Bible Dictionary A 2

Age of Man.

From Adam to Noah men lived much longer than in the period that followed. Adam lived 930 years, Noah 950, and Methuselah 969, the longest recorded. After the flood, Shem lived 600 years, but no one after him reached 500. In Peleg is another decline, he lived 239 years; Abraham only 175 years. We can easily understand why God caused people in the early age of the earth to live so much longer than afterwards. God said to Adam "Be fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth." Gen. 1:28. He also said the same to Noah after the flood. Gen. 9:1, 7. When the earth became more and more peopled the life of man was shortened. The only intimation of what may perhaps now be called the normal longevity of man is in Ps. 90:10, and yet it is a lament for his short and troubled life: "The days of our years are threescore years and ten; and if by reason of strength they be fourscore years, yet is their strength labour and sorrow: for it is soon cut off, and we fly away." This is remarkable as being, according to the heading "A prayer of Moses the man of God," for of Moses we read that he lived 120 years, and "his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated," Deut. 34:7; but the Psalms were prophetic both for our, and future times, and Moses leads short-lived man to the eternity of God. (Ver. 2.) In the thousand years of the millennium apparently no one will die but the wicked, and one at a hundred years of age will be called a child: the days of God's people will be as the days of a tree, and they will, when the curse is removed, long enjoy the work of their hands. Isa. 65:20-22.

Agee. [A'gee]

The Hararite, father of Shammah, one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:11.

Agrippa. [Agrip'pa]

Grandson of Herod the Great. His early years were passed as a spendthrift and a wanderer, but at length being at Rome he contrived to win the favour of Caligula who on coming to the throne in A.D. 37, declared Agrippa to be the successor of' Philip the Tetrarch, who had died three years previously. By preferring charges against Antipas, who had married his sister Herodias, Agrippa, got this prince deposed and banished, and in A.D. 39 he succeeded him in the territories of Galilee and Peraea.  He was still a guest of Caligula at Rome when that tyrant was cut off in A.D. 41, and having used his influence in the election of Caligula's successor Claudius, this emperor not only confirmed the previous grants, but added those of Judaea, Samaria, and Abilene, so that his possessions were nearly identical with those of his grandfather Herod the Great. He was in these possessions when we read of him in the New Testament as 'Herod the king,' Acts 12.  He killed James the brother of John with the sword, and because he saw it pleased the Jews he seized Peter also. This happened about A.D. 43, and within a year the king, allowing himself to be called a god, was smitten by the Almighty and died a miserable death. The account given by Josephus as to Agrippa's administrative qualities, his exertions for the Jews whilst at Rome, and his desires to strengthen and embellish Jerusalem, may be true; but his seizing the apostles to please the Jews stamps him as one unfitted to rule, while his overweening pride in the last scene of his life made him the just object of the wrath of Him who will not give His glory to another.

Agrippa II [Agrip'pa II ]

Son of Agrippa I.  Being only 17 years old at his father's death, the emperor Claudius sent him to rule over the principality of Chalcis in the slopes of Lebanon until he should come of a age. He had been brought up at the court of Rome, and was attached to the Romans.  At the age of 21 Claudius gave him the tetrarchies of Trachonitis, Abilene, and other parts of the North East of Palestine. Nero afterwards gave him various cities. He is introduced in Acts 25:26, as king Agrippa, before whom Paul made his defence. Paul said of him that he was expert in all customs and questions which were among the Jews. The things concerning Christ's death had not been done in a corner, and the king knew of them. Paul knew also that he believed the prophets.  Agrippa said, "Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian." Paul, like a true evangelist, desired that Agrippa and all that heard him should be altogether such as he was, save his bonds. Agrippa had a long reign, and used his influence when the Jews were in rebellion against the Romans, to induce them to submit. While appealing to them at Gamala he was wounded by a stone cast from a sling. He survived the destruction of Jerusalem and died A.D. 100.

Ague, Burning.  Lev. 26:16.


Agur. [A'gur]

Son of Jakeh, and author of the sayings in Prov. 30: which he spake unto Ithiel and Ucal.  It was thought by many of the Fathers that this was a symbolical name for Solomon; but this is very improbable, as his father's name is given, and Solomon is described in the same book as son of David. The above names are omitted by the LXX.

Ah, Aha.

"An exclamation of joy, of terror, or of mockery." (Fürst.) Ps. 35:25; Ps. 40:15; Isa. 44:16; Jer. 22:18; Ezek. 25:3, etc.

Ahab. [A'hab]

1.  Son and successor of Omri, king of Israel. He married Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal king of the Zidonians, and under her influence became an idolater, and led Israel into the worship of Baal. Of him it is said, there was none like him in very abominably following idols. It was chiefly in his reign that Elijah the Tishbite laboured, and he testified for Jehovah against the apostasy and corruption of the king. The trial of fire from heaven is an especial instance of this, which was followed by the death of 450 of the prophets of Baal, 1 Kings 18:19-40, but there was no repentance in the king. Ahab made two attacks on Benhadad king of Syria and was helped by God so that he obtained the victory; on the second occasion instead of destroying Benhadad (whom the Lord had doomed to destruction) he made a treaty with him.

Ahab coveted the vineyard of Naboth, but on his refusal to part with the inheritance given by God to his fathers, Jezebel caused his death and bade Ahab take possession of the vineyard. Elijah met him there and declared that dogs should lick his blood where they had licked the blood of Naboth. The dogs should also eat Jezebel, and Ahab's house should be cut off. Ahab humbled himself before God, and the full end of his house was delayed till his son's days. After this Ahab made another attack upon Syria, and his 400 prophets foretold that he would be successful; and he, though warned of his danger by the prophet Micaiah, went into battle accompanied by Jehoshaphat king of Judah, his ally. He disguised himself, but an arrow, shot at a venture, smote him between the joints of his armour, and he was wounded to death, and the prediction of Elijah came literally to pass. 1 Kings 21, 22. Grace had lingered over this poor idolater, for he was an Israelite; but he died impenitent, and his whole house was soon to perish. 2 Kings 9:7-10. The judgement of God fell on the apostate king who had seized the inheritance of God's people.

2.  A false prophet among the captives of Babylon who prophesied a lie, and was roasted in the fire by Nebuchadnezzar. Jer. 29:21-22.

Aharah. [Aha'rah]

Third son of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:1. See AHIRAM

Aharhel. [Ahar'hel]

Son of Harum, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:8. The LXX has Rechab, the son of Jarin.

Ahasai. [Ahasa'i]

A priest, the son of Meshillemoth. Neh. 11:13.

Ahasbai. [Ahas'bai]

Father of Eliphelet. 2 Sam. 23:34.

Ahasuerus. [Ahasue'rus]

1.  Father of Darius, incidentally named in Dan. 9:1. It is supposed that the word Ahasuerus is an appellative, or official title, as Pharaoh was in Egypt, and that the person referred to is the Cyaxares of history, king of Media.

2.  Persian king to whom the enemies of the Jews made their accusation against those in Judah and Jerusalem. Ezra 4:6. He is supposed to be Cambyses, son of Cyrus.

3.  Persian king who "reigned from India even unto Ethiopia," and took the Jewish maiden Esther to be his queen. He is held to have been Xerxes, son of Darius Hystaspis. This was in the seventh year of his reign, the year when he returned from his unsuccessful expedition against Greece. His rash conduct in repudiating his queen because she would not violate the decorum of her sex, and his giving up the whole of the Jewish people to the pride of Haman, agrees with his folly in scourging the sea and putting the engineers to death because a storm injured the bridge they had made. See ESTHER.  For the succession of the Persian kings see PERSIA.

Ahava. [A'hava]

Place or river near which Ezra rested 3 days prior to his journey from Babylon to Jerusalem. Ezra 8:15, 21, 31. It has been thought to be the same as AVA and IVAH, and to be identified with Hit on the Euphrates, 33 35' N, 42 50' E.

Ahaz. [A'haz]

1.  King of Judah (B.C. 742-727), son and successor of Jotham (apparently, the same as ACHAZ in Matt. 1:9). He erected molten images for Baalim, made his children pass thorough the fire, and gave himself up to open idolatry. 2 Kings 16:2-20; 2 Chr. 28:2-27. Being harassed and weakened by Pekah king of Israel, Rezin king of Damascus, and others, he called to his aid Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, to whom he gave the treasures of Jerusalem; who after dispersing those who warred against Ahaz, himself 'distressed' him and made him tributary. This brought the great desolator of Israel, the Assyrian, into the land. Ahaz displaced the altar of burnt offering by one made like an altar he had seen at Damascus when on a visit to Tiglath-pileser. Isaiah was prophet in the days of Ahaz, but the king heeded not his instructions. The house of David was ripening for judgement: 120,000 were slain in one day and 200,000 women and children were carried to Samaria, but were released by means of Oded a prophet. God's mercy lingered over Judah, and to Ahaz was the sign given that "a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel." Isa. 7:14. Though all was failing in Judah as well as in Israel, God had One in prospect through whom blessing would be finally secured. Both in Kings and Chronicles it states that Ahaz was 20 years old when he began to reign, and he reigned 16 years; Hezekiah his son was 25 years old when he succeeded Ahaz. Apparently there is an error in the ages given: either Ahaz was older, or Hezekiah was not so old, for he would have been born when his father was 11 years of age. In one Hebrew MS, the LXX, etc., 25 years is given in the Chronicles as the age of Ahaz.

2.  Son of Micah. 1 Chr. 8:35.

Ahaziah. [Ahazi'ah]

1.  Son of Ahab and Jezebel. He reigned over Israel two years (B.C. 897-6) and did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, it being remarked of him that he walked in the way of his mother as well as of his father and of Jeroboam. He was a worshipper of Baal; and having injured himself by falling through a lattice he sent to inquire of Baal-zebub, the god of Ekron. Elijah met the messengers on their road, and turned them back with a message to Ahaziah, reproaching him with his impiety, and telling him he should not recover from his sickness. Ahaziah, on finding by the description the messengers gave that it was Elijah, sent a captain and fifty men to seize him. Elijah called down fire from heaven and they were consumed. Another fifty were sent and they also were consumed. The captain of the third fifty begged Elijah to spare their lives, which he did, and he went with them and delivered the message to Ahaziah. The prediction was verified and he died. The history of this king presents a sad picture of the state of idolatry and wickedness into which Israel had fallen, while professing to be God's people. 1 Kings 22:49, 51-53; 2 Kings 1:1-18; 2 Chr. 20:35.

2.  Son of Jehoram and Athaliah, daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, therefore nephew of the above. He succeeded his father as king of Judah, and reigned one year (B.C. 885). He did wickedly, his mother being his counsellor to his destruction. He formed an alliance with Joram king of Israel and went with him against Hazael king of Syria. Joram was wounded and went to Jezreel to be healed. Ahaziah afterwards went to visit Joram, and God caused his death by Jehu when he cut off the house of Ahab. 2 Kings 8:24-29; 2 Kings 9:16-29; 2 Chr. 22:1-9. He is called AZARIAH in 2 Chr. 22:6, and JEHOAHAZ in 2 Chr. 21:17. "In proper names," says Fürst, "those of cognate senses were often interchanged." In 2 Kings 8:26 he is said to be 22 years old when he began to reign; but in 2 Chr. 22:2 it says he was 42. The latter is doubtless a mistake of some copyist, for his father was only 40 years old when he died. 2 Chr. 21:5, 20. The Syriac and Arabic copies read 22 in both passages.

Ahban. [Ah'ban]

Son of Abishur of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:29.

Aher. [A'her]

Descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 7:12.

Ahi. [A'hi]

1.  Son of Abdiel, a descendant of Gad. 1 Chr. 5:15.

2.  Son of Shamer a descendant of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:34.

Ahiah. [Ahi'ah]

1.  Son of Ahitub, and priest in the days of Saul. 1 Sam. 14:3, 18

2.  Son of Shisha, and a scribe or secretary to Solomon. 1 Kings 4:3.

3.  Descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:7.

Ahiam. [Ahi'am]

Son of Sharar (Sacar, 1 Chr. 11:35), the Hararite. 2 Sam. 23:33; one of David's mighty men.

Ahian. [Ahi'an]

Son of Shemidah, a descendant of Manasseh. 1 Chr. 7:19.

Ahiezer [Ahie'zer]

1.  Son of Ammishaddai, and one of the princes of the tribe of Dan. Num. 1:12; Num. 2:25; Num. 7:66, 71; Num. 10:25.

2.  Benjamite, chief of the armed men that flocked to David at Ziklag 1 Chr. 12:3.

Ahihud. [Ahi'hud]

1.  Son of Shelomi, and prince of the tribe of Asher, chosen to arrange the division of the land. Num. 34:27.

2.  Descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:7.

Ahijah. [Ahi'jah]

1.  Prophet called the Shilonite, who foretold to Jeroboam that he should be king over ten of the tribes. 1 Kings 11:29-31. God revealed to him that the wife of Jeroboam was coming in disguise to know if their son Abijah would live, and Ahijah had to tell her the dire judgements that should fall upon Jeroboam and his house. 1 Kings 14:2-18; 1 Kings 15:29; 2 Chr. 9:29; 2 Chr. 10:15.

2.  Father of King Baasha, of the house of Issachar. 1 Kings 15:27, 33; 1 Kings 21:22; 2 Kings 9:9.

3.  One of the sons of Jerahmeel. 1 Chr. 2:25.

4. The Pelonite, one of David's valiant men. 1 Chr. 11:36.

5.  Levite, who was over the treasures of the house of God in the time of David. 1 Chr. 26:20.

6.  One who with Nehemiah sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:26.

Ahikam. [Ahi'kam]

Son of Shaphan the scribe, and one of those sent by Josiah to Huldah the prophetess to inquire of the Lord as to the book of the law that had been found. 2 Kings 22:12-22. He also served under Jehoiakim and shielded Jeremiah from death when he prophesied against the nation. He was father of Gedaliah whom Nebuchadnezzar made governor of the land. Jer. 26:24; Jer. 40:5-16; Jer. 41:1-16.

Ahilud. [Ahi'lud]

Father of Jehoshaphat the 'recorder' of David and Solomon, 2 Sam. 8:16; 2 Sam. 20:24; 1 Kings 4:3, 12; 1 Chr. 18:15, and father of Baana, one of Solomon's commissariat officers. 1 Kings 4:12.

Ahimaaz. [Ahi'maaz]

1.  Father of Ahinoam, wife of Saul. 1 Sam. 14:50.

2.  Son of Zadok the priest. 2 Sam. 15:27, 36. When Absalom revolted and David had to flee from Jerusalem, Zadok continuing true to David, returned to the city, and Ahimaaz, and Jonathan son of Abiathar, remained at En-rogel; to whom Zadok sent word of the counsel of Ahithophel and of Hushai by a 'wench,' and they hastened to David with the news. But a lad having seen the transaction, messengers were sent in pursuit. The spies however reached a house in Bahurim, and were hid in a well, corn being spread over the covering. Their pursuers were told that they had gone on their way. So they having searched for them in vain returned to Jerusalem. The spies then hastened to David, and reached him in safety. 2 Sam. 17:17-21. On the defeat and death of Absalom, Ahimaaz begged that he might run with the news to David. Joab at first refused; but after Cushi had started, he allowed Ahimaaz to go also; who, being swift of foot, reached David first and told him of the defeat of Absalom, but let Cushi tell of his death. 2 Sam. 18:19-29. We have no evidence of Ahimaaz succeeding to the priesthood. He may have died before his father.

3.  An officer of Solomon in Naphtali who married Basmath, daughter of Solomon. 1 Kings 4:15.

Ahiman. [Ahi'man]

1.  One of the three sons of Anak who dwelt in Hebron when the spies went up, Num. 13:22; and who were driven out by Caleb and slain by Judah. Joshua 15:14; Judges 1:10.

2.  A porter, of the children of Levi. 1 Chr. 9:17.

Ahimelech. [Ahim'elech]

1.  Priest at the time the ark was at Nob. He received David when fleeing from Saul, gave him the showbread and the sword of Goliath. This being reported to Saul by Doeg the Edomite, Ahimelech and the other priests were put to death, Abiathar alone escaping. 1 Sam. 21:1-8; 1 Sam. 22:9-20; Ps. 52. title.

2.  Son of Abiathar, 2 Sam. 8:17; called ABIMELECH in 1 Chr. 18:16.  See ABIATHAR

3.  A Hittite, companion of David when persecuted by Saul. 1 Sam. 26:6.

Ahimoth. [Ahi'moth]

Son of Elkanah, of the house of Kohath. 1 Chr. 6:25.

Ahinadab. [Ahin'adab]

Son of Iddo, and one of Solomon's commissariat officers at Mahanaim. 1 Kings 4:14.

Ahinoam. [Ahin'oam]

1.  Daughter of Ahimaaz and wife of Saul. 1 Sam. 14:50.

2.  David's wife a woman of Jezreel: she accompanied David in his flight from Saul; and, while residing at Ziklag, was taken captive when the city was burned by the Amalekites; but was recovered. 1 Sam. 25:43; 1 Sam. 27:3; 1 Sam. 30:5, 18. She was with David when he came to the kingdom, and while at Hebron bare to David, Amnon his first-born. 2 Sam. 2:2; 2 Sam. 3:2.;1 Chr. 3:1.

Ahio. [Ahi'o]

1.  Son of Abinadab, and who with his brother Uzzah drove the cart on which was the ark of God when Uzzah was struck dead. 2 Sam. 6:3-4; 1 Chr. 13:7.

2.  Son of Beriah a descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:14.

3.  Son of Jehiel, descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:31; 1 Chr. 9:37.

Ahira. [Ahi'ra]

Son of Enan and captain of the tribe of Naphtali. Num. 1:15; Num. 2:29; Num. 7:78, 83; Num. 10:27.

Ahiram, [Ahi'ram] Ahiramites. [Ahiram'ites]

Son of Benjamin, and his descendants, Num. 26:38. Ahiram is perhaps the same as EHI in Gen. 46:21, and the same as AHARAH in 1 Chr. 8:1.

Ahisamach. [Ahis'amach]

Father of Aholiab, of the tribe of Dan. Ex. 31:6; Ex. 35:34; Ex. 38:23.

Ahishahar. [Ahish'ahar]

Son of Bilhan, a descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 7:10.

Ahishar. [Ahi'shar]

A prince 'over the household' of Solomon. 1 Kings 4:6.

Ahithophel. [Ahith'ophel]

A Gilonite, grandfather of Bathsheba, and a very wise counsellor of David, of whom it is said that all his counsel was "as if a man had inquired at the oracle of God." He joined in the rebellion of Absalom, and advised him to go in publicly to David's concubines, and to let him make an immediate attack on David. The latter counsel not being followed, and a preference being given to the advice of Hushai, who was acting for David, Ahithophel returned to his house, set his household in order, and hanged himself. 2 Sam. 15:12-34; 2 Sam. 16:15-23; 2 Sam. 17:1-23; 2 Sam. 23:34. He has generally been taken as foreshadowing Judas of the N.T.: cf. Ps. 41:9; Ps. 55:12.

Ahitub. [Ahi'tub]

1.  Son of Phinehas, and grandson of Eli. 1 Sam. 14:3; 1 Sam. 22:9, 11, 12, 20.

2.  Son of Amariah, and father of Zadok. 2 Sam. 8:17; 1 Chr. 6:7-8, 52; 1 Chr. 18:16.

3.  Son of another Amariah, and father of another Zadok, several generations later than No. 2.  1 Chr. 6:11-12; Ezra 7:2.

4.  Father of Meraioth, and "ruler of the house of God." 1 Chr. 9:11; Neh. 11:11.

Ahlab. [Ah'lab]

City in Canaan, the inhabitants of which Asher failed to drive out. Judges 1:31. It has been identified with el-Jish, 33 2' N, 35 26' E.

Ahlai. [Ah'lai]

1.  Daughter of Sheshan. 1 Chr. 2:31.

2.  Father of Zabad. 1 Chr. 11:41.

Ahoah, [Aho'ah] Ahohites. [Aho'hites]

Grandson of Benjamin, and founder of the Ahohites. 2 Sam. 23:9, 28; 1 Chr. 8:4; 1 Chr. 11:12, 29; 1 Chr. 27:4.

Aholah. [Aho'lah]

Ezekiel uses this name, signifying 'her own tent or tabernacle,' for a symbolical harlot to represent Samaria, upon whom he charges gross profligacy: only to be exceeded by Aholibah, her yet more guilty sister Jerusalem. The prophet was charged to declare unto them their abominations, which he goes on to describe, and their predicted destruction. Ezek. 23:4-44.

Aholiab. [Aho'liab]

Son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, "an engraver, and a cunning workman and an embroiderer," in whom God put wisdom, that he might take the oversight with Bezaleel of the formation of the tabernacle. Ex. 31:6; Ex. 35:34; Ex. 36:1-2; Ex. 38:23.

Aholibah. [Aho'libah]

A symbolical harlot to represent Jerusalem: sister to Aholah, symbolical of Samaria. Jerusalem is said to exceed Samaria in her profligacy. She was warned without success, and her downfall was predicted. The name signifies 'my tent or tabernacle is in her.' Ezek. 23:4-44.

Aholibamah. [Aholiba'mah]

1.  One of the wives of Esau: she was the daughter of Anah, daughter of Zibeon the Hivite. She bare to Esau "duke Jeush, duke Jaalam, duke Korah." Gen. 36:2-25. See BASHEMATH.

2.  A duke of Edom. Gen. 36:41; 1 Chr. 1:52.

Ahumai. [Ahu'mai]

Son of Jahath, of the family of the Zorathites. 1 Chr. 4:2.

Ahuzam. [Ahu'zam]

Son of Naarah, wife of Ashur. 1 Chr. 4:6.

Ahuzzath. [Ahuz'zath]

Friend of Abimelech, king of the Philistines, who came with him to make a covenant with Isaac. Gen. 26:26.

Ai, [A'i] Hai. [Ha'i]

1.  Royal city of Canaan. It was known to Abraham, who pitched his tent between Hai and Bethel. Gen. 12:8. It was conquered by Joshua — after a repulse because of the sin of Achan — by a stratagem; it was burnt and made a 'heap.' Joshua 7:2-5; Joshua 8:1-29; Joshua 10:1-2. It was near Bethel, in Benjamin's lot, and apparently rebuilt, for it is mentioned in Ezra 2:28; Neh. 7:32. It is probable that the AIATH of Isa. 10:28 and the AIJA of Neh. 11:31 are the same as Ai, by the places named in association with them. In the district there are ruins scattered along the narrow summit of a ridge, and a depression among the rocky heights well suited for an ambuscade such as Joshua employed. The ruins are called Haiyan, 31 55' N, 35 16' E.  Travellers say that when on the spot, the Biblical narrative of the capture of Ai can be vividly realised.

2.  City of the Ammonites, unknown. Jer. 49:3.

Aiah. [A'iah]

1.  A son of Zibeon, 1 Chr. 1:40: called AJAH in Gen. 36:24.

2.  Father of Rizpah, Saul's concubine. 2 Sam. 3:7; 2 Sam. 21:8, 10, 11.

Aiath. [Ai'ath]

Isa. 10:28. See AI.

Aija. [Ai'ja]

Neh. 11:31. See AI.

Aijalon. [Ai'jalon]


Aijeleth Shahar. [Ai'jeleth Sha'har]

This occurs in the title of Ps. 22: and signifies 'the hind of the morning,' margin. May not its reference be to the resurrection of the Lord after the cross? The Targum explains it as signifying 'the morning oblation of the lamb.' If this is correct, the offering of the lamb stands in strong contrast to the 'bulls of Bashan ' roaring like a lion, and 'the dogs' that compassed the patient victim in the Psalm. Modern critics see nothing more in the words than the name of some tune to which the Psalm was set.


The word ain signifies an 'eye,' or 'a fountain;' it is often used as a prefix, and signifies a fountain of living water in distinction from a well, cistern or tank. It is mostly represented by the prefix EN.

1.  Ain, a fountain in the extreme north. There is a fountain still called Ain el-Asy, ten miles S.W. of the ancient Riblah. Num. 34:11.

2.  One of the Levitical cities in the south. It was originally given to Judah but afterwards allotted to Simeon. Joshua 15:32; Joshua 19:7; Joshua 21:16; 1 Chr. 4:32. In 1 Chr. 6:59 the margin intimates that ASHAN is the same as Ain as a Levitical city, although in 1 Chr. 4:32 Ain and Ashan are both mentioned.


1.  ἀήρ, the fluid that we breathe, and which surrounds the earth. There are two remarkable references to the air: one, that at the Rapture of the saints the raised dead and the living will be caught up into the clouds, and will meet the Lord in the air, 1 Thess. 4:17, in the same sphere in which the Lord disappeared at His ascension. The other is that Satan is called the prince of the power of the air, Eph. 2:2, doubtless referring to the permeating character of the air, which we not only breathe, but it fills our houses and enters everywhere. When the air is tainted with malaria it permeates everywhere and poisons everything; so Satan has such power that his poisonous spirit morally contaminates everything in the world, of which he is the god.

2. οὐρανός, literally 'heaven' translated 'air' only in reference to the birds and fowls. Matt. 8:20, etc.

Ajah. [A'jah]

Ajalon [A'jalon ] Aijalon. [Ai'jalon]

1.  Levitical city of the Kohathites. It was in the lot of Dan, Joshua 21:24; but being a border city it is also connected with Benjamin, 1 Chr. 8:13; or with Ephraim, 1 Chr. 6:69; or with Judah and Benjamin, when Rehohoam fortified the city. 2 Chr. 11:10. It was taken by the Philistines in the reign of Ahaz. 2 Chr. 28:18. THE VALLEY OF AJALON is the place where Joshua, when pursuing the Amorites, bade the sun and the moon stand still. Joshua 10:12. The city is identified with the modern Yalo, 31 51' N, 35 1' E.

2.  Place in Zebulun where Elon one of the judges of Israel was buried.  Judges 12:12.

Akan. [A'kan]

Son of Ezer, a descendant of Esau. Gen. 36:27.  Same as JAAKAN and JAKAN.

Akkub. [Ak'kub]

1.  One of the sons of Elioenai, a descendant of David, 1 Chr. 3:24.

2.  A 'porter' in the companies of the children of Levi, 1 Chr. 9:17, whose descendants returned from exile. Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45; Neh. 11:19; Neh. 12:25.

3.  One of the Nethinim. Ezra 2:45.

4. One who "caused the people to understand the law" on the return from exile. Neh. 8:7.

Akrabbim. [Akrab'bim]

Ascent or mountain pass at the south of the Dead Sea, which formed the border of Palestine, and was also the 'coast' of the Amorites. Num. 34:4; Judges 1:36. Also called MAALEH-ACRABBIMM in Joshua 15:3. Supposed to be some miles south of the Dead Sea, but the spot has not been identified.


A valuable calcareous spar, a hydro-sulphate of lime, used by the ancients for making vessels to hold valuable ointments. It is probable that 'breaking' ' the box means breaking the seal, to open the box. Matt. 26:7; Mark 14:3; Luke 7:37.

Alameth. [Al'ameth]

Son of Becher, a descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 7:8.

Alammelech. [Alam'melech]

City on the border of Asher. Joshua 19:26.

Alamoth. [Al'amoth]

Translated by the LXX, ἐπὶ ἀλαιμώθ, and in nablis arcana cantabant, Vulg. in 1 Chr. 15:20; ὑπὲρ τῶν κρυφίώ, pro arcanis, Ps. 46: title. The meaning of the word is unknown, and this ignorance is confirmed by the efforts to translate the word in the versions. The word is supposed to be derived from 'a virgin,' and may therefore signify soprano voices.

Alemeth. [Al'emeth]

1.  Benjamite city assigned to the priests. 1 Chr. 6:60. Called ALMON in Joshua 21:18. Identified with Almit, 31 49' N, 35 16' E.

2.  Descendant of Jonathan, son of Saul. 1 Chr. 8:36; 1 Chr. 9:42.

Alexander the Great.  [Alexan'der the Great]

This conqueror is not mentioned by name in scripture, but his kingdom is certainly referred to in prophecy, principally in Daniel, some 200 years before he was born. It is first spoken of as a part of the great image seen in a dream by Nebuchadnezzar; it is foreshadowed by the belly and thighs, which are of brass, a depreciation in the character of the kingdom in comparison with the empires of Babylon and of the Medes and Persians, though it was larger in extent: it "shall bear rule over all the earth." Dan. 2:32, 39. It is also compared to a leopard which had four heads and four wings of a fowl. The leopard is distinguished for its blood-thirstiness and tearing its prey : this indeed magnifies the contrast in the millennium when it will lie down with the kid. Isa. 11:6. Also remarkable for its swiftness of action: 'their horses also are swifter than the leopards.' Habakkuk 1:8. These characteristics exactly agree with the character and actions of Alexander. The four heads and four wings refer to the extension of the kingdom to the four winds of heaven, as it was divided among four of his generals after his death. Dan. 7:6. Again in Dan, 8., where the kingdom of Media and Persia is compared to a ram, Greece is compared to a he goat, with a great horn, which is its first king, Alexander, Dan. 8:21. Here again we get his character described: so swift that he 'touched not the ground,' he rushed against the ram 'with choler,' cast him to the ground and stamped upon him.  Dan. 8:5-8. In Zech. 6:2-3, the four great monarchies are alluded to, and the third, the kingdom of Greece, is compared to a chariot with white horses.

Alexander the Great, son of Philip II. and Olympias, was born at Pella B.C. 356; became king of Macedon on the assassination of his father in 336: subdued the Greeks in 335; defeated the Persians, 334; took Tyre; conquered Syria and Egypt, and founded Alexandria 332; defeated Darius in 331; conquered Parthia, Media, Bactria, and invaded India, 330-324, sought fresh conquests, but died at Babylon in 323. These dates show the rapidity of his conquests, agreeing with the above scriptures. As to his cruelty let one instance suffice: at the capture of Tyre which then belonged to Persia, provoked by the long resistance and valiant defence, 8,000 of the inhabitants were massacred, 2,000 being crucified: of the rest, except those who escaped by sea, 30,000 were sold into slavery, the king and the chief magistrates were spared, doubtless as trophies. This was the work of the 'leopard' of scripture. While besieging Tyre Alexander sent to demand the submission of the Jews; but was told they were faithful vassals of Darius. After the conquest of Gaza, the conqueror marched to Jerusalem. The high priest Jaddua, being warned of God in a vision, hung the city with garlands and went forth in his robes with the other priests and the people in white to meet the king. On seeing these Alexander was arrested, fell to the ground and then embraced the high priest. In reply to an astonished courtier, Alexander said he did not worship the priest, but the name on his frontlet, and explained that he had seen in a vision a figure resembling this very priest, who told him to conquer Persia. He granted the Jews in Palestine, Media and Babylonia the free enjoyment of their laws and exemption from tribute during the Sabbatical year. Such is a rapid sketch of how prophecy and history agree. The empire of Greece had thus to do with God's ancient people the Jews, and formed a link in the chain of kingdoms until the Messiah Himself appeared and laid the foundation for His kingdom that shall endure for ever.

Alexander. [Alexan'der]

1.  Son of Simon, the Cyrenian who was compelled to carry the cross of the Lord. Mark 15:21.

2.  One of the leaders among the Jews when Peter and John were arrested. Acts 4:6.

3.  A Jew at Ephesus who sought to address the crowd in the theatre. Acts 19:33.

4.  One in the church who having made shipwreck of faith was by Paul delivered unto Satan that he might learn not to blaspheme. 1 Tim. 1:20.

5.  The coppersmith who did Paul much evil, and of whom Timothy was warned. 2 Tim. 4:14. He may have been the same as No. 4.

Alexandria. [Alexan'dria]

The city which Alexander the Great built with the object of its being the capital of the western empire. It was founded in B.C. 332, and was completed by the Ptolemies, who added to its wealth and splendour. It became very populous and a place of great commerce. Learning was cultivated and a famous library was collected. It was there that the translation of the LXX was made which supplied the many Jews who resided there with the O.T. in Greek, a language with which most of them were familiar. The city is identified with the modern well-known city of the same name, on the Mediterranean. It is only alluded to in the N.T. as being the birthplace of Apollos, who became companion of Paul, Acts 18:24; and as the city to which certain ships belonged or from whence they sailed. Acts 27:6; Acts 28:11. Tradition relates that the apostle Mark was the first to introduce Christianity into Alexandria. The church there occupied an important position in after years, but not always to its credit.

Alexandrians. [Alexan'drians]

The Jews of Alexandria, who had a synagogue at Jerusalem. Acts 6:9.

Algum Trees, Almug Trees.

By comparing 1 Kings 10:11 with 2 Chr. 9:10-11, it is clear that the two names refer to the same tree; it came from the same place, Ophir, and was used for the same purposes, namely, pillars or props, terraces or stairs, harps and psalteries. 2 Chr. 2:8 presents a difficulty, for it seems to say that algum trees came from Lebanon, and the same trees could scarcely be indigenous to places so dissimilar as Lebanon and Ophir. In the last passage the several trees sent by Huram may be named together without meaning that they were all cut from Lebanon. It is supposed that the sandal wood is referred to. Josephus describes this wood as peculiar pine, not like those called pine in his days: to the sight it was like the wood of the fig tree, but whiter and more shining. Ant. viii. 7. 1.

Aliah, [Ali'ah] Alvah. [Al'vah]

One of the dukes of Edom. Gen. 36:40; 1 Chr. 1:51.

Alian, [Ali'an] Alvan [Al'van]

A Horite, a descendant of Seir. Gen. 36:23; 1 Chr. 1:40.


The word ἀλληγορέω occurs only in Gal. 4:24. The passage does not mean that Abraham having two sons was an allegory: it was history, but that history had an allegorical application, which Paul, by the Holy Ghost, fully explains. The Greek word signifies 'to speak otherwise,' and an allegory is a description of one thing under the image of another.


The word ἀλληλούι>α occurs in the LXX, answering to the Hebrew word halal in the Psalms translated 'praise ye the Lord.' It is an ascription of praise to God. In Rev. 19:1, 3, 4, 6 the praise is heard in heaven: through mercy the saint learns to raise his Hallelujah on his way thither.


On the Israelites entering into Canaan they were forbidden to make any league with the people of the land, they were not to show them any mercy, nor to make any marriages with them, Deut. 7:2-3; and later, when Joshua was about to die, he said to them, that with the nations that were still left they were to make no marriages, nor to go in unto them. If they did, God would drive out no more of the nations, and they would be snares and traps unto them, and scourges in their sides and thorns in their eyes. Joshua 23:12-13. Joshua and the princes of Israel were, alas, deceived by the Gibeonites, and without seeking counsel of God they made a covenant with them. Joshua 9:3-21. The failure of the Israelites in this particular (cf. Ezra 9, 10 ; Neh. 13.) is typical of the church making alliances with the world which have so sadly dimmed and destroyed the testimony which should have been borne by a heavenly people.

Allon. [Al'lon]

The word allon is held to signify a strong and hardy tree, especially 'the oak,' as the word is translated in several passages.

1.  Place in Naphtali, Joshua 19:33 ; or perhaps it may read, 'from the oak at Zaanannim,' referring to some well-known old tree.

2.  Chief of a family descended from Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:37.

Allonbachuth. [Al'lon-bac'huth]

Name given to the oak, beneath which Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, was buried. Gen. 35:8.


The learned are not agreed as to the derivation of the word shaddai and its signification: some giving it as 'all bountiful,' others 'all sufficient,' 'all mighty,' etc. This is not at all surprising, for any name of God must be above mere human learning or definition, yet it was the ground of faith to those who had the revelation. The name first occurs in Gen. 17:1; God said to Abraham "I am the Almighty God."  This links it with the Patriarchs: it is the name by which God was known to them; and except to them, and in Job where it occurs very often, it is seldom found in the O.T. The title 'the Almighty' without the name of God being added, occurs first in Jacob's address to his twelve sons before he died: the blessings upon Joseph were to be by "'the Almighty,' . . . . blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep that lieth under, blessings of the breasts and of the womb." Gen. 49:25. Balaam uses the name in Num. 24:4; Naomi also in her lamentations. Ruth 1:20-21. See also Ps. 68:14; Ps. 91:1; Isa. 13:6; Ezek. 1:24; Ezek. 10:5; Joel 1:15.

In the N.T. the name Lord Almighty occurs in 2 Cor. 6:18 in a quotation from Jeremiah, and a few times in the Revelation, but only once as 'the Almighty' in Rev. 1:8: "I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty." On the whole it is clear that the name was one of special relationship with the Patriarchs as that of Jehovah was with Israel . This is plainly declared: "I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob by the name of GOD ALMIGHTY; but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them." Ex. 6:3. That of Father is now the revealed name of God by which Christians know Him, being brought by the work of Christ and through the operation of the Spirit into the relationship of children, and of sons. See John 20:17; 1 John 3:1; Gal. 4:4-5.

The name Almighty will appear again when God works out his purposes in power and judgement. It was revealed in connection with promises made in time, as Father is in connection with eternal counsels. The four living creatures cry day and night "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come." Rev. 4:8. See also Rev. 21:22.

Almodad. [Almo'dad]

Son of Joktan, a descendant of Shem. Gen. 10:26; 1 Chr. 1:20.

Almon. [Al'mon]

Joshua 21:18.  See ALEMETH.

Almondiblathaim. [Al'mon-diblatha'im]

Num. 33:46-47. One of the latest encampments of the children of Israel. The one after Dibon-gad, which has been identified with Dhiban in the north border of Moab, 31 30' N, 35 48' E.

Almond, Almond Tree.

The tree and its fruit are represented by the same word. It is derived from a root signifying 'to hasten,' which is appropriate, seeing it is the first tree to break out into blossom, as a forerunner of spring. The meaning is confirmed by Jer. 1:11-12 where the prophet saw an almond tree, and Jehovah said, "Thou hast well seen: for I will hasten my word to perform it." The bowls of the golden candlestick were to be made like almonds. Ex. 25:33-34; Ex. 37:19-20. Aaron's rod budded, blossomed, and yielded almonds in one night, Num. 17:8: beautiful type of the coming of the Lord Jesus out of His grave perfect for His priestly functions. In Ecc. 12:5, when everything seems to be decaying instead of 'the almond tree shall flourish,' it may be translated 'the almond tree shall be despised;' others say, 'cause loathing;' others prefer to compare the almond tree to the white head of an old man hastening to the grave.


Offerings given to the poor. It was righteous to do so: hence, giving to the poor is called righteousness. Ps. 112:9; 2 Cor. 9:9. In the law provision was made for the poor. Ex. 23:11; Lev. 19:10. It is declared that the poor would never cease out of the land; and if not relieved and they cried to the Lord, it would be accounted a sin against those who should have aided them. Deut. 15:7-11. On the other hand, we read that "he that hath pity upon the poor lendeth to the Lord, and that which he hath given will he pay him again." Prov. 19:17. In the N.T. the same thing is enforced. We are exhorted to do good unto all men, especially unto them of the household of faith. Gal. 6:10. "He that soweth sparingly shall reap also sparingly . . . . the Lord loveth a cheerful giver;" and whole chapters were written to stir up the saints to give liberally to the poor in Judaea. "It is more blessed to give than to receive."



Aloes, Lign-aloes.

The passages where aloes are mentioned clearly show that it was a highly odoriferous tree or wood, but it cannot be identified with certainty. Num. 24:6; Ps. 45:8; Prov. 7:17; Cant. 4:14. The ἀλόη was one of the perfumes which Nicodemus brought with which to embalm the body of our Lord. John 19:39. The common aloes being of a disagreeable odour makes the identification of the above more difficult. The agallochum is the aloe-wood of more recent times.

Aloth. [A'loth]

Place or district of Asher: perhaps the same as some unknown place called Baaloth, which the LXX read here, and the Vulg. Baloth. 1 Kings 4:16. The A.V. treats the B as a prefix, the R.V. has Bealoth.


The first letter of the Greek Alphabet, and which also signifies the numeral 1. A title or character of God and of Christ, which points to His eternity as 'the beginning,' 'the first,' the I AM. Rev. 1:8; Rev. 21:6; Rev. 22:13.  "I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end," or "the first and the last;" which is similar to a passage in Isa. 41:4: "I Jehovah, the first, and with the last; I am he."

Alphaeus. [Alphae'us]

1.  The father of one of the apostles named James. Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13.

2.  Father of Levi (or Matthew) the apostle. Mark 2:14.


A structure on which to offer sacrifices to God: imitated by the heathen in honour of their false gods. The first altar we read of was built by Noah on leaving the ark, on which he offered burnt offerings of every clean beast and clean fowl. Gen. 8:20. Abraham, Isaac and Jacob also built altars to the Lord: these would have been constructed of stone or earth, but it is remarkable that we seldom read of their offering sacrifices on them. At times it is simply said they built an altar unto the Lord and at other times they built an altar and called upon the name of the Lord. The altars appear to have been erected as places of drawing near to God, of which sacrifice was the basis.

Moses was told that in all places where God recorded His name they should build an altar of wood or of stone and offer thereon sheep and oxen for burnt offerings and peace offerings; but such altars if made of stone were not to be made of hewn stone; for had they lifted up a tool upon it, it would have been defiled. Ex. 20:25-26. There must be nothing of man's handiwork in approaching to God: a principle, alas, grossly violated in the professing church of God! It is added, "neither shalt thou go up by steps unto mine altar, that thy nakedness be not discovered thereon." Man's contrivance is here forbidden, for in divine things anything of his only manifests the utter shamelessness of that which springs from fallen nature: cf. Col. 2:20-23. When the tabernacle was made, minute instructions were given to Moses, and he was to make everything as had been shown him in the mount.

The Brazen Altar

was to be made of shittim wood overlaid with brass, whence its name; it was to be 3 cubits high and 5 cubits on each side.*  Ex. 27:1-8. In the temple built by Solomon this altar was made of brass, and was 10 cubits high and 20 cubits in length and breadth (same size as the holiest of all). 2 Chr. 4:1. See Ezek. 43:13-17 for the altar in the future temple. The brazen altar was also called "the altar of burnt offering:" on it a fire was constantly burning, Lev. 6:9, and on it the offerings were consumed, that is, on the 'grate' that was placed in its midst. It had horns at each of its corners, on which the blood of the sin offering was placed. Thither men fled for refuge and caught hold of the horns for safety. 1 Kings 1:50-51: cf. Ex. 21:14. The position of the brazen altar arrested the offerer as he entered the court, and pointed out that the only way of access to the Lord was by a sacrifice. Death must take place ere fallen man could enter the dwelling place of God.

 *The number 5 suggests responsibility thus 5 senses; 5 fingers, and 5 toes - man in exercise and responsibility. The ALTAR is the symbol of Christ and His work, which meets responsibility.

In the N.T. the principle is brought out, that to eat of a sacrifice manifests communion with the altar on which the sacrifice is made. So that one cannot drink the Lord's cup and the cup of demons, nor partake of the Lord's table and of the table of demons. 1 Cor. 10:18-21.

To the Hebrew believers it was said, "We have an altar whereof they have no right to eat which serve the tabernacle." Heb. 13:10. This refers to the sin-offering, whose blood was carried into the holiest, the flesh of which was not eaten, but burnt without the camp. Jesus had suffered without the gate, and hence to be in company with Him, believers were instructed to quit the camp; that is, to leave Judaism. As still serving the tabernacle they had no right to the christian's altar.

In the Revelation there is the golden altar in heaven, and much incense ascends with the prayers of the saints; but fire from the brazen altar is cast upon the earth, and it is followed by judgements, Rev. 8:3-5: cf. also Rev. 9:13.  And John heard the altar say (as the passage should read) "Yea, Lord God Almighty, true and righteous are thy judgements," Rev. 16:7: this is no doubt the brazen altar, cf. chap. 6:9, and Isa. 6:6.

The Altar of Incense

was made of shittim wood, overlaid with pure gold. Ex. 30:1-5; Ex. 37:25-28. It was in length and in breadth 1 cubit, and in height 2 cubits. In Solomon's temple this altar was made of cedar overlaid with gold, but its size is not given.  In the temple described by Ezekiel the altar of incense is 2 cubits in length, and 3 cubits in height. Ezek. 41:22. The Altar of Incense is also called the GOLDEN ALTAR. Its situation was in the holy place, with the golden candlestick and the table of showbread. On this altar holy incense was to be burnt both morning and evening, typical of the Lord Jesus being a perpetual sweet savour to God. It was by the side of this altar that the angel appeared to Zacharias when he announced the conception and birth of John the Baptist. Luke 1:11.

Altar to the unknown God.

Whatever the origin of this inscription on the altar at Athens, it afforded the apostle Paul an admirable thesis for his discourse to the idolatrous Athenians. It was this very God he had come to reveal to them. Acts 17:23.

Altaschith. [Al-taschi'th]

Two Hebrew words untranslated in the titles of Psalms 57, 58, 59, and 75: reading in the margin 'destroy not,' and thus rendered in the LXX. The general thought is that reference is made to some air to which these Psalms were sung. The words, however, may have been taken from what David said in 1 Sam. 26:9, "Destroy him not."

Alush. [A'lush]

The station of the Israelites before Rephidim. Num. 33:13-14: not identified.

Alvah. [Al'vah]


Alvan. [Al'van]


Amad. [A'mad]

Town on the border of Asher. Joshua 19:26. It has been identified with el-Amud, 33 2' N, 35 8' E.

Amal. [A'mal]

Son of Helem, a descendant of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:35.

Amalek, [Am'alek] Amalekites. [Amal'ekites]

There is a difficulty connected with these names, seeing that we read of Amalekites in Gen. 14:7, some hundred years before Amalek, the son of Eliphaz and grandson of Esau, was born, Gen. 36:12. Whether all we read of the tribe after this refers to the descendants of Esau, or whether the more ancient people were amalgamated with them, is not known.

The tribe became numerous and warlike. The first we read of them is that they attacked Israel soon after they had passed the Red Sea. They were conquered, and God declared "I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven;" not that they were at once destroyed, but the Lord swore He would have "war with Amalek from generation to generation." Ex. 17:8-16. They dwelt in the south of the land, Num. 13:29, and Balaam called them "the first of the nations," but predicted that they should perish for ever. Num. 24:20.

When the Israelites, who, alas, disbelievingly agreed with the spies who had brought up the evil report of the land, were told they should all fall in the wilderness, they then said they would go up and possess it; but they were smitten by the Amalekites and the Canaanites. Several times in the period of the Judges war was made against them. Saul, as anointed king over the Lord's people, was bidden to destroy them utterly, but failed to answer to the Lord's vindication of His people: it was Samuel who cut Agag their king to pieces. 1 Sam. 14:48; 1 Sam. 15:1-33. In the early days of David he attacked the Amalekites, 1 Sam. 27:8; and again when they burned Ziklag and carried away the women and children, including David's two wives, he recovered all, and sent of the spoil to the elders of Israel. 1 Sam. 30:1-31. David dedicated their silver and gold unto Jehovah, 2 Sam. 8:12. In the days of Hezekiah the rest of the Amalekites were smitten by the sons of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:41-43. Among the nations confederated for Israel's destruction in Ps. 83: are the Amalekites.

We thus find that Amalek was the first to attack Israel, and continued an enemy ever ready to molest them when they were weak even until the days of Hezekiah, and they are found in the hostile confederacy at the close of their history: an apt type of Satan as the enemy of God's people.

Amam. [A'mam]

City in the south of Judah. Joshua 15:26: not identified.

Amana. [Ama'na]

Probably one of the peaks of the Anti-lebanon range, or a mountain near. Cant. 4:8. The LXX read 'from the top of Faith.'

Amariah. [Amari'ah]

1.  Son of Meraioth of the tribe of Levi. 1 Chr. 6:7, 52.

2.  Son of Azariah of the tribe of Levi. 1 Chr. 6:11 ; Ezra 7:3.

3.  Son of Hebron, a descendant of Kohath. 1 Chr. 23:19; 1 Chr. 24:23.

4.  Chief priest in the time of Jehoshaphat king of Judah. 2 Chr. 19:11.

5.  One of the Levites in the time of Hezekiah. 2 Chr. 31:15.

6.  One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:42.

7.  Priest who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:3.

8.  One whose descendants dwelt in Jerusalem after the return from exile. Neh. 11:4.

9.  Priest who had returned with Zerubbabel. Neh. 12:2, 13.

10.  An ancestor of Zephaniah the prophet. Zeph. 1:1.

Amasa. [Ama'sa]

1.  Son of Ithra, or Jether, by David's sister Abigail, whom Absalom in his revolt made captain of his army. David forgave him and promised him the command of the army, but he was treacherously slain by Joab. David left it to his son Solomon to revenge this act. 2 Sam. 17:25; 2 Sam. 19:13; 2 Sam. 20:4-12; 1 Kings 2:5, 32; 1 Chr. 2:17.

2.  An Ephraimite who resisted the bringing into Samaria prisoners from Judah. 2 Chr. 28:12-15.

Amasai. [Ama'sai]

1.  One or more descendants of Kohath. 1 Chr. 6:25, 35; 2 Chr. 29:12.

2.  Chief of the captains of those who resorted to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:18.

3.  Priest who helped to bring up the ark from the house of Obed-edom. 1 Chr. 15:24.

Amashai. [Amash'ai]

Priest who dwelt at Jerusalem after the return from exile. Neh. 11:13.

Amasiah. [Amasi'ah]

Son of Zichri, who willingly offered himself to the Lord in the time of Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr. 17:16.

Amaziah. [Amazi'ah]

1.  Son of Jehoash, or Joash, king of Judah, and who succeeded to the throne: he reigned 29 years, B.C. 839-810. He walked well at the commencement of his reign. He made war on the Edomites; 10,000 were slain, and 10,000 cast down from the top of the rock. But he brought back the gods of the children of Seir, and bowed down to them, whereby he fell under God's displeasure. He provoked a war with the king of Israel but was defeated, the treasures of Jerusalem were taken, and part of the city wall broken down. He was slain at Lachish whither he had fled from a conspiracy. 2 Kings 14:1-23 ; 2 Chr. 25:1-28.

2.  Descendant of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:34.

3.  Son of Hilkiah, a descendant of Merari. 1 Chr. 6:45.

4.  Israelite who was priest of the idol set up in Bethel. Amos 7:10-14.


There are three Hebrew words thus translated, signifying 'an interpreter,' 'a messenger.' They were not, as in modern times, residents in foreign lands, but were officers sent from one sovereign to another with any message of importance, or to negotiate matters of mutual interest. The men from Gibeon pretended to be ambassadors come from a distance to make an alliance with Israel. Joshua 9:4. Ambassadors came from Babylon to visit Hezekiah, 2 Chr. 32:31; and from the king of Egypt to Josiah. 2 Chr. 35:21. Such persons represented the kings who sent them, and, whatever the message, were usually treated with due respect. David severely resented the insult offered to the messengers sent by him in kindness to Hanun, king of the children of Ammon. 2 Sam. 10:1-14. In 2 Sam. 9 the kindness of God was accepted; here kindness was rejected. In the N.T. the apostles were ambassadors for Christ to a guilty world, to beseech their hearers to be reconciled to God. 2 Cor. 5:20; Eph. 6:20; and judgement will fall on those who obey not the gospel. 2 Thess. 1:8; 1 Peter 4:17.


Simply the persons sent as ambassadors, with attendants, and usually with presents. Luke 14:32.


This probably refers, not to the mineral now called 'amber, which is highly electric, as its Greek and Latin names imply — ἤλεκτρον, electrum; but to a mixed metal, such as the ancients described as composed of four parts of gold and one of silver. The Hebrew word is chashmal, and is associated with fire, and refers simply to its colour and brightness. Ezek. 1:4, 27; Ezek. 8:2.

Ambush, Ambushment.

A stratagem used in war of placing warriors in secret places, from which they can issue forth when least expected. Palestine with its many ravines and caves was well suited for such tactics. Joshua 8:2-22 ; 2 Chr. 13:13; 2 Chr. 20:22; Jer. 51:12.


A strong assertion of affirmation and assent. The first time we read of its use was when a woman was supposed to have been unfaithful to her husband and was made to drink the bitter water. The priest pronounced a curse upon her if she had been guilty, and the woman had to answer Amen, Amen. Num. 5:22. So when the priest upon mount Ebal rehearsed the various curses, it was appended to each "And all the people shall say, Amen." Deut. 27:14-26.

When David declared that Solomon should be his successor, Benaiah said "Amen: the Lord God of my lord the king say so too." 1 Kings 1:36. So when David brought up the ark, and delivered a psalm of thanksgiving, all the people said, Amen, and praised the Lord. 1 Chr. 16:36: cf. also Neh. 5:13; Neh. 8:6.

In one instance the exclamation does not signify more than 'may it be.' Hananiah prophesied falsely that within two full years all the vessels of the Lord's house would be returned from Babylon; Jeremiah said "Amen, the Lord do so;" though he knew it was a false prophecy he could well hope that such a thing might be. Jer. 28:6.

At the end of each of the first four books of the Psalms Amen is added. Ps. 41:13; Ps. 72:19; Ps. 89:52; Ps. 106:48. In these instances it is not another acquiescing in what is said, but the writer adds Amen at the end, signifying 'may it so be,' and three times it is repeated.

The Hebrew word is always translated 'Amen,' except twice in Isa. 65:16, where it is rendered 'truth.' "He who blesseth himself in the earth, shall bless himself in the God of 'truth ;' and he that sweareth in the earth, shall swear by the God of 'truth.' " And in Jer. 11:5, where it is translated 'So be it,' God declared that He would perform the oath that He had sworn, and the prophet answered, "So be it, O Lord." A cognate Hebrew word signifies 'to believe:' it is used in Gen. 15:6.

In the N.T. it is often added to the ascription of praise and to benedictions, as in Heb. 13:21, 25. As a response see 1 Cor. 14:16; Rev. 5:14; Rev. 7:12; Rev. 22:20. There is another way in which the word is used, as in 2 Cor. 1:20, "Whatever promises of God [there are], in him is the yea [the confirmation] and in him the Amen [the verification] for glory to God by us." And that Christ is the verification of all the promises is so true that He Himself is called 'the Amen:' " These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God." Rev. 3:14. As there are responses in heaven, as seen in some of the above texts, so there should be responses on earth in the assemblies of the saints, and not simply a hearing of prayer and praise. It is the word constantly used by the Lord, and translated 'verily.'


A precious stone in the third row of the breastplate of the high priest, Ex. 28:19; Ex. 39:12; and the twelfth stone in the foundations of the wall of the heavenly Jerusalem. Rev. 21:20. This gem is not definitely identified. It may be the purple variety of corundum, known as the oriental amethyst, or the transparent amethystine quartz which contains oxide of manganese and alumina. The Hebrew word is achlamah which is translated ἀμέθυστος in the above two passages in Exodus by the LXX, who also have the same in Ezek. 28:13, where there is nothing in the Hebrew.

Ami. [A'mi]

One of the servants of Solomon, whose posterity returned from exile. Ezra 2:57: called AMON in Neh. 7:59.

Aminadab. [Amin'adab]


Amittai. [Amit'tai]

Father of Jonah the prophet, of the tribe of Zebulon. 2 Kings 14:25; Jonah 1:1.

Ammah. [Am'mah]

Hill to which Joab pursued Abner and Abishai, it was 'before Giah by the way of the wilderness of Gibeon.'  2 Sam. 2:24.

Ammi. [Am'mi]

Name applied to Israel figuratively. It signifies, 'my people,' and is used with the negative in Lo-ammi (q.v.)  'not my people.'

Ammiel. [Am'miel]

1.  Chief man of the tribe of Dan sent to search the land. Num. 13:12.

2.  Father of Machir of Lo-debar. 2 Sam. 9:4-5; 2 Sam. 17:27.

3.  Father of Bath-shua (or Bathsheba) David's wife. 1 Chr. 3:5.  Called ELIAM in 2 Sam. 11:3.

4.  Levite, son of Obed-edom, a porter of the tabernacle. 1 Chr. 26:5.

Ammihud. [Ammi'hud]

1.  Ephraimite chief, father of Elishama. Num. 1:10; 1 Chr. 7:26.

2.  Simeonite chief, father of Shemuel. Num. 34:20.

3.  Chief of Naphtali, father of Pedahel. Num. 34:28.

4.  Father of Talmai, king of Geshur. 2 Sam. 13:37.

5.  Descendant of Pharez. 1 Chr. 9:4.

Amminadab, [Ammin'adab] Aminadab. [Amin'adab]

1.  Prince of the tribe of Judah, father of Naashon, Naasson, or Nahshon, and of Elisheba wife of Aaron.  Ex. 6:23; Num. 1:7; Num. 2:3; Num. 7:12; Num. 10:14; Ruth 4:19; 1 Chr. 2:10; Matt. 1:4; Luke 3:33.

2.  Levite, son of Kohath. 1 Chr. 6:22.

3.  Son of Uzziel, a Levite, who assisted to bring up the ark from the house of Oded-edom. 1 Chr. 15:10-11.

Amminadib. [Ammin'adib]

In the margin "my willing people" is read, which translation is preferred by others, and it is probable that no proper name is alluded to. Cant. 6:12.

Ammishaddai. [Ammishad'dai]

A Danite, father of Ahiezer, who was captain of the tribe in the time of Moses. Num. 1:12; Num. 2:25; Num. 7:66, 71; Num. 10:25.

Ammizabad. [Ammiz'abad]

Son of Benaiah, chief captain in David's army. 1 Chr. 27:6.

Ammon, [Am'mon] Ammonites, [Ammon'ites] Children of Ammon.

Ben-ammi was the son of Lot by his youngest daughter. "The same is the father of the children of Ammon." Gen. 19:38. His descendants were neighbours to Israel between the Arnon and the Jabbok on the east, and had much to do with Israel. God had bidden Moses not to touch the Ammonites, nor was their land to be possessed by Israel: it had been given to the children of Lot. Their city was Rabbath-ammon, perhaps their only city, as they were a nomadic people. None of the nation were to be allowed to enter the congregation of Israel to the tenth generation, that is, for ever. Deut. 23:3; Neh. 13:1. With Amalek they assisted the king of Moab against Israel, and Jericho fell into their hands. Judges 3:13. Israel served their gods, and God gave them up on both sides of the Jordan to serve the Ammonites. On Israel crying to Jehovah the children of Ammon were defeated under Jephthah. In the early days of Saul's reign they besieged Jabesh-gilead, and would only make peace on the condition that the right eyes of the inhabitants should be thrust out, in order that it might be a reproach on Israel; but Saul hastened to their aid, and routed the Ammonites. 1 Sam. 11:1-11; 1 Sam. 12:12. Their gold and silver taken in battle were dedicated by David to Jehovah. Their king insulted David's servants sent to show kindness to him, as the world refuses the kindness of God's king, and brings judgement upon it. 2 Sam. 10:1-10; 2 Sam. 11:1; 2 Sam. 12:26-31.

On the other hand, Shobi, of Rabbah, brought provisions when David fled from Absalom, 2 Sam. 17:27, and Zelek, an Ammonite, was one of David's thirty valiant men. Solomon loved some of their women, and the mother of his son Rehoboam was Naamah an Ammonitess. 1 Kings 14:21, 31. They molested Israel with varied success until the days of Jehoiakim: 2 Kings 24:2.  Lot being the father of both Moab and Ammon, it is not surprising that the Moabites were often linked with the Ammonites in their attacks upon Israel. Hatred of God's people united them in one common desire to cut them off from being a nation. Ps. 83:4-8. Tobiah, an Ammonite, was a troublesome adversary to the Jews on their return from captivity. Neh. 2:10, 19; Neh. 4:3, 7. Nevertheless the Jews intermarried with this nation, thus mixing 'the holy seed' with the people of the land. Ezra 9:1-2; Neh. 13:23-25.

The whole history supplies us with instruction as to the imperative necessity of keeping separate from the contaminations of the world in order to walk with God, and be blessed by Him.

When the king of the north, in a future day, shall enter into 'the glorious land,' Edom, Moab, and Ammon shall escape his hand, Dan. 11:41 ; they are reserved to be subdued by Israel, whom they seduced and persecuted in by-gone ages. Isa. 11:14.

Milcom and Molech were the gods of the Ammonites: to the worship of which Solomon had been seduced by his strange wives. 1 Kings 11:5, 7.

Amnon. [Am'non]

1.  Eldest son of David by Ahinoam: he was slain by Absalom for the violence done to his sister Tamar. 2 Sam. 3:2; 2 Sam. 13:1-29; 1 Chr. 3:1.

2.  Son of Shimon. 1 Chr. 4:20.

Amok. [A'mok]

Priest who returned with Zerubbabel. Neh. 12:7, 20.

Amon. [A'mon]

1.  The governor of Samaria in the time of Ahab. 1 Kings 22:26; 2 Chr. 18:25.

2.  Son and successor of Manasseh, king of Judah. He reigned but 2 years, B.C. 643-2. He did evil in the sight of the Lord, and served the idols which his father had set up. His servants conspired against him, and slew him in his own house. 2 Kings 21:18-25; 1 Chr. 3:14; 2 Chr. 33:20-25; Jer. 1:2; Jer. 25:3; Zeph. 1:1; Matt. 1:10.

3. Neh. 7:59.  See AMI

Amorites. [Am'orites]

A people descended from Canaan, son of Ham. Gen. 10:16, They dwelt in the mountains, as their name signifies, and were apparently at times in the mountains both east and west of the Jordan. Num. 13:29; Joshua 5:1; Judges 1:34-36; Judges 10:8; 1 Kings 4:19. Being the most dominant and the most corrupt people or tribe they sometimes represent the Canaanites generally. Gen. 15:16; 1 Kings 21:26. When Abraham was at Hebron some confederated with him. Gen. 14:13. A remnant out of the Gentile nations was thus associated with the heir of promise, though Lot (a type of Israel after the flesh) had separated from him.

When Israel approached the promised land, they were in the east, and refused to let Israel pass; but they were overcome, their cities taken, and the people slain, with Sihon their king. Num. 21:21-26; Deut. 2:24; Amos 2:9-10. Some must have escaped, for we read of them later, and one of the controversies Jehovah had with Israel was for worshipping their gods. Ezra 9:1-2. Solomon made them tributary. 1 Kings 9:20-21; 2 Chr. 8:7-8. The Gibeonites were a remnant of the Amorites. 2 Sam. 21:2. After this nothing is heard of them. The low state of Jerusalem (Judah) by nature is described by stating her origin, her father being an Amorite and her mother a Hittite, but God in grace had compassion upon her in her degradation, and raised her into great glory; though, alas, she was shamefully unfaithful. Ezek. 16:3-43.

Amos. [A'mos]

One of the minor Prophets, a native of Tekoa in Judah, possibly the father of the prophet Isaiah. He told Amaziah, "I was no prophet, neither was I a prophet's son; but I was an herdsman and a gatherer of sycomore fruit: and the Lord took me as I followed the flock, and the Lord said to me, Go, prophesy unto my people Israel." Amos 7:14-15. His language indicates an acquaintance with things that would be familiar to one leading an agricultural life: cf. Amos 2:13; Amos 3:12; Amos 4:9; Amos 5:8; Amos 6:12; Amos 7:1-2. He tells us that his prophecy was given in the days of Uzziah king of Judah and of Jeroboam II, son of Joash, king of Israel, two years before the earthquake; or at least began at that time. Amos 1:1. For about 25 years these two kings were contemporaneous: B.C. 810-785.

Amos, Book of.

Though Amos and Hosea were prophets at the same time, and both prophesied of the sins of Israel, there is much difference in the style of the two. Hosea is more fervent, stirred with righteous indignation at the sins of the people; whereas with Amos there is great calmness in declaring God's judgements. Hosea's prophecy is confined to the sins of Judah and Israel, whereas Amos tells of the judgements that should fall upon some of the surrounding nations that had molested Israel, especially upon those that retained any part of the land that had been promised to Abraham; and then he recounts the sins, not only of Judah to which he himself belonged, but also of Israel, indeed there is more concerning the latter than the former. In the heading we have the words, "The Lord will roar from Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem;" which are also in Joel 3:16; thus, as it were, taking up the theme where Joel leaves off.

In the first two chapters there are eight short denunciations of judgements, introduced by the words "for three transgressions and for four." Three witnesses were adequate testimony; four is the cup running over, of which the four quarters of the earth can testify. The judgements are against:

1. Syria under its chief city Damascus.

2. The Philistines under Gaza.

3. Tyre.

4. Edom.

5. Ammon.

6. Moab.

7. Judah.

8. Israel.

Amos 3 speaks of both Judah and Israel, "the whole family," thus counting it as one, though division had come in: then follows the momentous statement that this family was the only one God had known — had taken into relationship — therefore God would punish them for their iniquities: showing that responsibilities are measured by the privileges enjoyed. Though judgements would come there would be a remnant left, as when a shepherd recovers from a lion "two legs or a piece of an ear" — a small remnant indeed! Amos 3:12.

Amos 4 is against Israel, and especially because they had oppressed the poor. God had brought minor judgements upon them, such as:

1. Scarcity, "cleanness of teeth."

2. Want of rain, which was sent on one city but not on another.

3. Blasting and mildew.

4. Pestilence and a stink, their young men being slain with the sword.

5. They were overthrown as Sodom and Gomorrah, some being saved, as firebrands out of the burning. After each judgement is added the result, "Yet have ye not returned unto me, saith the Lord:" ending with "Prepare to meet thy God, O Israel, . . . . the Lord, the God of hosts is his name."

Amos 5. Israel is still denounced, but is exhorted to seek the Lord. Some desired the day of the Lord, but that will be very dark and with judgement. Such was their wickedness that God hated and despised their assemblies and their offerings: indeed they had turned to Idolatry.

Amos 6 denounces those that are at ease in Zion, living in luxury and pleasure, in a false self-confidence notwithstanding all the warnings that had been given.

Amos 7, 8, and 9 are visions, and their applications.

Amos 7 exhibits the patience of Jehovah. The prophet interceded for Jacob, and Jehovah repented of the evil he was bringing on them; still judgement must follow. The declaration of the doom of the high places was distasteful to Amaziah the priest of the king's false religion at Bethel, who was dwelling at ease. He bade Amos flee to Judah. But Amos replied that he had been no prophet, nor prophet's son, but only a herdsman, and Jehovah had sent him. Judgements should fall upon Amaziah and Israel should go into captivity.

Amos 8 again denounces Israel especially for self-ease and oppression of the poor.

Amos 9. None could escape the eye and judgement of God. He would destroy them from off the face of the earth, but not utterly: a remnant should be saved, Amos 9:9.  Amos 9:11-15 speak of restoration and blessing. The plowman shall overtake the reaper; the mountains shall drop wine. The captives shall return. God will plant them upon their land and they shall no more be pulled up. Promises still to be fulfilled, for no such things have yet been. May God hasten them in His own time!

Amoz. [A'moz]

Father of the prophet Isaiah. 2 Kings 19:2; Isa. 1:1, etc. Perhaps the same as the prophet Amos.

Amphipolis. [Amphip'olis]

City of eastern Macedonia, almost surrounded by the river Strymon, hence its name. Paul and Silas passed through it in going to Philippi. Acts 17:1. It is now called Jeni-keni, 'new town.'

Amplias. [Am'plias]

Christian at Rome, greeted by Paul as "my beloved in the Lord." Rom. 16:8.

Amram. [Am'ram]

1.  Levite, father of Aaron, Moses and Miriam. Ex. 6:18, 20; etc.

2.  Son of Dishon, a descendant of Seir. 1 Chr. 1:41. Called HEMDAN in Gen. 36:26.

3.  Son of Bani. Ezra 10:34.

Amramites. [Am'ramites]

Branch of the Kohathite family, descended from Amram, father of Aaron, Moses and Miriam. Num. 3:27; 1 Chr. 26:23.

Amraphel. [Am'raphel]

King of Shinar, in the time of Abram. Gen. 14:1, 9.

Amzi. [Am'zi]

1.  Son of Bani, a descendant of Merari. 1 Chr. 6:46.

2.  Son of Zechariah. Neh. 11:12.

Anab. [A'nab]

City mentioned with Debir and Hebron in the mountains of Judah, where the Anakims dwelt. Joshua 11:21; Joshua 15:50. It retains the same name, 31 24' N, 34 56' E.

Anah. [A'nah]

1.  Daughter of Zibeon, a Hivite. Gen. 36:2, 14, 18.

2.  Son of Seir the Horite. Gen. 36:20, 25, 29; 1 Chr. 1:38, 41.

3.  Son of Zibeon, son of Seir. Gen. 36:24; 1 Chr. 1:40.

Anaharath. [Anaha'rath]

Town in Issachar. Joshua 19:19. Identified with en-Naurah, 32 37' N, 35 23' E.

Anaiah. [Anai'ah]

1.  One who stood beside Ezra when he read the law to the people. Neh. 8:4.

2.  One who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:22.

Anak, [A'nak] Anakim. [An'akim]

Son of Arba, and his descendants. They were men of great stature, or giants. The Israelites who went to spy the land called themselves grasshoppers in comparison. They dwelt in southern Palestine, Hebron being especially mentioned as their city, which was given to Caleb after the Anakim had been destroyed by Joshua, except that a remnant escaped and retired to the cities of Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod. Num. 13:22, 33; Deut. 1:28; Deut. 2:10-11, 21; Deut. 9:2; Joshua 11:21-22; Joshua 14:12, 15; Joshua 15:13-14; Joshua 21:11; Judges 1:20.

Anamim. [An'amim]

Descendants of Mizraim (the Hebrew has the article). Gen. 10:13; 1 Chr. 1:11.

Anammelech. [Anam'melech]

One of the gods of Sepharvaim, whose worship was introduced by the colonists into Samaria. It was considered to be the female power of the sun, as Adrammelech was the male. 2 Kings 17:31.

Anan. [A'nan]

One who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:26.

Anani. [Ana'ni]

One of the sons of Elioenai, descendant of David. 1 Chr. 3:24.

Ananiah. [Anani'ah]

1.  Grandfather of Azariah who returned from exile. Neh. 3:23.

2.  Town occupied by the Benjamites on their return from exile. Neh. 11:32. It has been identified with Beit Hannina, 31 50' N, 35 12' E.

Ananias. [Anani'as]

1.  High priest before whom Paul appeared, and who commanded him to be smitten on the mouth, to whom Paul said, "God shall smite thee, thou whited wall." Acts 23:2-3; Acts 24:1. He was elevated to the office by Herod king of Chalcis A.D. 48. He was sent to Rome to answer a charge of oppression, but returned. He was deposed before Felix left the province. When Menahem besieged Jerusalem Ananias took refuge in an aqueduct, but was dragged forth and killed by the daggers of the assassins.

2.  Husband of Sapphira, who with her had agreed to sell their possession, keep back part of the money, and present the remainder to the church as though it were the whole. He was charged with lying to the Holy Spirit, and fell down dead. His wife, saying the same thing, also met with a like punishment. The solemn judgement upon them evinced the fact that the Holy Spirit was really a divine person in the assembly, whose presence must in no way be ignored. "Great fear came upon all the church." Acts. 5:1-11.

3.  Disciple at Damascus, who, being instructed by the Lord, found out Saul and laid his hands upon him that he might receive sight and be filled with the Holy Spirit. Ananias had naturally hesitated because of the character of the man he was to visit; but the Lord revealed to him that the persecuting Saul was a chosen vessel to Him to bear His name. Acts 9:10-17; Acts 22:12.

Anath. [A'nath]

Father of Shamgar. Judges 3:31; Judges 5:6.


This is a Greek word untranslated in 1 Cor. 16:22; it occurs also in Rom. 9:3; 1 Cor. 12:3; Gal. 1:8-9 and is uniformly translated 'accursed.' The solemn passage in 1 Cor. 16 is "If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be accursed, Maranatha (the Lord cometh)." In Galatians it is said that if any person or even an angel from heaven preached any other gospel than that which they had received, let him be accursed. Two solemn denunciations relating to the person of the Lord Jesus and the gospel of God.

The word ἀνάθεμα was used for any votive offering in a heathen temple, which could not be redeemed; hence anything devoted. In the N.T. it is devoted to God's curse, destruction.

Anathoth. [An'athoth]

1.  Beniamite, son of Becher. 1 Chr. 7:8.

2.  One of the chiefs of the people who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:19.

3.  City assigned to the priests in the territory of Benjamin, where Abiathar the high priest had his own 'fields,' and where Jeremiah was born: its inhabitants persecuted the prophet. Identified with Anata, 31 49' N, 35 15' E.  Joshua 21:18; 1 Kings 2:26; 1 Chr. 6:60; Ezra 2:23; Neh. 7:27; Neh. 11:32, Isa. 10:30; Jer. 1:1; Jer. 11:21, 23; Jer. 29:27; Jer. 32:7-9.


The anchors used by the ancients were in shape somewhat like the modern ones, as may be seen on some of the coins. When Paul was on his way to Rome, four anchors were needed to hold the ship. Acts 27:29-30, 40. The anchor is used metaphorically for the hope set before the Christian, it enters into that within the veil, and is sure and steadfast. It was a great thing for the Hebrew believers to have their eyes turned to heaven; the anchor of their hope was there; no matter what storms they might meet with, the realisation of their hope was certain if set on Christ. Heb. 6:19.

Ancient of Days.

A title of God used by Daniel, alluding to His eternity. It cannot be separated from Christ; for in Dan. 7: the Lord is called both the Ancient of Days and the Son of man, yet the Son of man came to the Ancient of Days to receive dominion, glory, and a kingdom. Dan. 7:9, 13, 22. He is both God and man: cf. Rev. 1 and 5.

Andrew. [An'drew]

Native of Bethsaida, brother of Simon Peter, and a fisherman: he became one of the twelve apostles. He had been a disciple of John, but hearing him say "Behold the Lamb of God!" he followed Jesus. He, at once found his brother Simon and told him that he had found the Messiah. There is little recorded of Andrew; he was one of the four who asked the Lord privately when the destruction of the temple should take place, and what would be the sign when the things spoken of should be fulfilled. After revealing that various judgements were coming the Lord added "But of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father." Mark 13:3-4, 32. The Lord, as the Servant-Prophet (which is the character given by the Spirit in Mark) did not know the day. Tradition says that Andrew laboured in Scythia, Greece, and Asia Minor, and that he was crucified at Patrae in Achaia, on a cross of this form, X, which cross has since borne his name. Matt. 4:18; Luke 6:14; John 1:40, 44; Acts 1:13, etc.

Andronicus. [Andron'icus]

Kinsman of Paul at Rome, who with Junia were his fellow prisoners, and of whom he said they were in Christ before him. Rom. 16:7.


City of Issachar, assigned to the Levites. 1 Chr. 6:73. This name is not found in the lists in Joshua 19 and 21 but EN-GANNIM is mentioned instead. Identified with Jenin, 32 28' N, 35 18' E.

Aner. [A'ner]

1.  Amorite confederate with Abraham against Chedorlaomer. Gen. 14:13, 24.

2.  A town of Manasseh, west of the Jordan assigned to the Levites. 1 Chr. 6:70. Identified with Ellar, about 35 6' N, 32 22' E.

Anethothite, [Anetho'thite] Anetothite, [Aneto'thite] Antothite. [Anto'thite]

Inhabitants of Anathoth. 2 Sam. 23:27 ; 1 Chr. 11:28; 1 Chr. 12:3; 1 Chr. 27:12.


The words malac ἄγγελος, signify 'messenger.'

1.  It is used for the mystic representation of the divine presence, as in Gen. 31:11-13. "The angel of God" spake unto Jacob saying, "I am the God of Bethel." "The angel of Jehovah" spake to Hagar and said, "I will multiply thy seed exceedingly that it shall not be numbered for multitude." Gen. 16:7-11.  "The angel of Jehovah" spake to Abraham saying, "By myself have I sworn," etc. Gen. 22:11, 15,16. Three 'men' drew near to Abraham's tent. One said Sarah should have a son: at which Sarah laughed, and Jehovah said, "Wherefore did Sarah laugh?" Two of the three left, and were called 'angels' at the gate of Sodom, while Jehovah, the third, talked with Abraham. Gen. 18:1-33: cf. also Ex. 3:2, 6-15; Num. 22:22-35. Jacob, in blessing the sons of Joseph, said, "The Angel which redeemed me from all evil bless the lads." Gen. 48:16. It is generally believed that it was the second person in the Trinity who appeared as a man in the O.T. It is no doubt the same who is called 'the mighty angel' in Rev. 10:1-3.

2.  The intelligent spiritual beings who are constantly referred to in scripture as God's messengers both as carrying good tidings and, as executors of God's judgements. We know little of their nature: "of the angels he saith, Who maketh his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire," Heb. 1:7; and man is described as being a little inferior to the angels. Ps. 8:5 ; Heb. 2:7. There are apparently gradations in rank among them, described as principalities and powers, of which Christ as Man is now the head. Col. 2:10. Twice we meet with 'archangel:' an archangel's voice will accompany the rapture of the church, 1 Thess. 4:16; and 'Michael the archangel' contended with Satan about the body of Moses. Jude 9. He with his angels will fight with the dragon and his angels and cast them out of heaven. Rev. 12:7-8. Gabriel is the only other name of an angel revealed to us: he appeared to Daniel, to Zacharias, and to Mary: he said that he stood in the presence of God. Dan. 8:16; Dan. 9:21; Luke 1:19, 26.

Though we are unconscious of the presence of angels we know that they are ministering spirits sent forth to minister for them who shall inherit salvation, Heb. 1:14: cf. Ps. 34:7; and we read also that they ministered to the Lord when He was here. Matt. 4:11; Mark 1:13; Luke 22:43. There are 'myriads' of these angels, Matt. 26:53; Heb. 12:22; Rev. 5:11; and they are described as 'mighty,' 'holy,' 'elect,' 2 Thess. 1:7; Mark 8:38; 1 Tim. 5:21: they do not marry, Mark 12:25. We are not told when they were created, but doubtless they are referred to as 'the sons of God' who shouted for joy when God created the earth. Job 38:4-7.

The law was given by their ministry, Acts 7:53; Gal. 3:19; Ps. 68:17; and they had to do with proclaiming the birth of the Saviour, Luke 2:8-14; and they attended at the resurrection. Matt. 28:2; John 20:12. Angels are not the depositaries of the revelation and counsels of God. They desire to look into the things testified by the Spirit of Christ in the prophets, and now reported by the apostles in the power of the same Spirit. 1 Peter 1:12. The world to come is not to be put in subjection to them, but to man in the person of the Son of man, Heb. 2:5-8; and the saints will judge angels. 1 Cor. 6:3. It is therefore only a false humility that would teach the worshipping of angels. Col. 2:18. When John fell down to worship the angel in the Revelation, being overpowered by reason of the stupendous things revealed, he was on two occasions restrained from worshipping his 'fellow servant,' as in Rev. 19:10 ; Rev. 22:9.

In Ps. 8:5 the word is elohim, 'God:' the name of God being given to the angels as His representatives: cf. Ps. 82:6. In Ps. 68:17 it is shinan 'repetition;' reading "even thousands upon thousands." In Ps. 78:25 it is abbir, 'mighty:' "every one did eat the bread of the mighty" margin.


a.  We read of angels who kept not their first estate,' but left their own habitation, and are kept in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgement of the great day. Jude 6. God spared not the angels who sinned. 2 Peter 2:4. The nature of their sin may be referred to in Gen. 6:2. Their punishment and that of Sodom and Gomorrah is held up as a warning against fleshly indulgence, and despising government. 2 Peter 2:10; Jude 6-8.

b.  Besides the above which are kept in chains we read of angels connected with Satan. The great dragon and his angels will be subdued by Michael and his angels, and be cast out of heaven. Rev. 12:9. The lake of fire, or Gehenna, has been specially prepared for the devil and his angels, though, alas, man will also be cast therein. Matt. 25:41. Abaddon or Apollyon is the name of  'the angel of the bottomless pit,' Rev. 9:11, that is, 'the abyss,' not hell, which, as seen above, is the place of punishment. Isa. 14:12-16 and Ezek. 28:14-19, may throw some light on the fall of Satan, but whether the fall of those called 'his angels' was brought about by the same cause and at the same time is not revealed. Scripture is quite clear that all of them will be overcome and eternally punished.

4.  The term 'angel' is used metaphorically for a mystical representative. When Peter was delivered from prison, and knocked at the door, those who had been praying for his release said, "It is his angel." Acts 12:15. They supposed Peter was still in prison, and that the one at the door was his representative, his spirit personified, perhaps with very vague ideas of what they really meant. In Revelation 2, 3, the addresses to the seven churches are made to the angel of each. It signifies the spirit and character of the assembly personified in its mystical representative, each one differing from the others, according to the state of the assembly. The messages, though addressed to churches existing at the time, no doubt set forth the state of the church in its varied phases ever since apostolic times down to its entire rejection as the responsible witness for Christ at the close of the dispensation.


Fishing was very common in Egypt, not only with the net, but with the line and hook, Isa. 19:8; and the same were used by the Israelites, for nets are often referred to, and the fish that had the piece of money in its mouth was caught with a hook. Matt. 17:27. In Habakkuk 1:15 the same things are referred to symbolically for the catching of men for captivity. The apostles of the Lord were made fishers of men.

Aniam. [Ani'am]

Son of Shemidah, of the tribe of Manasseh. 1 Chr. 7:19.

Anim. [A'nim]

City of Judah in the mountains. Joshua 15:50. Identified with Ghuwein 31 21' N, 35 3' E.

Animals, Clean and Unclean.

The first time we read of clean and unclean animals is when Noah went into the ark: he was instructed to take seven pairs of each of the clean beasts and clean fowls and only two of the unclean; we have no instructions as to how Noah distinguished them, but it shows that in early days there was a distinction between the clean and unclean. Those called 'clean' were doubtless clean for sacrifice, and not for food, as nothing is said of man eating animal food till after the flood, and then "every moving thing" was given for food. When Noah came out of the ark he offered of every clean beast and every clean fowl for burnt offerings. Gen. 7:2; Gen. 8:20.

With Israel it was different. What animals were to be offered are distinctly specified, and what animals might be eaten as clean and what might not be eaten as unclean are given in detail. Of beasts the clean were those that divided the hoof and chewed the cud: those that had only one of these distinguishing marks were unclean. Of the fishes those only were to be eaten which had fins and scales. Of the fowls a list is given of those that must not be eaten, and of the winged crawling things, that go on all fours, only those 'which have legs above their feet to leap with' might be eaten. The locust, the bald locust, the beetle, and the grasshopper, each after his kind, might be eaten (probably four species of locust); but all other flying, creeping, or swarming things, which have four feet were unclean. 'Every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth' was unclean whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and whatsoever goeth upon all fours, or hath a multitude of feet, among all creeping things, was unclean. These directions are respecting what might or might not be eaten. Those that were not to be eaten were to be regarded as an abomination, and if the dead bodies of any such fell upon any vessel or garment it rendered it unclean, and any one who touched their carcass must wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening. Lev. 11; Deut. 14:3-20. These animals in their habits and instincts were used of God to teach His people as to habits and ways of the flesh that were unclean in His sight.

We know from other scriptures that the animals described here as unclean are not really so, but good as creatures of God; yet they were by Israel to be regarded as unclean and an abomination. The unclean are mostly those that are flesh-eating.

The particulars given of the unclean have doubtless symbolical meanings. They are principally these:

1.  Dividing the hoof and chewing the cud may point to a steady patient walk (as the camel or the ox), and the digesting or meditating upon what is received: cf. Psalm 1:1-2; Prov. 12:27.

2.  Everything that creepeth upon the earth was unclean: the earth is under the curse because of sin, and there must be a moral rising above it.

3.  The fish must have fins and scales: the fins enable a fish to rise in the water, to direct its course, and to avoid danger, and the scales are its protection. To escape the pollutions of the world a circumspect walk is needed and also having on the protection which God has provided.

It is clear from scripture that the prohibition of certain creatures as unclean affected Israel only, and the vision given to Peter manifests that this restriction is done away in Christ. It is plainly declared that "every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused if it be received with thanksgiving; for it is sanctified by the word of God [as in Gen. 9:3] and prayer." 1 Tim. 4:4-5.


Probably ἄνησον refers to the common 'dill,' which is different from the ἄνισον the 'anise.' Both the plant and seed were and still are used as a condiment in the east, and are found in the modern materia medica. The Pharisees were careful to pay tithes of such things while they omitted the weightier matters of the law, Matt. 23:23.


The Hebrew word ekes signifies 'fetter' or 'ankle band.' It is translated 'tinkling ornaments' for the feet in Isa. 3:18, as part of the dress of the haughty daughters of Zion, who liked to make a tinkling noise when they walked; but God would bring to nought all such adornings. The same Hebrew word is translated 'stocks,' in Prov. 7:22.

Anna. [An'na]

A prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of Asher, who gave thanks when the infant Jesus was presented in the temple. Luke 2:36. She was one of the godly who looked for redemption in Israel.

Annas. [An'nas]

High priest, appointed in A.D. 7 by Cyrenius, or Quirinus, governor of Syria. In the reign of Tiberius he was deposed, and was followed at short intervals by Ismael, Eleasar son of Ananus or Annas, Simon, and Joseph Caiaphas, son-in-law of Annas. Luke 3:2; John 18:13, 24; Acts 4:6. It is supposed that Annas was called high priest by courtesy, having once held the office: the Lord was taken to him first, perhaps as being the father-in-law of Caiaphas. Josephus relates that the five sons of Annas became high priests, and under the last, also named Annas, James the Lord's brother was martyred. Ant. xx. 9, 1.

Annunciation, The.

The supposed time of the visit of the angel Gabriel to Mary when he announced God's purpose of grace towards her. It was in 'the sixth month,' which, by comparing with Luke 1:36, appears to date from his visit to Zacharias. Luke 1:26-38. It was superstitiously made one of the festivals of the professing church, and falls on March 25, also called Lady-day.

Anointed, the.

Mashiach, the anointed, is an official title in the O.T. of those who were to rule for God. 1 Sam. 12:3, 5; 1 Sam. 26:9, 11, 16; 2 Chr. 6:42; Isa. 45:1. In the N.T. the title is restricted to the Lord Jesus — ὁ χριστός, the Christ — as the One anointed, not with oil, but with the Holy Spirit by God the Father. This had been predicted in Ps. 45:7, of which John the Baptist was the witness. Mark 1:10; John 1:32-34: cf. also Acts 10:38. He was called God's anointed by Hannah, 1 Sam. 2:10 and by David, Ps. 2:2.  Daniel spoke of Messiah the Prince, and that He would be cut off and have nothing. Dan. 9:25-26. The Samaritans as well as the Jews expected this anointed One, the Christ; and when He appeared souls were brought into living intercourse with Him, and owned Him as the promised One. John 1:41; John 4:25. In these two passages the Lord is called 'Messias,' the word being simply the Greek form of the Hebrew word mashiach. In other places a translation is used and He is called ὁ χριστός, 'the Christ,' the anointed One.  See CHRIST.


There are several Hebrew words thus translated, but some of them occur but once, as

1. In Ps. 23:5, "Thou anointest my head with oil," signifying made fat, the oil used plentifully.

2. Ps. 92:10, "I shall be anointed with fresh oil," from 'to pour over,' 'overflow with' oil.

3. Isa. 10:27, "the yoke shall be destroyed because of the anointing (text obscure).

4. Zech. 4:14, "these are the two anointed ones," lit. 'sons of oil,' cf. Rev. 11:4.

5. suk, 'to anoint the body after washing,' like ἀλείφω in the N.T., is commonly used for the practice among the orientals of anointing the body, or its parts, for comfort, appearance, friendliness, healing, or burial. For the ordinary toilet cf. Ruth 3:3; 2 Sam. 12:20; 2 Chr. 28:15; Matt. 6:17. To neglect this was a sign of mourning 2 Sam. 14:2; Dan. 10:3. As an act of courtesy cf. Luke 7:46; John 12:3; the sick were also anointed, Mark 6:13; James 5:14; also the dead body, Mark 14:8; Mark 16:1. One of the punishments on Israel was that the olives should not yield oil for the anointing. Deut. 28:40; Micah 6:15.

6.  mashach, χρίω, 'to spread over, to anoint' for an office, etc. Kings were anointed: Saul, David, Solomon, Joash, Jehu, and Hazael are examples. Prophets were anointed; for Ps. 105:15 should read 'anointed ones;' and cf. 1 Kings 19:16. Special oil made according to God's directions was used for the anointing of the priests. Ex. 30:30; Ex. 40:13. With the same oil the tabernacle and its vessels were anointed. Ex. 40:9-10. The meat offering was anointed with oil, Lev. 2:1, 4, typical of the pure humanity of the Lord Jesus, and of His being sealed by the Holy Spirit. The cleansed leper was anointed with oil. Lev. 14:17-18.

Whether this last anointing refers to persons or things and whether the oil is that specially prepared or common oil, the sanctification and power of the Holy Spirit is invariably typified thereby. Anointing with oil for consecration to office is not now enjoined on believers, for they are anointed with the Holy Spirit, and are also priests to God. John reminds even the babes in Christ that they have an unction from the Holy One, and the anointing (the same word, χρίσμα) abideth in them. 1 John 2:20, 27. Thus, as in the O.T., the kings, prophets, and priests were anointed as set apart for God, so the Christian is by the Holy Spirit sanctified for God, both as to his position and service. See THE ANOINTED.


There are several species of ants, but to which of these the Proverbs refer is not known: the Hebrew word nemalah is said to be from a root signifying 'to crowd together,' which applies to all ants. Buxtorf traces it from the root 'to eat.' This insect is held up as a practical reproof to the sluggard; the scripture says that it provides its meat in the summer, and gathereth its food in the harvest. Prov. 6:6; Prov. 30:25. Sceptics take exception to this, because ants are held to be carnivorous and they could not lay up such food in summer; but there is abundance of evidence to prove that they lay up grain in the summer, and if it becomes damp they bring it out into the sun and dry it. Another point worthy of note is that they have 'no guide, overseer, or ruler,' and yet no one can watch this insect without seeing that they are 'exceeding wise:' each one finds what his particular work is, and diligently does it — a profitable lesson for the saints of God to learn.