Bible Dictionary A 3


The name ἀντίχριστος signifies an opposer of Christ. It is used only by John in his first and second epistles, though those opposed to Christ are referred to by others under different names. It is important to distinguish between an antichrist and the antichrist. John says, "as ye have heard that antichrist shall come, even now are there many antichrists;" whereas "he is the antichrist that denieth the Father and the Son." 1 John 2:18, 22.  He is the consummation of the many antichrists. To deny Jesus Christ come in the flesh is the spirit or power of the antichrist, but it eventuates in a departure from the special revelation of Christianity: 'they went out from us.' 1 John 2:19; 1 John 4:3; 2 John 7.  Now this clears the ground at once of much that has obscured the subject. For instance, many have concluded that Popery is the antichrist, and have searched no farther into the question, whereas the above passage refutes this conclusion, for Popery does not deny the Father and the Son; and, in Revelation 17, 18, Popery is pointed out as quite distinct from 'the false prophet,' which is another name for the antichrist. It is fully granted that Popery is anti-christian, and a Christ-dishonouring and soul-deceiving system; but where God has made a distinction we must also do so. Besides Popery there were and there are many antichrists, which, whatever their pretensions, are the enemies of Christ, opposers of the truth, and deceivers of man.

As to the Antichrist, it should be noticed that John makes another distinction between this one and the many. He speaks of the many as being already there, whereas the one was to come; and if we turn to 2 Thess. 2:3-12 we read of something or some one that hinders that wicked or lawless one being revealed, although the mystery of iniquity was already at work. Now there has been no change of dispensation since this epistle was written, and John wrote much later, from which we learn that the revelation of the antichrist is still future, though doubtless the mystery of iniquity is getting ripe for his appearing; that which hindered and still hinders the manifestation of the antichrist is doubtless the presence of the Holy Spirit on earth. He will leave the earth at the rapture of the saints.

This passage in Thessalonians gives us further particulars as to this MAN OF SIN. His coming is after the working of Satan, that is, he will be a confederate of Satan, and be able to work signs and lying wonders with all deceit of unrighteousness in them that perish. Those that have refused the truth will then receive the lie of this wicked one. We get further particulars in Rev. 13:11-18, where the anti-christian power or kingdom is described as a beast rising out of the earth, having two horns as a lamb, but speaking as a dragon. Here again we read that he will do great wonders, making fire come down from heaven, with other signs or miracles.

In the description in Thessalonians he opposeth himself against all that is called God or that is worshipped, and sits down in the temple of God, and sets forth himself as God. The Jews will receive him as their Messiah, as we read in John 5:43. In the above passage in the Revelation this counterfeit of Christ's kingdom is openly idolatrous. He directs the dwellers on the earth to make an image of the beast (named in ver. 1, the future head of the resuscitated Roman empire) to which image he gives breath, that it should speak, and persecutes those who will not worship the image. He also causes all to receive a mark on their hand or their forehead that they may be known to be his followers; and that none else should be able to buy or sell. We thus see that in the Revelation the anti-christian power called also 'the false prophet' will work with the political head, and with Satan — a trinity of evil — not only in deceiving mankind, but also, in Rev. 16:13-16, gathering together by their influence the kings of the earth to the battle of that great day of God Almighty. The three are cast into the lake of fire Rev. 19:20; Rev. 20:10.

In the O.T. we get still another character of this wicked one. In Dan. 11:36-39 he is called 'king.' Here he exalts himself and speaks marvellous things against the God of gods. He will not regard the God of his fathers (pointing out that he will be a descendant of Israel, probably from the tribe of Dan, cf. Gen. 49:17), nor "the desire of women" (i.e. the Messiah, of whom every Jewess hoped to be the mother): he exalts himself above all. Here again he is an idolater, honouring a god that his fathers knew not. In Zech. 11:15-17 he is referred to as the foolish and idol shepherd, who cares not for the flock, in opposition to the Lord Jesus the good Shepherd.

This man of sin will 'do according to his own will' — just what the natural man ever seeks to do. In contrast to this the blessed Lord was obedient, and came not to do His own will. May His saints be ever on the watch against the many false prophets in the world, 1 John 4:1, and be loyal to their absent Lord, behold His beauty in the sanctuary, and reproduce Him more down here in their earthen vessels.




Strictly, those opposed to the inculcation of good works from a perverted view of the doctrines of grace; but the term is also falsely applied to those who know themselves free through the death of Christ from the law as given by Moses. Rom. 7:4; Gal. 2:19. One has but to read carefully the epistle to the Galatians to see that for Gentile believers to place themselves under the law is to fall from grace; and Paul exhorted them to be as he was, for he was (though a Jew by birth) as free from the law by the death of Christ as they were as Gentiles. They had not injured him at all by saying he was not a strict Jew, Gal. 4:12: in other words, they may have called him an antinomian, as others have been called, whose walk has been the most consistent. To go back to the law supposes that man has power to keep it. For a godly walk the Christian must walk in the Spirit, and grace teaches that, "denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present world." Titus 2:12. On the other hand, there have been, and doubtless are, some who deny good works as a necessary fruit of grace in the heart: grace, as well as everything else, has been abused by man. See LAW.

Antioch in Pisidia. [An'tioch in Pisid'ia]

A Roman colony of Phrygia in Asia Minor, founded by Seleueus Nicator. Its ruins are now called Yalobatch or Yalowaj. Paul's labour here was so successful that it roused the opposition of the Jews and he was driven to Iconium and Lystra; but he returned with Silas. Acts 13:14; Acts 14:19-21; 2 Tim. 3:11.

Antioch in Syria. [An'tioch in Syria]

This is memorable in the annals of the church as the city where the disciples were first called Christians, Where an assembly of Gentiles was gathered, and from which Paul and his companions went forth on their missionary journeys, and to which they twice returned. It formed a centre for their labours among the Gentiles, outside the Jewish influence which prevailed at Jerusalem; yet the church in this city maintained its fellowship with the assembly at Jerusalem and elsewhere. Acts 6:5; Acts 11:19-30; Acts 13:1; Acts 14:26; Acts 15:22-35; Acts 18:22; Gal. 2:11.

Antioch was once a flourishing and populous city, the capital of Northern Syria, founded by Seleueus Nicator, B.C. 300, in honour of his father Antiochus. It was afterwards adorned by Roman emperors, and was esteemed the third city was eventually the seat of the Roman proconsul of Syria. It stood on a beautiful spot on the river Orontes, where it breaks through between the mountains Taurus and Lebanon. It is now called  Antakia 36 12', 36 10' E.  It has suffered from wars and earthquakes, and is now a miserable place. Comparatively few antiquities of the ancient city are to be found, but parts of its wall appear on the crags of Mount Silpius.

Antiochus. [Anti'ochus]

There were several kings bearing this name who ruled over Syria, and though they are not mentioned by name in scripture, some of their actions are specified. These are so clear and definite that sceptics have foolishly said that at least this part of the prophecy of Daniel must have been written after the events! The Greek kingdom, the third of the four great empires, was, on the death of Alexander the Great, divided among his four generals, and this resulted principally in a series of kings who ruled in Egypt bearing the general name of PTOLEMY, and are called in scripture 'Kings of the South;' and another series, called 'Kings of the North,' who bore the general name of either SELEUCUS or ANTIOCHUS. Both the Ptolemies and the Seleucidae began eras of their own, and some of the kings of each era had to do with Palestine and the Jews. The following is a list of the kings, with the dates when they began to reign, noticing the principal events that were prophesied of them in Daniel 11.


320     Ptolemy I,   Soter.   He takes Jerusalem.   Era of the Ptolemies begins.

312     SELEUCUS I,   Nicator. He re-takes Palestine.   Era of the Seleucidae begins.

283     Ptolemy II,   Philadelphus. The O.T. translated into Greek.

280     ANTIOCHUS I,   Soter.

261     ANTIOCHUS II, Theos.   He was at war with Ptolemy, but peace was restored on condition that Antiochus should put away his wife Laodice and marry Berenice the daughter of Ptolemy. This was done, but on the death of Philadelphus he restored Laodice; but she, fearing another divorce, poisoned her husband, and then caused the death of Berenice and her son.   See Dan. 11:6.

247     Ptolemy III,   Euergetes.   He revenged his sister's death, being 'a branch of her roots;' and carried off 40,000 talents of silver, etc. 'Shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north,' and carry away their precious vessels of silver and gold. Dan. 11:7-9.

246     SELEUCUS II,   Callinicus.

226     SELEUCUS III,   Ceraunus.

223     ANTIOCHUS III,   the Great.

222     Ptolemy IV,   Philopater. War between Ptolemy and Antiochus.   Ptolemy recovers Palestine. Dan. 11:10-12.

205     Ptolemy V,   Epiphanes (5 years old). Antiochus seized the opportunity of the minority of the king to regain the country. Dan. 11:16. He also joined with Philip of Macedonia to capture other portions of the dominions of Ptolemy. But Rome was now growing in power, and on being appealed to by Egypt for protection, Antiochus was told he must let Egypt alone. In the meantime an army from Egypt had re-taken Palestine; but Antiochus, on his return, again obtained the mastery there. Wishing to extend his dominions in the west he proposed that Ptolemy should marry his daughter Cleopatra, that she might serve her father's ends; but she was faithful to her husband. Daniel thus speaks of it: "He shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her, but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him." Dan. 11:17. Antiochus took many maritime towns, but after many encounters he was compelled by Rome to quit all Asia on that side of Mount Taurus, give up his elephants and ships of war and pay a heavy fine. Antiochus had great difficulty in raising the money, and on attempting to rob a temple at Elymais he was killed. Dan. 11:18-19.

187    SELEUCUS IV,  Philopator, succeeded. His principal work was the raising of money to pay the war-tax to Rome. He ordered Heliodorus to plunder the temple; but Heliodorus poisoned him. He was thus 'a raiser of taxes,' and was 'destroyed neither in anger, nor in battle.' Dan. 11:20.  Heliodorus seized the crown but was destroyed by Antiochus IV.

181    Ptolemy VI,   Philometor. He was a minor, under his mother and tutors.

175    ANTIOCHUS IV, Epiphanes.  He was not the rightful heir. He 'obtained the kingdom by flatteries.' He called himself Epiphanes, which is 'illustrious;' but he was such 'a vile person' that people called him Epimanes, 'madman.' Dan. 11:21-24. He invaded Egypt and was at first successful: cf. Dan. 11:25-26. The two kings entered into negotiations, though neither of them was sincere in what they agreed to: their hearts were to do mischief, and they 'tell lies at one table.' Dan. 11:27. Then Antiochus returned to his land with great riches: his heart was 'against the holy covenant,' and he entered Jerusalem and even into the sanctuary and took away the golden altar, the candlestick, the table of showbread, the censers of gold, and the other holy vessels and departed. 'At the appointed time he shall return and come toward the South,' Dan. 11:29; but he was stopped by Rome; 'ships of Chittim,' ships from Macedonia, came against him; and in great anger he returned and vented his wrath on Jerusalem.

       He sent an army there with orders to slay all the men and sell the women and children for slaves. This was to a certain extent carried out. The walls were also thrown down and the city pillaged and then set on fire. He then decreed that the Jews should forsake their religion, and all should worship the heathen gods. To ensure this at Jerusalem with the few that still clung to the place, an image of Jupiter Olympius was erected in the temple and on an altar sacrifices were offered to this god. This was in B.C. 168 on the 25th of the month Chisleu. Daniel relates "They shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate." Dan. 11:31: cf. also Dan. 8:9-12 where the 'little horn' refers to Antiochus Epiphanes.

       Bleek, Delitzsch, and others consider that in Dan. 8:14, the 2,300 'evening, morning,' margin, refer to the daily sacrifice, which is spoken of in Dan. 8:11-12, 13; and that by 2,300 is meant 1,150 days: cf. also Dan. 8:26. The dedication of the temple was on the 25th of Chisleu, B.C. 165, and the desecration began some time in the year 168.

       Dan. 11:32b, 33-35 refer to the change that soon took place under Judas Maccabeus and his brothers, commencing B.C. 166, and in 165 the temple was re-dedicated.  In B.C. 164 ANTIOCHUS V. Eupator succeeded to the throne; and in 162 DEMETRIUS SOTER; but they were not powerful against Judaea, and in B.C. 161 an alliance was made by Judaea with Rome. The historical notices in Daniel end at Dan. 11:35.

It will be seen by the above that the records of history agree perfectly with the prophecy, as faith would expect them to do. It is only unbelief that has any difficulty in God foretelling future events. Without doubt some of the acts of Antiochus Epiphanes are types of the deeds of the future king of the North — referred to in other prophecies as 'the Assyrian' — in respect to the Jews and Jerusalem.

Antipas. [An'tipas]

1.  A Christian of Pergamos, who was martyred. Rev. 2:13.

2.  Son of Herod the Great, but not called Antipas in the N.T.  See HEROD.

Antipatris. [Antipat'ris].

The town to which Paul was taken in the night from Jerusalem on his way to Caesarea. Acts 23:31. It was built by Herod the Great in a well-watered spot surrounded by a wood, and named after his father. At Ras el-Ain, 32 6' N, 34 56' E, are ruins which are held to mark the spot. This is 5 or 6 miles nearer Jerusalem than Kefr Saba, which some associate with Antipatris, because Josephus says it was called Kapharsaba before its name was altered by Herod. The former place being nearer to Jerusalem removes the difficulty that some have felt as to the distance of Antipatris being too far to reach in a night ; this reduces it to about 36 miles, and it would be even less by cross roads.


The word antitype does not occur in the A.V., but the Greek word ἀντίτυπον occurs in Heb. 9:24, translated 'figures,' and in 1 Peter 3:21, translated 'like figure.' It is that which answers to a type, as a wax impression answers to a seal: if the device is sunk, the impression will be raised, or vice versa. To take a simple but beautiful example, a lamb was offered up for a burnt offering both morning and evening under the law; and in the N.T. we read, "Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world." It is plain that the morning and evening lamb in Israel were types and the death of the Lord Jesus was the antitype. In Heb. 9:23, the 'heavenly things' are the type, and 'holy places,' Heb. 9:24, the antitype, or what corresponded to the pattern. In 1 Peter 3:21, eight souls were saved through water, of which baptism is the figure, or what answers to it. Doubtless there are many other antitypes in the N.T., but every antitype must have a type to which it corresponds, though the correspondence may not lie on its surface. Where scripture is silent as to types and antitypes the teaching of the Holy Spirit is needed, or grievous error may result in associating two things together which have no spiritual connection, though names and words may seem to correspond.

Antonia. [Anto'nia]

A tower or fortress built by Herod the Great near the temple at Jerusalem in which he placed a guard to watch over the approaches to the sacred edifice. Josephus (Wars v. 5, 8) says it was situated "at the corner of two cloisters of the court of the temple; of that on the west, and that on the north; it was erected upon a rock fifty cubits in height and was on a great precipice." Where this precipice was is not known, for it is a much disputed question upon what part of the temple area the temple was built. There is a tower, now called Antonia, on the N.W. angle, and there are indications of a similar one having stood on the S.E. angle.

Antothijah. [Antothi'jah]

A descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:24.

Antothite. [An'tothite]


Anub. [A'nub]

Son of Coz, of the posterity of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:8.


The ape is not indigenous to Palestine; they were brought in the days of Solomon, with gold, silver, ivory and peacocks by the ships of Tarshish. The word goph may signify any of the monkey tribe. 1 Kings 10:22; 2 Chr. 9:21.

Apelles. [Apel'les]

A Christian of Rome saluted by Paul as 'approved in Christ.' Rom. 16:10.

Apharsachites, Apharsathchites. [Aphar'sachites, Aphar'sathchites]

Some unknown Assyrian tribe sent as colonists to Samaria under Asnapper. Ezra 4:9; Ezra 5:6; Ezra 6:6.

Apharsites. [Aphar'sites]

An unknown Assyrian tribe as the preceding. Ezra 4:9.

Aphek. [A'phek]

1.  Royal city of the Canaanites, the king of which was killed by Joshua, Joshua 12:18: probably the same as APHEKAH in Joshua 15:53. Not identified.

2.  City in the north border of Asher, from which in the time of Joshua the inhabitants were not expelled. Joshua 13:4; Joshua 19:30: called APHIK in Judges 1:31. Identified with Afka at the foot of the Lebanon between Baalbek and Byblus.

3.  Place where the Philistines encamped when Israel was defeated. 1 Sam. 4:1.

4.  Where the Philistines encamped when Saul and Jonathan were killed. 1 Sam. 29:1. Perhaps the same as No. 3.

5.  City, the wall of which falling killed 27,000 of the Syrians, 1 Kings 20:26, 30; 2 Kings 13:17.  It is identified with Fik, 32 47' N, 35 41' E, on the great road between Damascus and Jerusalem.

Aphekah. [Aphe'kah]


Aphiah. [Aphi'ah]

A 'mighty man of power,' an ancestor of Saul. 1 Sam. 9:1.

Aphik. [A'phik]


Aphrah. [Aph'rah]

The margin of Micah 1:10 explains the name as 'house of dust,' so that there is a play upon the word 'dust:' 'in the house of dust roll thyself in the dust.' The LXX read 'the house in derision.' It may refer to OPHRAH in Joshua 18:23; 1 Sam. 13:17, a city in the tribe of Benjamin.

Aphses. [Aph'ses]

Head of the eighteenth course of priests for service in the temple. 1 Chr. 24:15.

Apocalypse. [Apoc'alypse]

Another name for the REVELATION, q.v., being its Greek title ἀποκάλυψις.

Apocrypha. [Apoc'rypha]

The name given to those Books which were attached to the MSS copies of the LXX, but which do not form a part of the canon of scripture. The term itself signifies, 'hidden,' 'secret,' 'occult;' and, as to any pretence of being a part of scripture, they must be described as 'spurious.' There are such writings connected with both the Old and the New Testament, but generally speaking the term 'Apocrypha' refers to the O.T. (for those connected with the N. Test. see APOSTOLIC FATHERS. The O.T. books are:
 1   I. Esdras.
 2   II. Esdras.
 3   Tobit.
 4   Judith.
 5   Chapters of Esther, not found in the Hebrew nor Chaldee.
 6   Wisdom of Solomon.
 7   Jesus, son of Sirach; or Ecclesiasticus; quoted Ecclus.
 8   Baruch, including the Epistle of Jeremiah.
 9   Song of the Three Holy Children
10  The History of Susanna.
11  Bel and the Dragon.
12  Prayer of Manasseh.
13  I. Maccabees.
14  II. Maccabees.

The Council of Trent in A.D. 1546, professing to be guided by the Holy Spirit, declared the Apocrypha to be a part of the Holy Scripture. The above fourteen books formed part of the English Authorised Version of 1611, but are now seldom attached to the canonical books. Besides the above there are a few others, as the III., IV., and V. Maccabees, book of Enoch, etc., not regarded by any one as a part of scripture. It may be noticed

1.  That the canonical books of the O.T. were written in Hebrew (except parts of Ezra and Daniel which were in Chaldee); whereas the Apocrypha has reached us only in Greek or Latin, though Jerome says some of it had been seen in Hebrew.

2.  Though the Apocrypha is supposed to have been written not later than B.C. 30, the Lord never in any way alludes to any part of it; nor do any of the writers of the N.T., though both the Lord and the apostles constantly quote the canonical books.

3.  The Jews did not receive the Apocrypha as any part of scripture, and to 'them were committed the oracles of God.'

4.  As some of the spurious books were added to the LXX Version (the O.T. in the Greek) and to the Latin translation of the LXX, some of the early Christian writers were in doubt as to whether they should be received or not, and this uncertainty existed more or less until the before  mentioned Council of Trent decided that the greater part of the Apocrypha was to be regarded as canonical. Happily at that time the Reformation had opened the eyes of many Christians to the extreme corruption of the church of Rome, and in rejecting the claims of that church they were also freed from its judgement as to the Apocryphal books.

5.  The internal evidences of the human authorship of the Apocrypha ought to convince any Christian that it can form no part of holy scripture.

Expressions of the writers themselves show that they had no thought of their books being taken for scripture. There are also contradictions in them such as are common to human productions. Evil doctrines also are found therein: let one suffice: "Alms doth deliver from death, and shall purge away all sin." Tobit 12:9. The value of holy scripture as the fountain of truth is such that anything that might in any way contaminate that spring should be refused with decision and scorn. Some parts of the Apocryphal books may be true as history, but in every other respect they should be refused as spurious. Nor can it be granted that we need the judgement of the church, could a universal judgement be arrived at, as to what is to be regarded as the canon of scripture. The Bible carries its own credentials to the hearts and consciences of the saints who are willing to let its power be felt.

Apollonia. [Apollo'nia]

City of Macedonia, in the district of  Mygdonia, some 28 miles from Amphipolis and 35 from Thessalonica, through which Paul and Silas passed. Acts 17:1.

Apollos. [Apol'los]

A convert from Alexandria, an eloquent man and mighty in the scriptures, who, when only knowing the baptism of John, taught diligently the things of Jesus. At Ephesus he was taught more perfectly by Priscilla and Aquila. He laboured at Corinth, following the apostle Paul, who could hence say 'I have planted, Apollos watered,' and subsequently he greatly desired Apollos to revisit Corinth. His name is associated with that of Paul in connection with the party spirit at Corinth, which the apostle strongly rebuked; but from his saying he had 'transferred these things to himself and to Apollos,' it would appear that the Corinthians had local leaders, under whom they ranged themselves, whom he does not name; and that he taught them the needed lesson, and established the general principle by the use of his own name and that of Apollos rather than the names of their leaders. Acts 18:24; Acts 19:1; 1 Cor. 1:12; 1 Cor. 3:4-22; 1 Cor. 4:6; 1 Cor. 16:12; Titus 3:13.

Apollyon. [Apoll'yon]

The Greek translation of the Hebrew name ABADDON, which signifies 'destroyer.' He is king of the locusts of the bottomless pit, and ruler over the destroying agents that proceed from thence: it is one of the characters of Satan. Rev. 9:11.


Though the word 'apostasy' does not occur in the A.V., the Greek word occurs from which the English word is derived. In Acts 21:21 Paul was told that he was accused of teaching the Jews who were among the Gentiles to apostatise from Moses. Paul taught freedom from the law by the death of the Christ and this would appear to a strict Jew as apostasy. The same word is used in 2 Thess. 2:3, where it is taught that the day of the Lord could not come until there came 'the apostasy,' or the falling from Christianity in connection with the manifestation of the man of sin.  See ANTICHRIST.

Though the general apostasy there spoken of cannot come till after the saints are taken to heaven, yet there may be, as there has been, individual falling away. See, for instance, Heb. 3:12; Heb. 10:26, 28, and the epistle of Jude. There are solemn warnings also that show that such apostasy will be more and more general as the close of the present dispensation approaches. 1 Tim. 4:1-3. Now a falling away necessarily implies a position which can be fallen from, a profession has been made which has been deliberately given up. This is, as scripture says, like the dog returning to his vomit, and the sow to her wallowing in the mire. It is not a Christian falling into some sin, from which grace can recover him; but a definite relinquishing of Christianity. Scripture holds out no hope in a case of deliberate apostasy, though nothing is too hard for the Lord.


The Greek word ἀπόστολος signifies 'a messenger,' 'one sent,' and is used in this sense for any messenger in 2 Cor. 8:23; Phil. 2:25; and as 'one sent' in John 13:16. It is also used in a much higher and more emphatic sense, implying a divine commission in the one sent, first of the Lord Himself and then of the twelve disciples whom He chose to be with Him during the time of His ministry here. The Lord in His prayer in John 17:18 said, "As thou hast sent me into the world, even so have I also sent them into the world." He was the Sent One, and in Heb. 3:1 it is written "Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Jesus."*  They were to consider this One who had been faithful, and who was superior to Moses, to the Aaronic priests, and to angels, and was in the glory. The ordering of a dispensation depended on the apostolic office as divinely appointed.

* The word 'Christ' is omitted by the Editors.

APOSTLES, THE TWELVE.  The Lord appointed these "that they should be with him, and that he might send them forth to preach, and to have power to heal sicknesses, and to cast out demons," and also to carry out the various commissions given by Christ on earth. It will be seen by the lists that follow that Lebbaeus, Thaddaeus and Judas are the same person; and that Simon the Canaanite (Cananaean) and Simon Zelotes are the same; Peter is also called Simon; and Matthew is called Levi.

Matt. 10:2-4.
1 Peter and
2 Andrew.
3 James and
4 John.
5 Philip and
6 Bartholomew
7 Thomas and
8 Matthew.
9 James
10 and Lebbaeus.
11 Simon the Cananean and
12 Judas Iscariot.
Mark 3:16-19.
1 Peter.
3 James.
4 John.
2 Andrew.
5 Philip.
6 Bartholomew.
8 Matthew.
7 Thomas.
9 James.
10 Thaddeus.
11 Simon.
12 Judas I.
Luke 6:14-16.
1 Simon.
2 Andrew.
3 James.
4 John.
5 Philip.
6 Bartholomew.
8 Matthew.
7 Thomas.
9 James.
11 Simon Zelotes.
10 Judas.
12 Judas I.
Acts 1:18.
1 Peter.
3 James.
4 John.
2 Andrew.
5 Philip.
7 Thomas.
6 Bartholomew.
8 Matthew.
9 James.
11 Simon Z.
10 Judas.

Peter is always named first; he with James and John was with the Lord on the mount of transfiguration and also with the Lord at other times, though no one apostle had authority over the others: they were all brethren and the Lord was their Master. Judas Iscariot is always named last. In Matthew the word 'and' divides the twelve into pairs, perhaps corresponding to their being sent out two and two to preach. Bartholomew and Simon Zelotes are not mentioned after their appointment except in Acts 1.

When the Lord sent the twelve out to preach He bade them take nothing with them, for the workman was worthy of his food: and on their return they confessed that they had lacked nothing. Their mission was with authority as the sent ones of the Lord; sicknesses were healed and demons cast out; and if any city refused to receive them it should be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrha in the day of judgement than for that city. Matt. 10:5-15.

They received a new mission from the Lord as risen: see Luke 24; John 20. And before the ascension the apostles were bidden to tarry at Jerusalem until they were endued with power from on high. This was bestowed at the descent of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost. They are also viewed first among the gifts with which the church was endowed by the Head of the body when He ascended up on high. Eph. 4:8-11. These gifts were for "the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ." The mystery hitherto hid in God was now revealed to His holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit, namely, that the Gentiles should be joint heirs, and a joint body, and partakers of His promise in Christ Jesus. Eph. 3. Paul was the special vessel to make known this grace. His apostleship occupies a peculiar place, he having been called by the Lord from heaven, and being charged with the gospel of the glory.  See PAUL.

On the death of Judas Iscariot, Matthias, an early disciple, was chosen in his place, for there must be (irrespective of Paul, who, as we have seen, held a unique place) twelve apostles as witnesses of His resurrection, Acts 1:22; Rev. 21:14 as there must still be twelve tribes of Israel. James 1:1 ; Rev. 21:12. At the conference of the church in Jerusalem respecting the Gentiles 'the apostles' took a prominent part, with the elders. Acts 15. How many apostles remained at Jerusalem is not recorded: we do not read of 'the twelve' after Acts 6. Tradition gives the various places where they laboured, which may be found under each of their names. Scripture is silent on the subject, in order that the new order of things committed to Paul might become prominent, as the older things connected with Judaism vanished away: cf. 2 Peter 3:15-16.

There were no successors to the apostles: to be apostles they must have 'seen the Lord.' Acts 1:21-22; 1 Cor. 9:1; Rev. 2:2. The foundation of the church was laid, and apostolic work being complete the apostles passed away, there remain however, in the goodness of God, such gifts as are needed "till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ." Eph. 4:12-13.

Apostolic Fathers.

This designation is applied to the early Christian writers, who had known the apostles, or had known those who had been acquainted with them.

1.   BARNABAS;  2. CLEMENT;  3. HERMAS; are supposed to be the persons so named in the N.T.:  see under their respective names.

4.   POLYCARP, Bishop of Smyrna.  He wrote an epistle to the Philippians about A.D. 125, Irenaeus says Polycarp was "instructed by the apostles, and was brought into contact with many who had seen Christ." He died a martyr's death. An ancient letter gives a particular account of his martyrdom.

5.   IGNATIUS, Bishop of Antioch.  Seven epistles are supposed to have been written by him, but they have been grossly interpolated; eight or nine others are wholly spurious. He was a martyr.

6.   PAPIAS, Bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia. He is said to have heard the apostle John. Various writings are attributed to him, but of which only fragments remain. He also died a martyr.

7.   An unknown author of an eloquent and interesting epistle to Diognetus. Nearly all the above writings are very different from the scripture except where that is quoted. There is a deep dark line of demarcation between them and the writings which are inspired. Some of them however are found at the end of some of the Greek Testaments and were formerly read in the churches. Happily all these are now eliminated from any association with the N.T. Besides the above there are six apocryphal 'Gospels,' a dozen 'Acts,' four 'Revelations,' the 'Passing away of Mary,' etc.

Apothecary, raqach.

This term is not used in scripture in the modern sense of a compounder of drugs for medicine; but in that of a compounder of ointments, etc., such as would now be called a 'perfumer,' as it is rendered in the margin of Ex. 30:25, where the holy anointing oil is an ointment compounded "after the art of the apothecary." The same was said of the holy incense. Ex. 30:35; Ex. 37:29.  Asa was buried in a tomb filled with sweet odours and spices prepared by the apothecaries' art. 2 Chr. 16:14: cf. also Neh. 3:8. Spices were also carried to the tomb of the Lord to embalm His body.

Appaim. [Ap'paim]

Son of Nadab, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:30-31.




It would appear from the arrangements made by Moses that some of the judges were accounted as judges of appeal, but that Moses himself, as having the mind of God, was the ultimate judge. Ex. 18:13-26. It is not probable, when the kingdom was established, that all causes were tried at Jerusalem; but only cases of appeal from the tribal judges; and it was such that Absalom alludes to in 2 Sam. 15:2-3: see also Deut. 16:18. It is evident from Deut. 17:8-12 that the mind of God was to be sought where He put His name, if the matter was too hard for the judges. The Jewish writers say that before and after the time of Christ on earth, appeals could be carried through the various courts to the Grand Sanhedrim at Jerusalem.

In the case of Paul appealing to Caesar, it was not an appeal from a judgement already given, as is the case in what is now called an appeal; but Paul, knowing the deadly enmity of the Jews, and the corruption of the governors, elected to be judged at the court of Caesar, which, as a Roman, he had the right to do. Acts 25:11. There is One who "cometh to judge the earth: with righteousness shall he judge the world, and the people with equity." Ps. 98:9.

Appearing of Christ.

This is to be distinguished from Christ coming  for His saints, though intimately connected with it, for He will bring them with Him. "When Christ, who is our life, shall appear, then shall ye also appear with him in glory." Col. 3:4. Here it is the manifestation of Christ with His own, to be followed by the setting up of His kingdom and the apportionment of rewards to His saints. 2 Cor. 5:10. The Lord's servant is exhorted by His appearing and His kingdom to preach the word, etc. 2 Tim. 4:1-2. The saints will be associated with Christ in His judgements at His appearing. Jude 14, 15. Christ will execute judgement on the Beast and the False Prophet and the western powers. Also on the Assyrian and the eastern powers that will oppress the Jews. The Jews and the ten tribes will be restored to their land in blessing, ushering in the Millennium.  See ADVENT, SECOND.

Apphia. [Ap'phia]

Probably the wife of Philemon, whom Paul addresses in that epistle, ver. 2.

Appii Forum. [Ap'pii For'um]

Station on the Appian Way, the main road from Rome to the Bay of Naples, where brethren went to meet Paul though 43 miles from Rome. Acts 28:15. The road was 18 to 22 feet wide, and parts of the ancient paving stones may still be seen. It was constructed by Appius Claudius, hence its name.

Apple, Apple Tree.

This is generally supposed to refer to the citron but apples grow in Palestine, and the Arabic name for the apple (tuffuh) differs little from the Hebrew word, tappuach. Others believe the quince is alluded to, which is fragrant and of a golden colour. Cant. 2:3, 5; Cant. 7:8; Cant. 8:5; Joel 1:12.  In Prov. 25:11 "a word fitly spoken" is like some elegant device, as "apples of gold in pictures [or baskets] of silver."

Apple of the Eye.

1.  ishon.   Gesenius says this word signifies 'little man' and then 'the little man of the eye; 'that is, "the pupil of the eye in which, as in a mirror, a person sees his own image reflected in miniature." He says "this pleasing image is found in several languages." It is the part of the eye specially to be guarded: God preserved His own as the apple of His eye. Deut. 32:10; Ps. 17:8. His law should be kept as a precious thing. Prov. 7:2.

2.  babah,  the black or pupil of the eye, or, as others, 'the gate of the eye.' To touch God's people is touching the apple of His eye. Zech. 2:8.

3.  bath,  daughter. The sense is, Let not the apple (the daughter) of thine eye cease to shed tears. Lam. 2:18. In all places 'the apple of the eye' is a beautifully figurative expression for that which must be tenderly cherished as a most choice treasure.


The word chagorah signifies 'anything girded on.' When Adam and Eve had sinned they discovered that they were naked, and sewed fig-leaves together and made aprons, Gen. 3:7; but were soon conscious that this did not cover their nakedness, for when God called to them they owned that they were naked, and hid behind the trees. This teaches that nothing that man can devise can cover him from the eye of God. God clothed Adam and Eve with coats of skins; it was through death, typical of Christ Himself. In Acts 19:12 the word is σιμικίνθιον, and occurs but that once; it signifies a narrow apron or linen covering.

Aquila. [Aq'uila]

A converted Jew of Pontus, husband of Priscilla, whom Paul first met at Corinth. Acts 18:2. He and Paul worked together as tent-makers. Aquila and Priscilla had been driven from Rome as Jews by an edict of the emperor Claudius. They travelled with Paul to Ephesus, where they were able to help Apollos spiritually. Acts 18:18-26. They were still at Ephesus when Paul wrote 1 Corinthians (1 Cor. 16:19); and were at Rome when the epistle to the saints there was written, in which Paul said they had laid down their necks for his life, and that to them all the churches, with Paul, gave thanks. Rom. 16:3-4. In Paul's last epistle he still sends his greeting to them. 2 Tim. 4:19.


A chief city in the Moabite territory. In Jerome's time it was called Areopolis. It is identified with Rabba,, 31 19' N, 35 38' E, about 10 miles from the Dead Sea. Num. 21:15, 28; Isa. 15:1. In other passages the name Ar appears to include the land of the Moabites. Deut. 2:9, 18, 29.

Ara. [A'ra]

Son of Jether, of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:38.

Arab. [A'rab]

City in the hill country of Judah. Joshua 15:52. Identified with er-Rabiyeh, 31 26' N, 35 2' E.


This occurs as a proper name only once in the A.V. where it should read 'the Arabah,' Joshua 18:18; but it occurs in many other passages where it is translated 'a plain' or 'the plain,' and is also translated 'desert,' 'wilderness,' etc. It refers to the plain situated between two series of hills that run from the slopes of Hermon in the north to the Gulf of Akaba in the far south. It is in this plain that the Jordan runs, and in which is the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, also called 'the Sea of the Plain.' About 7 miles south of the Dead Sea the plain is crossed by some hills: all north of this is now called el-Ghor, but the plain south of it retains the name of the Wady-el-Arabah. This latter part is about 100 miles in length, and the northern part about 150, so that for nearly 250 miles this wonderful plain or valley extends.

It might naturally be thought that the Jordan had at some time, after running into the Dead Sea, continued to run south until it poured itself into the Gulf of Akaba. But this is not probable, for the Dead Sea is nearly 1,300 feet below the sea, and the southern part is from end to end higher than the Ghor, The width of the Arabah is in some parts about 15 miles, but further south not more than 3 or 4. The southern end is also called the Wilderness of Zin, and it was in this part of the Arabah that a good deal of the wanderings of the people of Israel took place, before they turned to the east and left the plain on their left.

There can be no doubt that scripture uses the name 'Arabah' for the whole of the plain, both north and south. The northern part is referred to in Deut. 3:17; Deut. 4:49; Joshua 3:16; Joshua 12:3; Joshua 18:18: and the southern part in Deut. 1:1; Deut. 2:8. In other passages, especially in the prophetic books, the plain in general may be alluded to. It extends nearly due north and south, but bears toward the west before it reaches the Gulf.

Arabia. [Ara'bia]

A very large country is embraced by this name, lying south, south-east, and east of Palestine. It was of old, as it is now by the natives, divided into three districts.

1. Arabia Proper, being the same as the ancient Arabia Felix, embraces the peninsula which extends southward to the Arabian Sea and northward to the desert.

2. Western Arabia, the same as the ancient Arabia Petraea, embraces Sinai and the desert of Petra, extending from Egypt and the Red Sea to about Petra.

3. Northern Arabia, which joins Western Arabia and extends northward to the Euphrates.

1 Kings 10:15; 2 Chr. 9:14; Isa. 21:13; Jer. 25:24; Ezek. 27:21; Gal. 1:17; Gal. 4:25.  See ARABIANS.

Arabians. [Ara'bians]

We read that Abraham sent the sons of Keturah and of his concubines "eastward, to the east country." Gen. 25:6. There were also the descendants of Ishmael and those of Esau. Many of these became 'princes,' and there can be no doubt that their descendants still hold the land. There are some who call themselves Ishmaelite Arabs, and in the south there are still Joktanite Arabs. We read of Solomon receiving gifts or tribute from the kings of Arabia. 1 Kings 10:15.  So did Jehoshaphat, 2 Chr. 17:11 ; but in the days of Jehoram they attacked him, plundered his house, and carried away his wives and some of his sons, 2 Chr. 21:17; 2 Chr. 22:1. They were defeated by Uzziah. 2 Chr. 26:7.

During the captivity some Arabians became settlers in Palestine and were enemies to Nehemiah. Cf. Neh. 2:19; Neh. 4:7; Neh. 6:1. Among the nations that had relations with Israel, and against whom judgement is pronounced are the Arabians. Isa. 21:13-17; Jer. 25:24. And doubtless they will be included in the confederacies that will be raised against God's ancient people when Israel is again restored to their land. Cf. Ps. 83.

In the N.T. 'Arabians' were present on the day of Pentecost, but whether they were Jews or proselytes is not stated. Acts 2:11.

Arad. [A'rad]

1.  A royal city of the Canaanites, in the south, near Mount Hor, whose king fought against Israel, but who was by the help of God destroyed, both he and his people. Num. 21:1-3; Num. 33:40; Joshua 12:14; Judges 1:16. (In the two passages in Numbers read 'the Canaanite king of Arad.') It is identified with Tell Arad, 31 17' N, 35 7' E.

2.  Son of Beriah, a descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:15.

Arah. [A'rah]

1.  Son of Ulla, a descendant of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:39.

2.  Father of a family who returned from exile. Ezra 2:5; Neh. 7:10.

3.  A Jew whose grand-daughter married Tobiah the Ammonite, who greatly hindered the building of the city Neh. 6:18.

Aram. [A'ram]

1.  Son of Shem. Gen. 10:22-23; 1 Chr. 1:17.

2.  Son of Kemuel, Abraham's nephew. Gen. 22:21.

3.  Son of Shamer, of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:34.

4.  Son of Esrom, and father of Aminadab. Matt. 1:3-4; Luke 3:33: called RAM, Ruth 4:19; 1 Chr. 2:9-10.

5.  Place in the land of Gilead, east of the Jordan, which Jair captured. 1 Chr. 2:23.

Aram. [A'ram]

This is the name of a large district lying north of Arabia, north-east of Palestine, east of Phoenicia, south of the Taurus range, and west of the Tigris. It is generally supposed that the name points to the district as the 'Highlands,' though it may be from Aram the son of Shem, as above. The word occurs once untranslated in Num. 23:7, as 'Aram' simply, from whence Balaam was brought, 'out of the mountains of the east;' but it is mostly translated Syria or Syrian. Thus we have -

1.   ARAM-DAMMESEK,  2 Sam. 8:5, translated 'Syrians of Damascus,' embracing the highlands of Damascus including the city.

2.   ARAM-MAACHAH,  1 Chr. 19:6, translated 'Syria-maachah,' a district on the east of Argob and Bashan.

3.   ARAM-BETH-REHOB,  2 Sam. 10:6, translated 'Syrians of Beth-rehob: cf. Judges 18:28, a district in the north, near Dan.

4.   ARAM-ZOBAH, 2 Sam. 10:6, 8, translated 'Syrians of Zoba,' a district between and Damascus, but not definitely recognised.

5.   ARAM-NAHARAIM signifying 'Aram of two rivers,' Gen. 24:10; Deut. 23:4; Judges 3:8; 1 Chr. 19:6, translated 'Mesopotamia.' The two rivers are the Euphrates and the Tigris. The district would be the highlands from whence the rivers issue to the plain, and the district between the two rivers without extending to the far south.


This word occurs 2 Kings 18:26; Ezra 4:7; and Isa. 36:11, where it is translated 'the Syrian language' or 'tongue;' also in Dan. 2:4, where it is 'Syriack.' Aramaic is the language of Aram, and embraces the language of Chaldee and that of Syria. Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Syria were its proper home. The first time we meet with it in scripture is in Gen. 31:47, where Laban called the heap of witness 'Jegar-sahadutha,' which is Chaldee; whereas Jacob gave it a Hebrew name, 'Galeed.' In 2 Kings 18:26; Isa. 36:11 the heads of the people asked Rab-shakeh to speak to them in Aramaic that the uneducated might not understand what was said. In Ezra 4:7 the letter sent to Artaxerxes was written in Aramaic, and interpreted in Aramaic, that is, the copy of the letter and what follows as far as Ezra 6:18 is in that language and not in Hebrew. So also is Ezra 7:12-26.

In Daniel 2:4 the Chaldeans spoke to the king in Aramaic, the popular language of Babylon, and what follows to the end of chap. 7: is in that language, though commonly called Chaldee. This must not be confounded with the 'learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans' in Dan. 1:4, which is the Aryan dialect and literature of the Chaldeans, and probably the ordinary language which Daniel spoke in the court of Babylon. Jer. 10:11 is a verse in Aramaic.

This language differs from the Hebrew in that it avoids the sibilants. Where the Hebrew has ז z, שׁ sh, צ tz, the Aramaic has ד d, ת th, and ט t.  Letters of the same organ are also interchanged, the Aramaic choosing the rough harder sounds. The latter has fewer vowels, with many variations in the conjugation of verbs, etc.

When the ten tribes were carried away, the colonists, who took their place, brought the Aramaic language with them. The Jews also who returned from Babylon brought many words of the same language. And, though it doubtless underwent various changes, this was the language commonly spoken in Palestine when our Lord was on earth, and is the language called HEBREW in the N.T., and is the same as the Chaldee of the Targums. In the ninth century the language in Palestine gave way to the Arabic, and now Aramaic is a living tongue only among the Syrian Christians in the district around Mosul.

Aramitess. [Arami'tess]

A female belonging to Aram. 1 Chr. 7:14.

Aran. [A'ran]

Descendant of Seir the Horite. Gen. 36:28; 1 Chr. 1:42.

Ararat. [Ar'arat]

A kingdom which was called upon by God, in conjunction with Medes, Persians, and others, under one captain, Cyrus, to punish Babylon in revenge of Israel. Jer. 51:27. It is identified with Urartu or Urardhu of the Assyrian inscriptions, a district in Armenia, in which is Mount Ararat, on some part of which the ark of Noah rested. Gen. 8:4. The mount is situate 39 45' N, 44 28' E, and its extreme height is about 17,000 feet above the sea, covered with perpetual snow. Objection has been taken to its great height, but it may not have been on its highest part that the ark rested.

Araunah. [Arau'nah]

The Jebusite from whom David purchased the place on which to build the altar of the Lord. 2 Sam. 24:16-24. Called ORNAN in 1 Chr. 21:15-28. In Samuel it is stated that David bought the threshing floor and the oxen for fifty shekels of silver. He there built an altar, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings, without anything being said of his building a house for the Lord on the spot: whereas in Chronicles David gave to Ornan 600 shekels of gold by weight for the place. In 2 Chr. 3:1-2 we learn that the threshing floor was on Mount Moriah, and that the site was prepared by David for the temple, which was built by Solomon. Doubtless therefore 'the place' included a much larger area than was needed for David's altar, and perhaps included the homestead of Araunah. This no doubt formed a part of what is now called the Temple area, or Mosque enclosure, in the S.E. of Jerusalem, but on what part of that area the temple was built is not known.

Arba, Arbah. [Ar'ba, Ar'bah]

Father of Anak, head of the Anakim, who were also giants. Num. 13:33. Their city was Hebron. Gen. 35:27; Joshua 14:15; Joshua 15:13; Joshua 21:11. The 'city of Arba' is elsewhere called KIRJATH-ARBA, which was afterwards called HEBRON.

Arbathite. [Arba'thite]

Native of the northern Arabah, or el-Ghor. 2 Sam. 23:31; Chr. 11:32.

Arbite. [Ar'bite]

Designation of Paarai, one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:35.


The word elam occurs only in Ezek. 40:21-36, and in the A.V. is translated 'arch;' but this is judged not to be its meaning, though it is not at all certain as to what it really refers. In the margin it reads, 'galleries' or 'porches,' elsewhere 'vestibule,' and again 'projection.'



Archelaus. [Archela'us]

Son of Herod the Great by Malthace, a Samaritan. He succeeded his father as Ethnarch of Idumea, Judaea, Samaria, and the maritime cities of Palestine. From his known oppressive character Joseph feared to bring back the infant Jesus into his territory, and turned aside to Galilee, which was under the jurisdiction of his brother Antipas. Matt. 2:22. He reigned 10 years. Josephus relates that soon after his accession he put to death 3,000 Jews: eventually, for his tyranny to the Jews and the Samaritans he was deposed and banished to Vienne in Gaul.



Archevites. [Ar'chevites]

People removed from Assyria to Samaria. They joined in the petition to Artaxerxes against the Jews. Ezra 4:9. The origin of the name is unknown.

Archi. [Ar'chi]

City on the border of Ephraim. Joshua 16:2. Identified with Ain Arik, 31 54' N, 35 8' E.

Archippus. [Archip'pus]

A Christian teacher at Colosse, whom Paul calls his fellow soldier, and exhorts to fulfil his ministry. Col. 4:17; Philemon 2.

Archite. [Ar'chite]

The designation of Hushai, David's friend. 2 Sam. 15:32; 2 Sam. 16:16; 2 Sam. 17:5, 14; 1 Chr. 27:33.

Arcturus. [Arctu'rus]

The word ash or aish has always been a difficult one to translate, the versions differing much; but it is now pretty well agreed that the allusion is not to the star known as Arcturus, but to the constellation known as the Great Bear; 'his sons' are supposed to be the stars in the tail of the bear. In the northern hemisphere this constellation is seen all the year round, with its apparent ceaseless motion around the north star, which none but the mighty God can guide. Job 9:9; Job 38:32. It is translated 'the Bear' in the R.V.


1. Son of Benjamin. Gen. 46:21.

2. Son of Bela, son of Benjamin (called ADDAR in 1 Chr. 8:3), whose descendants are ARDITES. Num. 26:40.

Ardon. [Ar'don]

Son of Caleb, son of Hezron. 1 Chr. 2:18.

Areli, Arelites. [Are'li, Are'lites]

Son of Gad, and his descendants. Gen. 46:16; Num. 26:17.

Areopagite. [Areop'agite]

One connected with the court of Areopagus at Athens, where Dionysius heard Paul and "clave to him and believed." Acts 17:34.

Areopagus, or Mars Hill. [Areop'agus, or Mars' Hill]

The hill of Ares, or Mars. Here was held the highest and most ancient and venerable court of justice in Athens for moral and political matters. It was composed of those who had held the office of Archon unless expelled for misconduct. Paul, who had been disputing daily in the market place, was conducted by some of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers to Mars' Hill, not for any judicial purpose, but doubtless that they might hear him more quietly. Here he delivered his address respecting God, so suited to the heathen philosophers who heard him, and which was not without its fruit. Acts 17:19. The Greek words are Areios-pagos, but are translated Mars' Hill in Acts 17:22. The court was situate on a rocky hill opposite the west end of the Acropolis. Sixteen stone steps still lead up to the spot.

Aretas. [Ar'etas]

The common appellation (like Pharaoh for Egyptian kings) of the Arabian kings of the northern part of Arabia. The deputy of Aretas in Damascus sought to arrest Paul.  2 Cor. 11:32. This king, who was father-in-law to Herod Antipas, made war against him for divorcing his daughter, and defeated him. Vitellius, governor of Syria was ordered to take Aretas dead or alive; but Tiberius died before this was accomplished. Caligula, who succeeded to the empire, banished Antipas. He made certain changes in the East, and it is supposed that Damascus was detached from the province of Syria and given to Aretas.

Argob. [Ar'gob]

1. A district lying to the south of Damascus and which formed a part of Bashan, where the giants resided. It had at one time 60 cities, which were ruled over by Og. Its name signifies 'stony' and it forms a remarkable plateau of basalt, which rises some 30 feet above the surrounding fertile plain, and extends 22 miles N. and S. and 14 miles E. and W., the boundary line being marked by the Bible word chebel, which signifies 'as by a rope.' Og was conquered by Moses, and Jair of Manasseh took the fortified cities, and it became a part of Manasseh's lot. Later it was called Trachonitis, and is now known as el-Lejah. There are many houses still in the district which, because of their massive proportions, are supposed to have been built by the giants. Deut. 3:3-4, 13, 14; 1 Kings 4:13.

2.  One, apparently in the service of Pekahiah, killed by Pekah. 2 Kings 15:25.

Aridai. [Arid'ai]

Son of Haman, slain and hanged. Esther 9:9.

Aridatha. [Arid'atha]

Son of Haman, slain and hanged. Esther 9:8.

Arieh. [A'rieh]

One, apparently in the service of Pekahiah, killed by Pekah. 2 Kings 15:25.

Ariel. [A'riel]

1.  Symbolical name of Jerusalem, signifying 'Lion of God,' probably in reference to the lion being the emblem of Judah. Isa. 29:1-2, 7.  In the margin of Ezek. 43:15, the altar is called the 'lion of God;' but the word is slightly different and is translated by some the 'hearth of God,' the place for offering all sacrifices to God.

2.  One whom Ezra sent to Iddo at Casiphia. Ezra 8:16.

3.  In 2 Sam. 23:20; 1 Chr. 11:22, we read that Benaiah slow two 'lion-like men,' which some prefer to translate 'two [sons] of Ariel.' The Hebrew is literally 'two lions of God.'

Arimathaea. [Arimathae'a]

The city of Joseph, the 'honourable counsellor,' who was permitted by Pilate to take down the body of the Lord and bury it in his own new to tomb. Matt. 27:57; Mark 15:43; Luke 23:51; John 19:38. It has not been identified, but has been supposed to be the same as Ramah, the birth-place of Samuel.

Arioch. [A'rioch]

1.  King of Ellasar in the East. Gen. 14:1, 9.

2.  Captain of Nebuchadnezzar's guard. Dan. 2:14-15, 24, 25.

Arisai. [Aris'ai]

Son of Haman the Agagite, slain and hanged. Esther 9:9.

Aristarchus. [Aristar'chus]

A Macedonian of Thessalonica, companion of Paul on several journeys and on his way to Rome. Paul once calls him 'my fellow prisoner.' Acts 19:29; Acts 20:4; Acts 27:2; Col. 4:10; Philemon 24.

Aristobulus. [Aristobu'lus]

A resident at Rome whose household Paul saluted Rom. 16:10.

Ark of God.

This is also called  'ARK OF THE COVENANT,'  'ARK OF THE TESTIMONY,'  'ARK OF JEHOVAH.' The sacred chest belonging to the Tabernacle and the Temple. It was made of shittim wood, overlaid within and without with pure gold. It was 2-1/2 cubits long, 1-1/2 cubits in breadth, and the same in height, with a crown or cornice of gold. On each side were rings of gold in which were inserted the staves by which it was carried. Its lid, on which were the two cherubim made wholly of gold, was called the MERCY-SEAT, q.v. The ark was typical of Christ, in that it figured the manifestation of divine righteousness (gold) in man; the mercy-seat was Jehovah's throne, the place of His dwelling on earth. In the ark were placed the two tables of stone (the righteousness demanded by God from man), and afterwards the golden pot that had manna, and Aaron's rod that budded. For the place of the ark and the manner of its being moved see the TABERNACLE.

In the first journey of the children of Israel from Mount Sinai the ark of the covenant went before them to "search out a resting place for them," type of God's tender care for them. When the ark set forward Moses said, "Rise up, Lord, and let thine enemies be scattered;" and when it rested he said, "Return, O Lord, unto the many thousands of Israel." Num. 10:33-36. When they arrived at Jordan, the ark was carried by the priests 2000 cubits in front of the host that they might know the way they must go, Joshua 3:3-4, and the ark remained on the shoulders of the priests in the bed of the river, until all had passed over. Joshua 3:17. This typifies association with Christ's death and resurrection.

The ark accompanied them in their first victory: it was carried by the priests around Jericho. It is only in the power of Christ in resurrection that the saint can be victorious. The tabernacle was set up at Shiloh, and doubtless the ark was placed therein, Joshua 18:1, though it may have been carried elsewhere. In Eli's days when Israel was defeated they fetched the ark from Shiloh that it might save them, but they were again defeated, and the ark, in which they had placed their confidence instead of in Jehovah, was seized by the Philistines. 1 Sam. 5:1. When put into the house of their god Dagon the idol fell down before it on two occasions, and on the second was broken to pieces. Subsequently it was taken from Ashdod to Gath, and from Gath to Ekron, and the people were smitten by the hand of God in each city.

After seven months a new cart was made, to which two milch kine were yoked, and the ark sent back to the Israelites with a trespass offering to the God of Israel. The kine, contrary to nature, went away from their calves, and went direct to Beth-shemesh, for it was God who restored the ark. There God smote the men of the place for looking into the ark. It was then taken to Kirjath-jearim and placed in the house of Abinadab. 1 Sam. 6; 1 Sam. 7:1-2.   See ABINADAB.

In after years David fetched the ark from thence on a new cart, but the ark being shaken, Uzzah put forth his hand to steady it, and was smitten of God. This frightened David and the ark was carried aside to the house of Obed-edom. The law had directed how the ark was to be carried, and the new cart was following the example of the Philistines: Uzzah disregarded God's plain direction and heeded not the sacredness of that which represented the presence of God. David however, hearing that God had blessed the house of Obed-edom, again went for the ark, and now it was carried by the Levites according to divine order, and with sacrifices and rejoicing it was placed in the tabernacle or tent that David had pitched for it. 2 Sam. 6.

When Solomon had built the temple, the ark was removed thither, and the staves by which it had been carried were taken out: the ark had now found its resting place in the kingdom of Solomon, whose reign is typical of the millennium. It is significant too that now there were only the two tables of stone in the ark, 1 Kings 8:1-11: the manna had ceased when they ate of the old corn of the land, which is typical of a heavenly Christ; and the witness of Aaron's rod was no longer needed now they were in the kingdom. The wilderness circumstances, in which the manna and the priesthood of Christ were so necessary, were now passed. These are both mentioned in Heb. 9:4, for there the tabernacle, and not the temple is in contemplation.

No further mention is made of the ark: it is supposed to have been carried away with the sacred vessels to Babylon, and to have never been returned: if so there was no ark in the second temple nor in the temple built by Herod, nor do we read of the ark in connection with the temple described by Ezekiel. In Rev. 11:19 the ark of God's covenant is seen in the temple of God in heaven: symbol here of the resumption of God's dealings with His earthly people Israel.

Ark of Noah.

The vessel constructed by the command of God, by which Noah and his household and some of every living creature of the earth were saved when the world was destroyed by the flood. Precise instructions were given by God as to the construction of the ark. It was to be made of 'gopher' wood, a kind known at the time, but which cannot now be identified with certainty; and it was to be pitched within and without with pitch, or bitumen, to make it water-tight.

Its proportions were to be 300 cubits long, 50 cubits broad, and 30 cubits high. If the cubit be taken at 18 inches, its length would have been 450 feet, its breadth 75 feet and its height 45 feet. If the cubit used had been 21 inches, the dimensions would be one-sixth larger.

A window was to be made to the ark. Gen. 6:16. The word tsohar signifies 'a place of light' and was probably placed in the roof, and may have served in some way for ventilation as well as for giving light. Another word for window is used in Gen. 8:6 (challon) which could be opened from the inside. This word is used for the windows or casements of houses, and would give ventilation. In Gen. 6:16, after speaking of the window, it says, "and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above;" it is a question whether this refers to the size of the window or whether the word 'it' refers to the ark. It has been said that the feminine suffix, which is rendered 'it' cannot refer to the word window, which is masculine: so that it is possible the cubit refers to the roof; that the middle of the roof should be raised, giving a cubit for the pitch of the roof. A door was to be made in the side of the ark; and the ark was to be divided into three stories. 'Rooms,' or 'nests' (margin) are also mentioned. Gen. 6:14.

Such is the description given us of the form of the ark. It was by faith Noah prepared the ark, by which he condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is by faith. Heb. 11:7. It is thus referred to in 1 Peter 3:20-21, "into which few, that is, eight souls, were saved through water: which figure also now saves you, [even] baptism, not a putting away of [the] filth of flesh, but [the] demand as before God of a good conscience, by [the] resurrection of Jesus Christ."

It may just be added that the form of the ark was not intended for navigation amid storms and billows, but it was exactly suited for the purpose for which it was constructed. A ship for freight was once made in like proportions, to be used in quiet waters, and was declared to be a great success.

Various questions have been raised as to the veracity of the Bible account of the Deluge, for which see FLOOD.

Ark of Bulrushes.

The little boat or cradle in which Moses was placed by his mother. It was made of bulrushes, or rather paper-reeds or papyrus which grew in the river Nile. It was daubed with slime and with pitch, that is, most probably first covered with wet earth or clay, and then with bitumen. Ex. 2:3, 5. Some of the heathen writers speak of the papyrus-woven craft of the Nile. God answered the faith of the parents, and Moses was drawn out of the water to be the saviour of His people.

Arkite. [Ark'ite]

Tribe descended from Canaan, son of Ham; it probably resided in Arca, in the north of Phoenicia, about 15 miles north of Tripoli, now called Tell Arka. Gen. 10:17; 1 Chr. 1:15.


The member of the body which is capable of lifting burdens and defending the person: it is used symbolically for the power and strength of God on behalf of His saints. Ex. 15:16; Ps. 77:15; Isa. 51:9; Isa. 53:1. The arm of Jehovah is often spoken of in the O.T. It redeemed, Ex. 6:6; etc.; gathers His own, Isa. 40:11; and rules for Him, Isa. 40:10, as in the kingdom. It is a holy arm, Isa. 52:10; Ps. 98:1; and it is a glorious arm, Isa. 63:12. The arm of the Lord is revealed to souls where there is repentance and faith in the report which God sends. Isa. 53:1; Rom. 10:16. It is to be trusted in even by the isles of the Gentiles, that is, by sinners everywhere in creation. Isa. 51:5.

Armageddon. [Armaged'don]

The Hebrew name of the place where the kings of the earth and of the whole world will be gathered together to make war against the Lord Jesus in the great day of Almighty God. Rev. 16:16. There seems to be an allusion to the great battle field of Palestine in the Esdraelon, and to the Megiddo mentioned in Judges 5:19; 1 Kings 4:12; 2 Kings 23:29-30. The word itself is translated 'the mountain of slaughter,' and may be used symbolically for the destruction that will surely fall upon the enemies of the Lord Jesus.

Armenia. [Arme'nia]

This name occurs in the A.V. in 2 Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38, as the place to which two sons of Sennacherib fled after killing their father; but in both these passages the Hebrew word is Ararat. Armenia occurs in the LXX in the passage in Isaiah. Armenia lies west of the Caspian Sea, and extends northward of 38 N. lat.  It is now partly in the Russian and partly in the Turkish empires.

Armoni. [Armo'ni]

Son of Saul and Rizpah, hanged by the Gibeonites. 2 Sam. 21:8.


None of the Hebrew words translated 'armour' refer definitely to what is understood now by armour worn on the person. Saul armed David with his 'armour,' 1 Sam. 17:38, but the word used is also translated 'clothes,' etc., and it may refer to Saul's warrior-dress. The articles named are somewhat more definite.

1.  Saul put on David a 'HELMET of brass.' These were raised a little above the head, as may be seen by some of the sculptures from Nineveh. 1 Sam. 17:38; Ezek. 23:24: the word is qoba. Another word, koba, meaning the same, is found in 1 Sam. 17:5; 2 Chr. 26:14; Isa. 59:17; Jer. 46:4; Ezek. 27:10; Ezek. 38:5.

2.  COAT OF MAIL. Saul put on David a 'Coat of Mail,' shiryon. 1 Sam. 17:5, 38. This word is translated 'HABERGEON ' in 2 Chr. 26:14 ; Neh 4:16, which also signifies 'coat of mail,' and there is a similar word in Job 41:26. It was made of brass scales fastened together. The weight of Goliath's coat of mail was 5,000 shekels.

3.  GREAVES. The giant wore Greaves of brass upon his legs. 1 Sam. 17:6. The word is mitschah, and occurs nowhere else.

4.  TARGET. He had a Target of brass between his shoulders, 1 Sam. 17:6: the word is kidon, and is elsewhere translated both 'shield' and 'spear.' In this case it was probably a small spear carried between the shoulders.

5.  SHIELD. A Shield was carried before him. This was a tsinnah, a shield of large size to protect the whole body, with a large boss in the centre rising to a point which could be used as a weapon. It is employed figuratively for God's protecting care of His people. Ps. 5:12; Ps. 91:4. The same word is translated BUCKLER. Ps. 35:2; Ezek. 23:24; Ezek. 26:8, etc.

Another word is used for a smaller shield, magen, and this is the word which occurs most commonly in the O.T., especially in the Psalms, referring to God's protection, as Ps. 28:7; Ps. 33:20; Ps. 84:11; Ps. 119:114, etc. The same word is translated BUCKLER. 2 Sam. 22:31; 1 Chr. 5:18; Cant. 4:4; Jer. 46:3, etc.

The word shelet is translated Shield, but is also applied to Shields of gold, 2 Sam. 8:7, and those suspended for ornament. Ezek. 27:11. It occurs also in 2 Kings 11:10; 1 Chr. 18:7; 2 Chr. 23:9; Cant. 4:4; Jer. 51:11.

In the N.T. 'armour' is used symbolically.

1.  ὅπλα in contrast to 'the works of darkness' we are exhorted to put on 'the armour of light.' Rom. 13:12. Paul and his fellow-labourers commended themselves as God's ministers by the "armour, or arms, of righteousness on the right hand and on the left." 2 Cor. 6:7.

2.    πανοπλία, 'whole armour.' One stronger than Satan takes away all his 'armour.' Luke 11:22. The Christian is exhorted to put on the 'whole armour of God,' the panoply, that he may stand in the evil day in his conflict with the spiritual powers of wickedness in the heavenlies. Eph. 6:11, 13.  See BREASTPLATE, HELMET, etc.


An attendant on a warrior, filling a place of trust and honour. When Saul loved David he made him his armourbearer. 1 Sam. 16:21. On Saul being wounded, his armourbearer refused to kill him; but when Saul was dead the armourbearer fell upon his sword and died also. 1 Sam. 31:5.


In Neh. 3:19 the word is nesheq also translated 'armour.' In Cant. 4:4 it is talpiyyoth, 'armoury' or heap of swords. In Jer. 50:25 it is otsar, signifying 'treasury.'


  The offensive arms found in the O.T. are:

1.  The SWORD, for which several Hebrew words are used:   a. baraq, often translated 'lightning;' it is 'glittering sword' in Job 20:25.   b.  chereb, a sword, as laying waste. It is the word commonly used in the O.T. for sword (everywhere indeed except in the references given here under the other words): it was a straight tapering weapon, with two edges and a sharp point. Ps. 149:6; Isa. 14:19. It is used metaphorically for keen and piercing words, as in Ps. 57:4; Ps. 64:3.   c.  retsach, an undefined slaying weapon, translated 'sword' only in Ps. 42:10.   d.  shelach, a missile of death, as a dart.  Job 33:18; Job 36:12; Joel 2:8.   e.   pethichoth, from 'to open,' is translated 'drawn sword' in Ps. 55:21.

2.  SPEARS. a.  chanith, thus named as being flexible: it is the word mostly used for the spear. 1 Sam. 13:19; Ps. 57:4. It is this weapon that will be beaten into pruning hooks. Isa. 2:4; Micah 4:3.  b.  kidon, a smaller kind of lance, or javelin. Joshua 8:18, 26; Job 41:29; Jer. 6:23.  c.  tselatsal, harpoon. Job 41:7.   d. qayin, lance, 2 Sam. 21:16.  e.  romach, spear used by heavy-armed troops, the iron head of a spear. Judges 5:8, etc. The pruning hooks are to be beaten into spears in the time of God's judgements. Joel 3:10.

3.  BOW,  from which arrows are discharged, qesheth, generally made of wood, but sometimes of steel or brass. Job 20:24. It is constantly found in the O.T. from Genesis to Zechariah. It is used to express punishment from God, Lam. 2:4; Lam. 3:12; and of men to show their power to injure. Ps. 37:14-15.  'A deceitful bow' expresses a man who fails just when his aid is most needed, as when a bow breaks suddenly. Ps. 78:57; Hosea 7:16.

4.  The SLING, by which stones are discharged, qela. It was by means of this that David smote Goliath. 1 Sam. 17:40, 49, 50. Of the Benjamites there were 700 men lefthanded; "every one could sling stones at an hair breadth, and not miss." Judges 20:16. (In Prov. 26:8 occurs another word for sling margemah, but the passage is considered better translated "as he that putteth a precious stone in a heap of stones," as in the margin.)

5.  'ENGINES,' with which Uzziah shot arrows and great stones. 2 Chr. 26:15.


It must be remembered that Israel were the hosts of Jehovah, keeping His charge and fighting His battles. Ex. 12:41; Joshua 5:14.  It appears that all who reached the age of twenty years were contemplated as able to bear arms, Num. 1:3; and they marched and encamped in 4 divisions of 3 tribes each, with a captain over every tribe. The subdivisions were into thousands and hundreds, Num. 31:14, and into families.  Joshua 7:17. There were also trumpet calls, Num. 10:9 (cf. 1 Cor. 14:8), and all the appearance of careful organisation. Until the time of the kings this natural or tribal organisation seems to have been usual, but in the time of Saul there was a body guard, 1 Sam. 13:2, and a captain of the host, 1 Sam. 17:55. In David's days those heroes who were with him in the cave of Adullam formed the nucleus of his 'mighty men.' 2 Sam. 23:8-39. They were devoted to the service of God's king. David afterwards organised a monthly militia of 24,000 man under 12 captains. 1 Chr. 27:1-15.

The general gradation of ranks was into privates; 'men of war;' officers; Solomon's 'servants;' captains or 'princes;' and others variously described as head captains, or knights or staff officers; with rulers of his chariots and his horsemen. 1 Kings 9:22. It may be noticed that horses having been forbidden, Deut. 17:16, it was not until Solomon's time that this was organised, though David had reserved horses for a hundred chariots from the spoil of the Syrians. 2 Sam. 8:4.  Solomon, trading with Egypt, 1 Kings 10:28-29, enlarged their number until the force amounted to 1,400 chariots, and 12,000 horsemen, 1 Kings 10:26; 2 Chr. 1:14. Every able man being a soldier gave David the immense army of 1,570,000 men that 'drew sword.' 1 Chr. 21:5. After the division, Judah under Abijah had an army of 400,000 'valiant men,' and Israel at the same time of 800,000 'chosen men.' Afterwards Asa had 580,000 'mighty men of valour;' and Jehoshaphat, who had waxed great exceedingly, had as many as 1,160,000 men, besides those left in the fenced cities. 2 Chr. 17:14-19.

In the N.T. a few references are made to the Roman army. A 'Legion' was a body that contained within itself all the gradations of the army. It might be called under the empire, in round numbers, a force of not more than 6,000 men. Every legion at times contained 10 cohorts of 600 each; every cohort 3 maniples of 200; and every maniple 2 centuries of 100: hence the name of centurion or commander of 100 men, as found in Acts 10:1, 22, etc. Each legion was presided over by 6 chiefs, χιλίαρθος, each commanding 1,000 men, mostly translated 'chief captain,' as in Acts 21:31-37, etc.: it is 'high captain' in Mark 6:21; and 'captain' in John 18:12; Rev. 19:18.  A cohort, σπεῖρα, is translated 'band' in Acts 10:1; Acts 21:31, etc. A 'quaternion' embraced 4 soldiers. Acts 12:4.

The head quarters of the Roman troops was at Caesarea, with a cohort at Jerusalem; but at the time of the feast, when, alas, the mutinous disposition of the Jews was sure to appear, additional troops were present in the city but without their standards of the eagle, etc., which were especially obnoxious to the Jews. Though the Romans were God's rod to punish them, their stiff necks could not bow, nor receive the punishment as from Jehovah.

Arnan. [Ar'nan]

Descendant of David. 1 Chr. 3:21.

Arnon. [Ar'non]

Ravine or wady with its mountain torrent, which formed the border between Moab and Ammon, now known as Wady Mojib. It has sources both north and south which unite, and its stream running nearly east and west, rushes through a deep ravine and falls into the Dead Sea at about its centre north and south. Num. 21:13-28; Num. 22:36; Deut. 2:24, 36; Judges 11:13-26; Isa. 16:2; Jer. 48:20; etc.

Arod, Arodi, Arodites. [A'rod, Aro'di, Aro'dites]

Son of Gad, and his descendants. Gen. 46:16; Num. 26:17.

Aroer. [Aro'er]

1.  City 'before Rabbah,' that is, near Rabbath Ammon, in the valley of the Jabbok, built or rebuilt by the tribe of Gad. Num. 32:34; Joshua 13:25; 2 Sam. 24:5.

2.  Moabite city on the north bank of the Arnon. Deut. 2:36; Joshua 13:9, 16; Judges 11:26; 2 Kings 10:33. Identified with Arair, 31 27' N, 35 43' E.

3.  District near Damascus. Isa. 17:2.

4.  City in Judah, S.E. of Beersheba. 1 Sam. 30:28. Identified with Ararah, 31 11' N, 34 56' E.

Aroerite. [Aro'erite]

Designation of Hothan, father of two of David's captains. 1 Chr. 11:44.

Arpad, Arphad. [Ar'pad, Ar'phad]

Fortified city near Hamath. 2 Kings 18:34; 2 Kings 19:13; Isa. 10:9; Isa. 36:19; Isa. 37:13; Jer. 49:23.

Arphaxad. [Arphax'ad]

Son of Shem, born two years after the flood, from whom Abraham descended. Gen. 10:22, 24; Gen. 11:10-13; 1 Chr. 1:17-18, 24. Stated as the father of Cainan in Luke 3:36. See CAINAN.


With the bow, a common weapon of the ancients. We know not of what wood the arrows of the Israelites were made. Apparently the arrows were sometimes poisoned. Job 6:4; Ps. 120:4; Num. 24:8; Deut. 32:23, etc. Arrows are used metaphorically for the judgements of God, Ps. 38:2; Ps. 45:5: also for anything sharp and painful, as smiting by the tongue. Jer. 9:8.

Artaxerxes. [Artaxer'xes]

1.  Persian king, identified as the magian impostor who pretended to be Smerdis the brother of Cambyses. When appealed to by the adversaries of the Jews, he stopped the building of the temple. He was slain after a reign of eight months. Ezra 4:7-8, 11, 23.

2.  Another Persian king identified as Artaxerxes Longimanus B.C. 474-434, son of Xerxes, the Ahasuerus of Esther. He greatly favoured both Ezra and Nehemiah; he beautified the temple or bore the expense of its being done, Ezra 7:27, and under his protection the wall of the city was finished. Ezra 6:14; Ezra 7:1-21; Ezra 8:1; Neh. 2:1; Neh. 5:14; Neh. 13:6. It was in the 20th year of this king that the command to build the city was given, from which began the dates of the prophecy of the Seventy weeks of Daniel, which is fixed by Usher and Hengstenburg at B.C. 454-5.   For the succession of the Persian kings see PERSIA.

Artemas. [Ar'temas]

Companion of Paul at Nicopolis. Titus 3:12.

Artemis. [Ar'temis]

Name of the heathen goddess Diana, as given in the Greek of Acts 19:24-35: she was regarded as presiding over the productive and nutritive powers of nature.


A general name for skilled artisans, whether in metal, stone, or wood. Tubal-cain was the first named as an artificer in brass and iron. Jubal was the father of all such as handled, or invented and made, the harp and the organ. Cain also built a city. Gen. 4:17, 21, 22. In the above we see the application of the arts by man at a distance from God to promote their own welfare in independence of God. In after times the spirit of wisdom was given to Bezaleel for the work of the tabernacle in "all manner of workmanship." Ex. 35:31: cf. also 1 Chr. 29:5; 2 Chr. 34:11. It would seem that the Jews never afterwards lost this skill, as the remains of the walls of Jerusalem indicate. Nebuchadnezzar carried off all the craftsmen (same word as artificers) and smiths from Jerusalem, 2 Kings 24:14, and he may have made use of their skill to adorn Babylon.


A general term for tools, armour, etc. In 1 Sam. 20:40 it refers to the bow and arrows Jonathan had used.

Aruboth. [Ar'uboth]

The third commissariat district of Solomon, probably the rich corn-growing country in the Shephelah or low hills of Judah. 1 Kings 4:10.

Arumah. [Aru'mah]

City or district apparently near Shechem, the abode of Abimelech. Judges 9:41. Identified with el-Ormeh, 32 9' N, 35 19' E.

Arvad. [Ar'vad]

Island on the Phoenician coast: now called Ruad, about 34 51' N, 35 52' E. Ezek. 27:8, 11.

Arvadite. [Ar'vadite]

Family name of one of the sons of Canaan. Gen. 10:18; 1 Chr. 1:16: doubtless connected with the island of Arvad.

Arza. [Ar'za]

Steward of Elah, king of Israel. 1 Kings 16:9.

Asa. [A'sa]

1.  Great grandson of Solomon and king of Judah, B.C. 955-914. "Asa did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, as did David his father." He removed the idols his fathers had made, 1 Kings 15:11, and he deposed Maachah, his mother, or perhaps grandmother, from being queen because she favoured idolatry. On the country being invaded by the Ethiopians with a million troops and 300 chariots, he cried to the Lord, who fought for him, and the enemy was smitten. He was counselled by Azariah not to forsake the Lord, which led to the spoil being offered to God, and to the king and his people entering into a covenant to seek the Lord.

Subsequently Asa was threatened by Baasha king of Israel who began to build Ramah, a fortified city only a few miles from Jerusalem. To stop this Asa paid a large sum of money to Benhadad king of Syria to invade Israel. This was for the time successful: the building of Ramah was stopped, and Asa carried away the stones thereof and built Geba and Mizpah.

This recourse for aid to the king of Syria, who was an idolater, was very displeasing to God, and the king was rebuked by Hanani the seer. While Asa trusted in the Lord he had deliverance, but having relied on the king of Syria, he should have war all his days. Asa, alas, did not humble himself, but put Hanani in prison, and oppressed some of the people. He was disciplined in his person, for he was diseased in his feet, and the disease increased exceedingly; yet he sought not the Lord, but to the physicians (perhaps these were healers by magic arts in connection with idolatry, on which God's blessing could not be asked) and he died after a reign of 41 years. 1 Kings 15.; 2 Chr. 14, 15, 16.; Matt. 1:7-8.

2.  A Levite, the father of Berechiah. 1 Chr. 9:16.

Asahel. [Asa'hel]

1.  Nephew of David, being son of his sister Zeruiah; he was a valiant man and one of David's captains; was slain by Abner while pursuing him. 2 Sam. 2:18-32; 2 Sam. 3:27, 30; 1 Chr. 11:26; 1 Chr. 27:7.

2.  Levite sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the law in the cities of Judah. 2 Chr. 17:8.

3.  Levite in Hezekiah's time, an overseer of tithes, etc. 2 Chr. 31:13.

4.  Father of Jonathan who returned from exile. Ezra 10:15.

Asahiah, Asaiah. [Asahi'ah, Asai'ah]

1.  An officer sent by Josiah to Huldah the prophetess after the book of the law had been found. 2 Kings 22:12, 14; 2 Chr. 34:20.

2.  Descendant of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:36.

3.  Descendant of Merari. 1 Chr. 6:30.

4.  A Shilonite who became a dweller in Jerusalem. 1 Chr. 9:5.

5.  Descendant of Merari who assisted in bringing up the ark from Obed-edom's house, 1 Chr. 15:6, 11  (possibly the same as No. 3).

Asaph. [A'saph]

1.  A leader of the choir in David's time, and once called a 'seer.' 2 Chr. 29:30. He was descended from Gershom the Levite. 1 Chr. 6:39; 1 Chr. 15:17, 19; 1 Chr. 16:5, 7, 37, etc. Twelve psalms are attributed to him, namely, 50, 73 to 83. His office seems to have been hereditary. Ezra 2:41; Ezra 3:10; Neh. 7:44, etc.

2.  Father of Joah recorder to Hezekiah. 2 Kings 18:18, 37; Isa. 36:3, 22.

3.  A Levite, whose descendants dwelt in Jerusalem after the exile. 1 Chr. 9:15.

4.  A Korhite, whose posterity were porters in the tabernacle in the time of David. 1 Chr. 26:1.

5.  An officer, probably a Jew, controller of the forests of king Artaxerxes in Judaea. Neh. 2:8.

Asareel. [Asar'eel]

Son of Jehaleleel, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:16.

Asarelah. [Asare'lah]

Son of Asaph appointed by David to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:2. Supposed by some to be the same as JESHARELAH in 1 Chr. 25:14, as noted in the margin; and by others to be the same as AZAREEL in 1 Chr. 25:18.


This term is constantly applied to the return of the Lord Jesus Christ to heaven from whence He came.  John 3:13. Leading His eleven apostles out as far as Bethany, on the eastern slope of the Mount of Olives, in the act of blessing them He ascended up to heaven, and a cloud hid Him from their sight. Mark 16:19; Luke 24:50-51; Acts 1:9. The ascension of the Lord Jesus is a momentous fact for His saints: the One who bore their sins on the cross has been received up in glory, and sits on the right hand of God.

As forerunner He has entered into heaven for the saints, and has been made a high priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec. Heb. 6:20. His ascension assured, according to His promise, the descent of the Holy Spirit, which was accomplished at Pentecost. John 16:7; Acts 1:4, 8; Acts 2:1-47. As ascended He became Head of His body the church, Eph. 1:22, and gave gifts to men, among which gifts are evangelists who preach to the world, and pastors and teachers to care for and instruct the saints. Ps. 68:18; Eph. 4:8-13.

His ascension is a demonstration through the presence of the Holy Spirit that sin is in the world and righteousness in heaven, for the very One they rejected has been received by the Father into heaven. John 16:10. The ascension is also a tremendous fact for Satan: the prince of this world has been judged who led the world to put the Lord to death; and in His ascension He led captivity captive, having broken the power of death in which men were held, Eph. 4:8, for He had in the cross spoiled principalities and powers and made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it. Col. 2:15.

Above all, the ascension is a glorious fact for the blessed Lord Himself. Jehovah said unto Him, "Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool." Ps. 110:1. He has taken His place as man where man never was before, and He is also glorified with the glory which He had before the world was, besides the glory which He graciously shares with His saints. John 17:5, 22.

Asenath. [As'enath]

Daughter of Poti-pherah, priest of On, wife of Joseph, and mother of Manasseh and Ephraim. Gen. 41:45, 50; Gen. 46:20.

Aser. [A'ser]



The particular tree pointed out by the Hebrew word oren is not known. Isa. 44:14. The LXX and the Vulgate call it 'pine.'

Ashan. [A'shan]

1.  Levitical city in Judah. Joshua 15:42; 1 Chr. 6:59: not identified.

2.  City in Simeon. Joshua 19:7; 1 Chr. 4:32.  See AIN.

Ashbea. [Ash'bea]

A family apparently descended from Shelah who 'wrought fine linen.' 1 Chr. 4:21.

Ashbel, Ashbelites. [Ash'bel, Ash'belites]

Son of Benjamin and family descended from him. Gen. 46:21; Num. 26:38; 1 Chr. 8:1.

Ashchenaz. [Ash'chenaz]


Ashdod. [Ash'dod]

One of the five chief cities of the Philistines. It was assigned to Judah, but was not subdued by them, and thus became a thorn in their sides. Num. 33:55. It was to this city that the ark was taken by the Philistines, and where Dagon their fish-god fell before it. 1 Sam. 5:1-7. Uzziah broke down its wall, and built cities near it. 2 Chr. 26:6. It was on the high road from Palestine to Egypt which doubtless led Sargon king of Assyria to take it by his general, about B.C. 714. Isa. 20:1. Herodotus records that Psammetichus, king of Egypt, besieged it for 29 years. Jeremiah speaks of Ashdod as one of the places which was made to drink of the fury of God. Jer. 25:15-20. The Maccabees destroyed the city, but Gabinius rebuilt it at the time of the conquest of Judaea by the Romans, B.C. 55, and it was afterwards assigned on the death of Herod the Great to his sister Salome. It was situated about 3 miles from the Mediterranean, and midway between Gaza and Joppa. It is now called Esdud, or Esdood, 31 46' N, 34 40' E, and is wretched in the extreme, though lying in a fertile plain. It is called in the N.T. AZOTUS, where Philip was found after baptising the eunuch. Acts 8:40. Its inhabitants are referred to as ASHDODITES, ASHDOTHITES. Joshua 13:3; Neh. 4:7.

Ashdothpisgah. [Ash'doth-pis'gah]

This is once translated 'springs of Pisgah,' pointing it out as a place from whence water issued, being the sides of the mountain called Pisgah, or it may apply to the range of mountains on the east of the Dead Sea, of which Pisgah was a part. Deut. 3:17; Deut. 4:49; Joshua 12:3; Joshua 13:20. It lies due east of the north end of the Dead Sea, and is now called Ayun Musa.

Ashdothites. [Ash'dothites]


Asher, Aser. [Ash'er, A'ser]

Eighth son of Jacob by Zilpah, Leah's handmaid. Gen. 13. The signification of the name as in the margin is 'happy.' His posterity formed one of the twelve tribes. Its portion in the land was in the extreme north, extending northward from Mount Carmel. It was bounded on the east by Naphtali, and on the south east by Zebulon. It was doubtless intended that their west border should have been the Great Sea, but we read that they did not drive out the inhabitants of Accho, Zidon, Ahlab, Achzib, Helbah, Aphik and Rehob; but the Asherites dwelt among the Canaanites. Judges 1:31-32. This left a tract of land on the sea coast unoccupied by Asher.

When Jacob called his sons about him to tell them what should befall them in the last days, he said of Asher, "Out of Asher his bread shall be fat, and he shall yield royal dainties." Gen. 49:20. When Moses ordained that certain of the tribes should stand on Mount Gerizim to bless the people, and certain others on Mount Ebal to curse, Asher was one of those chosen to stand on the latter. Deut. 27:13. And when Moses blessed the tribes before he died, he said of Asher, "Let Asher be blessed with children; let him be acceptable to his brethren, and let him dip his foot in oil. Thy shoes shall be iron and brass; and as thy days, so shall thy strength be." Deut. 33:24-25.

In Jacob's prophecy as to this tribe there is depicted the future blessing of all Israel after the salvation of the Lord has come in, announced at the close of Dan's apostasy. In Deuteronomy, what is future also as to Israel, is probably presented, but connected rather with the government of God in His hands who is King in Jeshurun.

When Deborah and Barak went to the war they had to lament in their song that Asher abode by the sea coast, and came not to their aid, Judges 5:17; but when subsequently the Midianites and the Amalekites invaded the land Asher responded to the call of Gideon. Judges 6:35; Judges 7:23. At the secession of the ten tribes Asher became a part of Israel, and very little more is heard of this tribe. When Hezekiah proclaimed a solemn passover and sent invitations to the cities of Israel as well as to Judah, though many laughed the messengers to scorn, divers of Asher humbled themselves and came to Jerusalem. 2 Chr. 30:11.

When numbered at Sinai there were 41,500 able to go forth to war, and when near the promised land they were 53,400; but when the rulers of the tribes are mentioned in the time of David, Asher is omitted. Num. 1:41; Num. 26:47; 1 Chr. 27:16-22. The tribe is twice referred to in the N.T. as ASER.  In Rev. 7:6, twelve thousand of Asher will be sealed, and in Luke 2:36, Anna a prophetess, of the tribe of Asher, gave thanks in the temple at the birth of the Saviour. Asher is one of the tribes still to come into blessing, and have a portion in the land. Ezek. 48:2-3.   See THE TWELVE TRIBES

Asherite. [Ash'erite]

One of the tribe of Asher. Judges 1:32.


Ashes, mostly from burnt wood, were used as a sign of sorrow or mourning, either put on the head, 2 Sam. 13:19, or on the body with sackcloth, Esther 4:1; Jer. 6:26; Lam. 3:16; Matt. 11:21; Luke 10:13; or strewn on a couch on which to lie, Esther 4:3; Isa. 58:5; Jonah 3:6. To eat ashes expresses great sorrow, Ps. 102:9; and to be reduced to them is a figure of complete destruction, Ezek. 28:18; Malachi 4:3; to feed on them tells of the vanities with which the soul may be occupied. Isa. 44:20. 'Dust and ashes' was the figure Abraham used of himself before Jehovah, Gen. 18:27; and Job said he had become like them by the hand of God. Job 30:19. For the ashes of the Red Heifer see HEIFER.

Ashima. [Ash'ima]

An idol introduced into Samaria by the colonists sent from Hamath by the king of Assyria. 2 Kings 17:30.

Ashkelon, Askelon. [Ash'kelon, As'kelon]

One of the five principal cities of the Philistines. It fell to the lot of Judah, who took Askelon and the coasts thereof, Judges 1:18, but they did not really subdue it, for it was in the hands of the Philistines when Samson, with the Spirit of the Lord upon him, slew thirty men in the city and took their spoil, Judges 14:19, and that it remained so we see from 1 Sam. 6:17, and 2 Sam. 1:20. The judgements of God were denounced against this city, Jer. 25:20; Jer. 47:5, 7; Amos 1:8; Zech. 9:5; and the remnant of Judah should dwell there. Zeph. 2:4, 7.

The city was situated on the sea coast, midway between Gaza and Ashdod: it is now called Askulan or Askalan, 31 40' N, 34 33' E. In modern times the city was held by the Crusaders, and within its walls Richard of England held his court: the walls which this king aided with his own hands to repair may, it is thought, still be traced, and masses of masonry and broken columns of granite still lie about. By the Mahometan geographers it was called the Bride of Syria.

Ashkenaz, Ashchenaz.  [Ash'kenaz, Ash'chenaz]

Son of Gomer, the son of Japheth, and his descendants, who settled in the vicinity of Armenia. Gen. 10:3; 1 Chr. 1:6; Jer. 51:27.

Ashnah. [Ash'nah]

1.  Town in the west of Judah near Dan.  Joshua 15:33. Identified with Hasan, 31 47' N, 34 59' E.

2.  Town in the low hills of Judah, probably to the S.W. of Jerusalem. Joshua 15:43.

Ashpenaz. [Ash'penaz]

Prince of the eunuchs under Nebuchadnezzar. Dan. 1:3.

Ashriel. [Ash'riel]

Descendant of Manasseh. 1 Chr. 7:14.  See ASRIEL.