Notes and Comments Vol. 1.
J. N. Darby.
Civilisation is the artificial and polished life which arises from the elaborate development of skill, in which the faculties of men have been exercised, and in which men are associated, by common recognised rules, and where the mental faculties are in play, and can act reflectively on themselves, in contrast with men individually, or collectively acting from natural impulses and passions, and, at least in a greater degree, by means which nature affords. For the faculties exist in the savage, and the impulses and passions remain in the civilised, and, if let loose, unrestrained by common recognised rules, can use the means acquired by civilisation to satisfy them, as in revolution, war, etc.
Consequently in civilised society men are more dependent on each other, and more closely united; in savage life more personally free, and individualised, though man is naturally social, if not gregarious, for social is different from gregarious - supposing mind and speech.
As known in the world, civilisation supposes the fall, but so indeed does barbarism, though in a different way; in fact civilisation began, on man's being driven out from God, in Cain's family; Gen. 4:16-24. Adam in Paradise had no basis of civilisation, the simplicity of his life in innocence gave no occasion for it; what the effect of Genesis 1:28 might have been, supposing Adam had remained unfallen, can be only supposition. Barbarism was the natural effect of Adam's state when he had lost God, and civilisation is the effort to make, by the development of human faculties and the resources the earth furnished, the world pleasant without Him. What could a naked creature, thrown upon his own resources outside Paradise, be but a barbarian? - though the hunting state was a lower state when alone, and the means of life, but connected with natural energy as in Nimrod - though God had sent him out to till the ground, and clothed him with skins, not utter barbarism, but little more, only peaceful.
If we begin again with Noah, we get something more - barbarism was that into which men sank.
The earliest record language gives is a keeper of cattle; "daughter" means "one who milks the cows."