J. A. Trench.
Article 19 of 55 from 'Truth for Believers' Volume 2.
"The scapegoat shall bear upon him all their iniquities into a land not inhabited, and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness." Leviticus 16:22 brings before us one of the most striking types of the atoning work of Christ that the O.T. gives. It was the day of atonement, and there were two parts to it. First, that which was needed to make atonement for Aaron and his house, verses 3, 6, then also what was needed for the congregation of Israel. For the priestly house it was a young bullock for a sin-offering: for the congregation two kids of the goats. In the latter case lots were to be cast upon the goats — one for the Lord and the other for the scapegoat. The one upon which the Lord's lot fell was to be offered for a sin-offering. If we follow what took place with it we shall the better understand the significance of the scapegoat, and why there was nothing answering to it in the case of the priests. In both, the blood of the sin-offering having been shed outside the tabernacle had to be brought in within the veil and sprinkled upon the mercy-seat which covered the ark: it was where the glory of God abode in Israel. Once was enough for God who could estimate the value of the blood presented to Him in type, but it was His will that there should be the sevenfold sprinkling of it before the mercy-seat for Aaron to give him complete evidence that the need of God's glory having been met as to sin he might safely draw near to God. Aaron's eye rested where God's did, and that was enough for him. But for the sins of the people generally, what went on within the holiest was not within their ken. Yet all depended for them on the acceptance before the Lord of the blood of the goat upon which His lot had fallen. God had to be met for their sin according to all that He is in His own holiness and righteousness, in order that there might be the removal of their sins. The glory of God shining down upon the blood-stained golden mercy-seat was the beautiful expression in type of how He had been glorified by the propitiation work of Christ on the Cross as in Romans 3:22-26. But the people knew nothing of this till the high priest came out. Then he was to bring the live goat and lay both his hands upon its head and confess over it "all the iniquities of the children of Israel and all their transgressions in all their sins, putting them upon the head of the goat." We can picture the scene to ourselves as every eye in Israel, at least of any who believed God, would be fixed on the spot where the goat stood, and as the priest's lips moved to confess their sins they would know that that goat stood representatively before God as bearing their sins. And now if they could only ascertain what was done with the goat they would know what was done with their sins. How deeply they would be interested then in seeing the goat being led away by a responsible man into a land not inhabited so as not to be seen any more. They would know then that the sins of one year, at least, for anyone who believed God were gone from God's sight and mind.
Taken out of type we find the accomplishment of what the scapegoat represented in another aspect of the work of the Lord Jesus in His death and resurrection. Propitiation, as in the first goat whose blood was shed and sprinkled on the throne of the Lord in Israel, was world wide; and laid the ground in divine righteousness, not only for the passing over of the sins of past ages in God's forbearance, but for God now to be just and the justifier of any poor ungodly sinner that believes in Jesus. But now for the scapegoat we find the antitype in Christ having been delivered for our offences and raised again for our justification according to Romans 4:25. That is, as Isaiah 53 had foretold, where in repentance souls were brought to take the only true place for any of us before God, owning that "All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned everyone to his own way," then it became also true to such that "the Lord had laid on Him the iniquities of us all." And Peter, looking back on the wonderful accomplishment of the prophecy (1 Peter 2:24-25), can say, "Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree." The two goats were necessary to present to Israel in type, these two aspects of the work of the Lord Jesus. But how far does the glorious antitype exceed anything thus given them. For when the eye of faith looks back to see Christ as having borne my sins, all my sins, on the Cross; it can now look up to see Him risen and glorified at God's right hand. And as it says in 1 Corinthians 15:17, "If Christ be not raised, your faith is vain, ye are yet in your sins": we know that as He is risen, the faith of the simplest believer is not in vain — we are no longer in our sins. Moreover, for Israel the atonement in type was only available for one year, as we see in the last verse of Leviticus 16. But because of the infinite satisfaction found by God in the one perfect offering of Christ, our sins and iniquities are remembered no more: there is no more conscience of sins for the believer. (See Hebrew 10:1-18)
And thus is made good to us what only belonged to Aaron and his house in type in Leviticus 16, i.e. that not only are our sins gone by the work of Christ, but that we have unhindered access to God in the holiest. For Hebrew 10:19 goes on, "Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way which he hath consecrated for us through the veil, that is to say, his flesh, and having a great priest over the house of God, let us draw near." Thus we need the epistle to the Hebrews as well as that to the Romans to complete for us the instruction conveyed in the type of the great day of atonement in Leviticus 16. And I trust that no believer will be satisfied in merely seeing that his or her sins are gone for ever by what answers to the scapegoat — Christ as the substitute for His people — but will also realise by faith and the power of the Holy Spirit what is their portion now of access to God in the unclouded light of His own presence, which even could not be conveyed to Aaron when he went into the holiest made with hands with the blood of the bullock. For "the Holy Ghost this signifies that the way into the holiest was not yet made manifest, while as the first tabernacle was yet standing" (or literally "had its standing," Heb. 9:8). Now He signifies, as in Hebrews 10, that no veil exists any longer, nor any unsettled question of sin, to hinder our drawing near to the very presence of God. The blow of divine judgment, that, as it fell upon Christ for our sins, rent the veil that barred the way, has removed for ever the sins from before God, that would have hindered our availing ourselves of the opened way.
What blessed instruction the types afford us now that we have the key to all in the Person and work of Christ.