of Man is 'revealed.'
1 Cor. 1:7. Awaiting the 'revelation' of our Lord Jesus Christ.
2 Thessalonians 1:7. When the Lord Jesus shall be 'revealed' from heaven, in flaming fire taking vengeance.
1 Peter 1:7. Shall be found to honour and praise at the 'revelation' of Jesus Christ.
1 Peter 1:13. The grace brought to you at the 'revelation' of Jesus Christ.
1 Peter 4:13. That when His glory shall be 'revealed,' ye may be glad.
Romans 2: 5. Some read "At the 'revelation,' and righteous judgment of God."
'Revelation' is rather of one who has title to appear in glory, and does so, to the confusion of those who have not owned the glory. Hence it is applied to judgment or glory. It is applied, as occasion of the general deliverance, to the saints, in Romans 8:19. It is a matter of display of something glorious. Phaneroo, brings to light, and is applied to sin. That which makes all things 'manifest' is light, for all things that can be reproved are made 'manifest' by the light; see 1 Corinthians 4:5; Luke 8:17, and Mark 4:22.
This word signifies 'presence with' in contrast with 'absence,' and the fact of becoming present after having been absent; see 1 Cor. 16:17; 2 Cor. 7:6. For the latter, see Philippians 2:12, also 2 Cor. 10:10; the former, but more usually in the New Testament, it is the latter. The two cited are the only two cases, that I am aware of, of the former use. As to the coming of Jesus:
153 Matthew 24:3, 27, 37, 39. The sign of Thy 'presence' - so shall the 'presence' of the Son of Man be (as lightning) - As the days of Noe, so shall be the 'presence' of the Son of Man - so shall also the 'presence' of the Son of Man be.
1 Cor. 15:23. They that are Christ's at His 'presence.'
1 Thess. 2:19. Are not ye before our Lord Jesus Christ, at His 'presence.'
1 Thess. 3:13. Establish your hearts unblameable in holiness before God, even our Father, at the 'presence' of our Lord Jesus Christ with all His saints.
1 Thess. 4:15. We which are alive and remain to the 'presence' of the Lord.
1 Thess. 5:23. Your body, soul and spirit may be preserved blameless in the 'presence' of our Lord Jesus Christ.
2 Thess. 2:1. Now we beseech you by the 'presence' of our Lord Jesus Christ.
James 5:7. Be patient till the 'presence' of the Lord.
2 Peter 1:16. Making known to you the power and 'presence' of our Lord Jesus Christ.
2 Peter 3:4. Where is the promise of His 'presence'?
2 Peter 3:12. Looking for and hasting unto the 'presence' of the day of God.
1 John 2:28. Not be ashamed before Him at His 'presence.'
'Presence' signifies, evidently, His presence in the scene in which our affections, fears, hopes, joys, and sorrows have their place, and may be affected by the fact of His presence or absence. When I say "Here he is," in English, it conveys a person's coming, though literally it affirms the fact of his being present; so parousia. Hence Christ's presence, in the creation, refers to the hopes and affections of the person who speaks of it - in general, His coming into the scene from whence He is now absent. If my soul is in heavenly thoughts, it meets Him there, if in earthly it meets Him there, and it is applied to both.