Bible Dictionary C 1


An officer over (about) 100 men: they were promoted to this office because of their good conduct and trustworthiness, and it is to be remarked how often centurions are favourably noticed in the Gospels and the Acts. Matt. 8:5-13; Luke 23:47; Acts 10:1, 22; Acts 27:6, etc.

Cephas. [Ce'phas]

An Aramaic name, signifying 'a stone,' equivalent to 'Peter,' given to Simon. John 1:42; 1 Cor. 1:12; 1 Cor. 3:22; 1 Cor. 9:5; 1 Cor. 15:5; Gal. 2:9.


The refuse of threshed and winnowed grain — the husk of the wheat. Used symbolically for that which is quickly consumed, or easily swept away by the wind — worthless people. Ps. 1:4;

Ps. 35:5; Isa. 5:24; Jer. 23:28. The wicked also are compared to chaff to be burned up with unquenchable fire — eternal punishment. Matt. 3:12; Luke 3:17.


These are mentioned in scripture

1.  as the insignia, of office: Joseph and Daniel were invested with gold chains. Gen. 41:42; Dan. 5:7.

2.  As ornaments: they were placed on parts of the temple; were worn on the neck, and found among the spoils of war: Ex. 28:14; Num. 31:50; 2 Chr. 3:5, 16; Cant. 1:10.

3.  Used to secure prisoners. Jer. 39:7; Lam. 3:7; Acts 12:6-7; 2 Tim. 1:16; Jude 6.


A precious stone, mentioned but once: it forms one of the foundations of the wall of the heavenly Jerusalem: it cannot be identified with any certainty. Rev. 21:19.


A wise man whose wisdom was excelled by Solomon. 1 Kings 4:31.  Probably the same as CALCOL.

Chaldea. [Chalde'a]

This was strictly the southern part of Babylonia, but the many references in scripture to the Chaldeans show that the inhabitants of the whole of Babylonia are alluded to by that name. Perhaps Ur is the only place in Chaldea proper to which scripture definitely refers. This was apparently a maritime city, which agrees with the country extending to the Persian Gulf; but the Gulf has receded far from where the river once joined it. The land of Shinar adjoined Chaldea on the north, in which were the early cities of Babel, Erech, Accad and Calneh. Gen. 10:10. The whole district was situate between the rivers Tigris and the Euphrates, but extended west of the latter. It was anciently well watered by canals, and is judged to have been productive. Herodotus says mounds, were built where the river once spread like a sea through the whole plain. Now all is desolation, some parts very dry, and others a mere swamp, with lines of mounds in various directions. The prophecies declared that it would be so, but as stated above, they refer to the whole of Babylonia. Jer. 1:10; Jer. 51:24, 35; Ezek. 11:24; Ezek. 16:29; Ezek. 23:15-16.

Chaldeans, [Chalde'ans] Chaldees.

After the mention of Ur of the Chaldees in Gen. 11:28, 31; Gen. 15:7; and the Chaldeans who fell upon Job's camels (Job 1:17) we do not read of them for some fifteen hundred years, when God sent them to punish Judah. 2 Kings 24:2. Then, however, they cannot be distinguished from the Babylonians. Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon was called a Chaldean, Ezra 5:12, and on the taking of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar it was the Chaldeans who destroyed the city, 2 Kings 25; and in 2 Chr. 36:17 Nebuchadnezzar is called 'the king of the Chaldees.' It is evident therefore that the Babylonians are called Chaldees; and at one time the Assyrians were associated with the Babylonians. We read "Behold the land of the Chaldeans; this people was not, till the Assyrian founded it for them that dwell in the wilderness." Isa. 23:13. This passage has been variously interpreted. The meaning appears to be that it was the Chaldeans that were going to destroy Tyre. They were a people that had not been reckoned among the nations until the Assyrians, consolidated them into a nation. They had formerly dwelt in the wilderness (as when they fell upon Job's camels, Job 1:17). This was the people that would bring Tyre to ruin. Lowth translates the verse thus: "Behold the land of the Chaldeans; this people was of no account; (the Assyrian founded it for the inhabitants of the desert; they raised the watch towers, they set up the palaces thereof): this people hath reduced her to a ruin." Herodotus says "the Assyrians built the towers and temples of Babylon." Isa. 48:14,20; Jer. 21:4, 9,10; Ezek. 23:14; Dan. 5:30; Dan. 9:1.

It has been judged that the Hebrew word Kasdim, translated 'Chaldeans,' is from the Assyrian word Kasadu, 'to conquer,' and is applied to those who 'conquered' the Chaldean plain. The earlier inhabitants had an agglutinative language, such as the descendants of Cush would have: whereas the Chaldeans spoken of in the O.T. were a Semitic race, who then possessed the land. At first they were a number of tribes in South Babylonia, but were afterwards united and increased. They became merged by the mixing of races, intercourse, etc., so as not to be distinguishable from the Babylonians.

Chaldeans (Wise men).

These are mentioned repeatedly in Daniel along with magicians, astrologers, and soothsayers. These Chaldeans were a particular class of learned men, forming with others the Magi, or wise men of Babylon. In Dan. 5:11 it is said that Daniel had been made 'master' of them, doubtless because it had been discovered that he had more wisdom than all of them. When the Chaldeans, etc., were called in before the king to interpret the writing on the wall, Daniel was not among them, and we may be sure he kept himself aloof from such.   See MAGI.

Chaldean Language.

At Babylon Daniel and his companions had to acquire 'the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans,' that is, their ancient literature and language. Dan. 1:4. The question is what was that language? In Dan. 2:4 we find that the wise men answered the king in the Syriac language, that is Aramaic: cf. Ezra 4:7. The Hebrew language is held to be closely related to the Aramaic: that the two are not the same is evident from Isa. 36:11, where the Jewish leaders asked Rabshakeh to speak in the Syrian language, and not in the Jews' language, that the Jews generally should not understand what was said. There must be some reason why in Daniel it is said the wise men answered the king in 'Aramaic:' this is held to be not the learned and court language, but the common language of the people; and the wise men may have used it that all who heard it might judge of the reasonableness of what they said, though the king might condemn them. The language spoken at court would be different and has been judged by some to be a branch of the Aryan dialect, the ancient language of Central Asia; or perhaps it may have been the ancient Accadian.

As to the writing, the inscriptions found at Assyria, Babylon, and Persia are cut in stone or stamped on bricks in the cuneiform (that is, wedge-shaped) characters. It is known that there was an earlier mode of writing by hieroglyphics which could easily be painted upon papyrus, but which could not without great labour be cut in hard stone, and it is probable that this led to the adoption of the wedge-shaped characters, in which there are no curves: by the variation in position, and number of short and long wedges every sound could be represented, and every proper name spelled. Darius is thus represented on a Persian inscription at Behistun.


Idol-altars are compared to soft limestone, which will soon be reduced to powder when God's set time has arrived to bless Israel. Isa. 27:9.


Licentiousness. Rom. 13:13.


1.  Eunuch who had care of the king's wives and concubines. 2 Kings 23:11; Esther 1:10-15; Acts 12:20.

2.  Chamberlain, i.e., the treasurer or steward of the City of Corinth, whose salutations Paul sent to Rome. Rom. 16:23.


The Hebrew word is koach, Lev. 11:30, and is thought to refer to a species of lizard. There are chameleons in Palestine, but they are unfit for food, whereas the lizards are eaten. The lizard was classed among the unclean animals.


The Hebrew word is zemer, Deut. 14:5, which is held to signify 'leaper,' and would thus suit the chamois; but this animal is unknown in Palestine and is supposed never to have existed there. It has been suggested that the animal specified is the aoudad, the mountain sheep; others judge the wild goat to be referred to.


The word is arabah, Deut. 11:30, and is elsewhere translated 'plain, desert, wilderness.' It is the wide valley in which the Jordan runs.

Chanaan. [Cha'naan]

Acts 7:11; Acts 13:19.  Same as CANAAN.


The word in the original signifies 'master of counsel or decrees.'  It was the title of a Persian officer. Ezra 4:8-9, 17.


Sanctuary, Amos 7:13, as miqdash is often translated elsewhere.


Crown, head, or capital of a pillar. Ex. 36:38; 1 Kings 7:16-20; 2 Chr. 3:15; Jer. 52:22; etc.


Travelling merchant. 2 Chr. 9:14.

Charashim. [Chara'shim]

'Craftsmen,' as in the margin. 1 Chr. 4:14: cf. Neh. 11:35.

Charchemish. [Char'chemish]

2 Chr. 35:20.   See CARCHEMISH.


Dish.   Num. 7:13-85; Matt. 14:8, 11; Mark 6:25, 28. In Ezra 1:9 it is bason or bowl. In the N.T. it is πίναξ , probably a wooden trencher.


Except in Cant. 3:9, where the word is appiryon and signifies 'sedan, portable couch,' the chariots were vehicles with two wheels, used either for travelling or for war: they are often seen portrayed on Egyptian and Assyrian monuments. Gen. 41:43; Gen. 50:9; 1 Kings 4:26; Ezek. 23:24; Acts 8:28; Rev. 9:9.  In Rev. 18:13 the word is ῥέδα, and some describe it as a vehicle with four wheels. The CHARIOT MAN in 2 Chr. 18:33 is the driver, as in 1 Kings 22:34. A CHARIOT OF FIRE and horses of fire appeared when Elijah was carried up into heaven. 2 Kings 2:11-12. When the king of Syria sought to take Elisha at Dothan he was protected by invisible chariots of fire. 2 Kings 6:17.


A word often used in the A.V. where the word 'love' would be much better, as indeed the same Greek word is often translated. In 1 Cor. 13:3 it is shown that a person may be very charitable or benevolent but have no love.


 In Ps. 58:5; Jer. 8:17 the allusion is to those who can charm serpents, probably by soft and gentle sounds. In Deut. 18:11; Isa. 19:3 it is associated with idolatry and sorcerers: these also carry on their incantations with low mutterings.   See DIVINATION.

Charran. [Char'ran]



This is in scripture mostly linked with love and sonship, and implies 'instruction' and 'discipline.'  He that loveth chasteneth. Prov. 13:24; Deut. 8:5; Heb. 12:5-11; Rev. 3:19. "Blessed is the man whom thou chastenest." Ps. 94:12. The chastening at the time does not seem to be joyous but grievous, yet afterward it yields the peaceable fruits of righteousness to those exercised thereby. Heb. 12:11.  John 15:2 shows that a Christian may be chastened of the Father that he may bring forth more fruit.

Chebar. [Che'bar]

The river in the land of the Chaldeans, near to which Ezekiel was dwelling, when some of his visions were revealed to him. Ezek. 1:1, 3; Ezek. 3:15; etc. Some identify it with the Habor, but this is only conjecture, and others consider the Habor to be much too far north.

Chedorlaomer. [Chedorlao'mer]

King of Elam in the time of Abram. Gen. 14:1-17. In punishing some of his tributaries he carried away Lot, but was pursued by Abram and was apparently killed. The name of KHUDUR-LAGAMAR king of Elam, has been met with in the inscriptions, which is supposed to be the same as Chedorlaomer. He had subdued the five kings near the Dead Sea, some 700 miles across the desert, or 1000 by the Euphrates and traversing the land of Canaan. He returned by this latter route, for he was near Damascus when Abram overtook him.


Curdled milk, which in some instances is dried and is solid enough to be cut into slices. 1 Sam. 17:18; 2 Sam. 17:29; Job 10:10.

Chelal. [Che'lal]

One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:30.

Chelluh. [Chel'luh]

One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:35.

Chelub. [Che'lub]

1.  Apparently a descendant of Judah, and father of Mehir. The LXX and Vulg. have CALEB.  1 Chr. 4:11.

2.  Father of Ezri. 1 Chr. 27:26.

Chelubai. [Chelu'bai]

Son of Hezron. 1 Chr. 2:9. Apparently the same as Caleb in 1 Chr. 2:18 and 42.

Chemarim. [Chema'rim]

A Hebrew word signifying some class of 'priests.' Zeph. 1. 4; Hosea 10:5, margin. It is translated 'idolatrous priest' in 2 Kings 23:5. The derivation of the word is much disputed.

Chemosh. [Chemosh']

One of the chief gods of the Moabites and the Ammonites, the worship of which was introduced at Jerusalem by Solomon, and abolished by Josiah. Num. 21:29; Judges 11:24; 1 Kings 11:7, 33;

2 Kings 23:13; Jer. 48:7, 13, 46. On the 'MOABITE ' STONE, q.v., this 'god' is mentioned. The king, referring to the king of Israel, says, "Chemosh drove him before my sight."

Chenaanah. [Chena'anah]

1.  Father of the false prophet Zedekiah. 1 Kings 22:11, 24; 2 Chr. 18:10, 23.

2.  Son of Bilhan, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 7:10.

Chenani. [Chena'ni]

Levite who assisted Ezra at the solemn fast. Neh. 9:4.

Chenaniah. [Chenani'ah]

1.  Chief Levite skilful in song (but see the margin) 1 Chr. 15:22, 27.

2.  Officer of David, an Izharite. 1 Chr. 26:29.

Chepharhaammonai.  [Chephar'-haammo'nai]

This signifies 'hamlet of the Ammonites.' A city of Benjamin. Joshua 18:24.

Chephirah. [Chephi'rah]

City of the Benjamites, which once belonged to the Gibeonites, whose people returned with Zerubbabel. Joshua 9:17; Joshua 18:26; Ezra 2:25; Neh. 7:29. Identified with Kefireh, 31 50' N, 35 6' E.

Cheran. [Che'ran]

Son of Dishon the Horite. Gen. 36:26; 1 Chr. 1:41.

Cherethims, Cherethites.  [Chere'thims, Chere'thites]

1.  Inhabitants of the southern parts of Philistia. 1 Sam. 30:14; Ezek. 25:16; Zeph. 2:5. In the last two passages, the LXX read 'Cretans.' It is supposed that they were people from Crete, who had settled on the coast of Palestine.

2.  Body-guard of David and officers sent to do service, doubtless originally the same as No. 1. They were faithful to David at the revolt of Absalom. 2 Sam. 8:18; 2 Sam. 15:18; 2 Sam. 20:7, 23; 1 Kings 1:38, 44; 1 Chr. 18:17.

Cherith. [Cherith']

Brook or wady 'before Jordan,' where Elijah was fed by the ravens during part of the three years' famine. 1 Kings 17:3, 5.  It is not, identified.

Cherub. [Cherub']

Place in the East from which some returned to the land of Judah. Ezra 2:59; Neh. 7:61.

Cherub, Cherubim.

Representatives of God's power in creation and judicial government. They were placed at Eden to keep the tree of life after the fall of man. Gen. 3:24. They were depicted in needlework and in carving both in the tabernacle and the temple, and two of them with wings were represented as overshadowing the mercy-seat. Ex. 25:18-22; Ex. 26:1, 31; Ex. 37:7-9; 1 Kings 6:23-35; 1 Kings 8:6-7. In the visions of Ezekiel cherubim were seen in connection with the wheels, representing the glory and course of God's government in active judgement of Israel. They are called 'living creatures' in Ezekiel 1, with the faces of a man (intelligence), of a lion (strength), of an ox (plodding endurance), and of an eagle (swiftness): see also Ezekiel 10: where they are called 'cherubims,' and cf. Rev. 4:6-9, etc., where in the A.V. the four living creatures are unhappily called 'beasts.'

The winged bulls which were placed at the entrances of the Assyrian palaces were probably traditions of the cherubim. In the Accadian language they were termed kirubu, and were thought to preserve the places from the entrance of evil spirits.

Chesalon. [Chesa'lon]

Border-city of Judah on the N.W. Joshua 15:10. Identified with Kesla, 31 47' N, 35 3' E.

Chesed. [Che'sed]

Fourth son of Nahor. Gen. 22:22.

Chesil. [Chesil']

City in the extreme south of Judah. Joshua 15:30.

Chesnut Tree.

When the Assyrian is compared to a great tree it is described as excelling in its beauty the branches of the chesnut tree. Ezek. 31:8. It is identified with the 'Plane-tree' which grows in Palestine. It was known to Jacob. Gen. 30:37. It is the Platanus orientalis. It thrives best in a rich moist soil, and is a noble and beautiful tree.

Chesulloth. [Chesul'loth]

A border town of Issachar. Joshua 19:18. Identified with Iksal, 32 41' N, 35 19' E. Probably the same as CHISLOTH-TABOR in Joshua 19:12, and TABOR in 1 Chr. 6:77.



Chezib. [Chezib']

Town in the lowlands of Judah. Gen. 38:5. Probably the same as ACHZIB and CHOZEBA.

Chidon. [Chi'don]


Chief of Asia.



David proclaimed, "Lo, children are an heritage of Jehovah: and the fruit of the womb is his reward." Ps. 127:3. Women in the East had a great desire for children, as may be seen by Sarah, Rachel, and Leah giving their handmaids to their husbands that they might have children by them, and this ever characterised the women of Israel afterwards.

The law commanded children to honour their parents, and if a son smote or cursed his parents he was put to death. Ex. 21:15, 17. Parents were to teach the law to their children, and to chastise them when needed, and if a son was disobedient and contumacious the men of the city were to stone such a one. Deut. 21:18-21. The first born was claimed by God, and had to be redeemed, Ex. 13:13; and the eldest son inherited a double portion of his father's possessions. Deut. 21:17.

Metaphorically we meet with 'children of Zion,' 'children of Belial,' 'children of the devil,' etc., often referring to their moral character.

In the N.T. various Greek words are translated children in the A.V.  Thus in 1 John, 'little children' occurs in 1 John 2:1, 12, 13, 18, 28; and though correct, yet there is a difference in the words. 1 John 2:1, 12 and 28 refer to all Christians as God's children; but 1 John 2:13 and 18 refer to young children or babes as a class, in contrast to young men and fathers. Again, in many places where the word is υἱός, and should be translated 'sons,' the A.V. has 'child' or 'children,' as in Rom. 9:26-27; 2 Cor. 3:7, 13; Gal. 3:7, 26; Eph. 2:2; Eph. 5:6; Col. 3:6; 1 Thess. 5:5; Heb. 11:22; Heb. 12:5; Rev. 2:14; Rev. 7:4; Rev. 12:5; Rev. 21:12; besides often in the Gospels and Acts.  See SON.  Again, in Acts 4:27, 30 the word is παῖς, which is as often translated 'servant' as 'child,' the word signifying both. In these verses it would be much better to translate 'thy holy servant Jesus;' David is also called 'servant' in Acts 4:25.

Chileab. [Chil'eab]

Second son of David by Abigail. 2 Sam. 3:3: called DANIEL in 1 Chr. 3:1.

Chilion. [Chil'ion]

Son of Elimelech and Naomi. Ruth 1:2, 5; Ruth 4:9.

Chilmad. [Chil'mad]

Unknown place associated with Sheba and Asshur, whose merchants traded with Tyre. Ezek. 27:23.

Chimham. [Chim'ham]

A man of Gilead, probably the son of Barzillai (cf. 1 Kings 2:7), who commended him to David on his return to Jerusalem, after the death of Absalom. 2 Sam. 19:37-38, 40 (in ver. 40 the Hebrew reads CHIMHAN, as in the margin); Jer. 41:17.

Chinnereth, Chinneroth, Cinneroth.  [Chin'nereth, Chin'neroth, Cin'neroth]

City and district, probably the same as the 'land of Gennesareth.' Joshua 11:2; Joshua 19:35; 1 Kings 15:20.

Chinnereth, Chinneroth, Sea of.    [Chin'nereth, Chin'neroth, Sea of]

The lake subsequently called LAKE OF GENNESARET, SEA OF TIBERIAS, and SEA OF GALILEE, q.v. Num. 34:11; Joshua 12:3; Joshua 13:27.

Chios. [Chi'os]

Island in the Aegean Sea, passed by Paul in his voyage from Troas to Caesarea, Acts 20:15: now named Scio.



Chislon. [Chis'lon]

Father of Elidad, a prince of the tribe of Benjamin, who assisted in the division of the land. Num. 34:21.

Chislothtabor.  [Chis'loth-ta'bor]

Place on the boundary of Zebulon. Joshua 19:12. Probably the same as CHESULLOTH, q.v.

Chittim. [Chit'tim]

Several times referred to in the O.T. in connection with its 'ships.' It points originally to Cyprus (see KITTIM); but in Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:6 the 'isles of Chittim' are spoken of, so it is evident that in the Prophets other islands are associated with Cyprus. Num. 24:24; Isa. 23:1, 12; Dan. 11:30.  See CYPRUS.

Chiun. [Chi'un]

A heathen god. Amos 5:26. Supposed by some to be the same as REMPHAN in Acts 7:43.

Chloe. [Chlo'e]

A convert mentioned only in 1 Cor. 1:11.

Chorashan.  [Chor-a'shan]

City in Judah where David was wont to haunt, and to which he sent some of his spoils taken in war. 1 Sam. 30:30. It is mentioned with cities south of Hebron.

Chorazin. [Chora'zin]

City in which some of the Lord's mighty works were done, and on which a woe was pronounced. Matt. 11:21; Luke 10:13. The woe was also pronounced on Bethsaida and Capernaum. They were all near the Sea of Galilee. Chorazin is identified with the ruins of Kerazeh, 32 55' N, 35 34' E.

Chozeba. [Choze'ba]

City of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:22. Probably the same as CHEZIB, Gen. 38:5, and ACHZIB, Joshua 15:44; Micah 1:14.

Christ, The Christ,

ὁ χριστός. An official title of the Lord Jesus, which became used as a name. In John 1:41; John 4:25 this title is linked with the Messiah of the O.T. The Jews and Samaritans were expecting THE MESSIAH, "which is called Christ." We find the title 'Messiah' in Dan. 9:25-26 in the prophecy of the Seventy Weeks. The Hebrew word is mashiach and signifies 'anointed.' This term is employed as to the Lord Jesus in Ps. 2:2: the rulers set themselves against Jehovah and His 'Anointed.' The same word is used in reference to the high priest and the king as God's anointed; but the Lord Jesus is emphatically 'the Anointed,' this being the signification of the Word 'the Christ' which should be read in many places in the N.T. where the A.V. simply has 'Christ.' In the Gospels it is nearly always 'the Christ,' and often in the Epistles, except where it is Jesus Christ, or Christ Jesus which has more the character of a name. It refers to the Lord as Man, being anointed with the Holy Ghost.

In Daniel we read that Messiah the Prince would be cut off and have nothing (margin), which was fulfilled when, instead of being hailed as Messiah by the Jews, He was rejected, cut off, and had, at the time, nothing of His Messianic honours, though, in His death, He laid the foundation of His future glory on earth, as well as effecting eternal redemption for the saved. We read in 1 Cor. 12:12 that as the body is one, and hath many members, "so also is the Christ:" the Head and the members in the power and the anointing of the Spirit form but one body.

Being rejected as Messiah on earth, He is made as risen from the dead both Lord and Christ, Acts 2:36, and thus the counsels of God with regard to Him, and man in Him, are effectuated. Saints now are spoken of as having been chosen in Christ from before the foundation of the world. All things in heaven and on earth are to be headed up in the Christ, Eph. 1:10. As the Christ, He is the Head of the body the church. Eph. 4:15.  But the subject can be merely touched on in a short article.


A title first applied to professed believers at Antioch. Acts 11:26. Agrippa used it when addressing Paul. Acts 26:28.  Peter accepts it, saying that to suffer as a 'Christian ' is a cause of thanksgiving. 1 Peter 4:16.

It was not long, alas! before the outward profession of Christ became separated from true faith in Him in the great mass who were recognised as Christians in the world, and in practice they became anything but followers of Christ, as both scripture and history show. To learn what Christianity is according to God, we must turn, not to the great professing body, but to the scriptures, which testify clearly of the declension which was even then begun.

Chronicles, Books of the.

Like the Gospel of John among the Gospels, so these books among the historical books of the O.T. have a special character. John goes back to the 'beginning,' when the Eternal Word was with God: the Chronicles go back to the beginning of man's history: "Adam, Sheth, Enosh," in order to develop that history in the chosen line of promise and grace. The peculiarities of the Chronicles have been a stumbling block to some of the learned critics. It is evident from 1 Chr. 6:15 and 2 Chr. 36:22-23 that they date after the captivity of Judah, the writer compiling the records of the chosen line according to grace — grace which restored them from their captivity. It may be asked, Why omit so many things found in the books of Samuel and the Kings? and why add events not in those early books? There is design in the differences, God being the author of them. One fact should help the elucidation, namely, that after the division of the kingdom, the history of Judah only is given. Therefore more is said of David, and of his preparations and pattern for the Temple, and the history of David's line is traced, with which the mercies of God for Israel were connected in the aspect of grace and of the blessing and ways of God with that people.

Like Deuteronomy, the Chronicles rehearse and show blessing to be consequent on obedience. The history in Samuel and Kings is far more general, and gives the history of the nation to whom the testimony of God was confided in the midst of other nations.

It is not known who wrote the Chronicles, but this is of little consequence, seeing that it does not touch the question of their inspiration, which is strongly marked by the peculiar character of their contents. It is thought that they were written by Ezra, and it will be seen that the end of 2 Chronicles agrees with the beginning of Ezra. The learned say that there are also internal resemblances which make it very probable that they are by the same writer. This has been objected to on the ground of the genealogy in 1 Chr. 3:1-24: it is contended that the number of generations after Zerubbabel in 1 Chr. 3:19 is so large that the writer must have lived in the days of Alexander the Great, and therefore could not have been contemporary with Ezra. But there is a break in the genealogy in the middle of 1 Chr. 3:21: "the sons of Hananiah; Pelatiah, and Jesaiah" closes one list; and what follows is a separate list, and may have run parallel with the other.

The Chronicles are by the Jews included in the Hagiographa, or 'Sacred Books,' and are placed at the end of the Hebrew Bible. "They were regarded as a summary of sacred history."


There are more links of time mentioned in scripture than is generally supposed, forming together an approximate chronology. There is however one great difficulty in the variations of the Hebrew text from the Samaritan Pentateuch and the Septuagint. It is found that there must have been a systematic alteration somewhere, and if the Hebrew text is correct, a period of 100 years has been added to the lives of several, both before the Flood and after it.

Comparison Chart of Chronologies

The above figures form the basis of what is called the 'long chronology' from the LXX, and the 'short chronology' from the Hebrew. It will be seen that there are about 1400 years difference from the birth of Seth to the Call of Abraham. It is difficult to see why the Hebrew text should be abandoned; and if it were, what superior claim would the LXX have over the Samaritan Pentateuch?

A summary of the several periods is added, with a few notes and references to the scriptures.

1656 … From Adam to the Flood
        … (Arrived at by adding the ages of the patriarchs, when the sons named were born.)
  427 … From the Flood to the Call of Abraham
        … (This is found in the same manner, and putting Terah's age at 130 when Abraham
        … was born, that is, adding 60 years to Gen. 11:26: where only one date is given
        … for Terah's three sons. Abraham may not have been the eldest, and may have been
        … born long after. Compare Gen. 11:32; Gen. 12:4, with Acts 7:4.)
  430 … From the Call of Abraham to the Exodus
        … (This is obtained from Ex. 12:40 and Gal. 3:17.)
  479 … From the Exodus to the Temple
        … (This is stated in 1 Kings 6:1 as in the 480th year, or 479 complete years.)
    37 … From the commencement of the Temple to the division of the kingdom
        … (Solomon reigned 40 years, 1 Kings 11:42 and the Temple was begun in his 4th year.)
  388 … From the division of the kingdom to the destruction of Jerusalem
        … (Stated in Ezek. 4:4-6 to be 390 years, or 388 complete years.)
    52 … From the destruction of Jerusalem to the return of the captives
        … (They were captives 70 years, Jer. 25:11-12; Jer. 29:10. This began in the 1st year
        … of Nebuchadnezzar, and Jerusalem was destroyed in his 19th year: 70 - 18 = 52.)
        … From the 1st year of Cyrus to the 20th year of Artaxerxes,
    81 … when the 70 weeks of Daniel commenced
        … (Not given in scripture. Cyrus, 7 years; Cambyses, 7; Pseudo-smerdis, 1;
        … Darius, 36; Xerxes, 11; Artaxerxes, 19.)
  454 … From the 20th of Artaxerxes to the Era A.D.
        … (From the 20th of Artaxerxes to the crucifixion is, according to Dan. 9,
        … 69 weeks = 483 years; from which deduct 29, the date of the crucifixion:
        … 483 - 29 = 454). See SEVENTY WEEKS.
4004 TOTAL

The 430 years of Ex. 12:40 are in the above taken to mean the sojourn in Canaan and in Egypt, the latter being 215 years; this agrees with Gal. 3:17, and with the Israelites being brought out in the fourth generation Gen. 15:16.

As to the time of the Judges it appears clear from Judges 10:7-8 that the events recorded did not all follow chronologically: there were oppressions in the west by the Philistines and in the east by the Ammonites in 'the same year;' the periods of some of the Judges also being synchronal. The A.V. of Acts 13:19-20, presents a difficulty, but most of the Editors (with MSS A B C) read "he gave them their land for an inheritance for the space of [or literally in] 450 years; and after that he gave them judges," and this rendering removes all difficulty. It will be seen by the above that most of the dates affixed to the A.V. are approximately correct: the reign of Artaxerxes is an exception and is incorrect, as may be seen under SEVENTY WEEKS. See JUDGES, KINGS, ANTIOCHUS, and NEW TESTAMENT.

The principal events stand thus:
4004 Adam created.
2948 Noah born.
2348 The Flood.
1996 Abraham born.
1921 Call of Abraham.
1896 Isaac born.
1836 Jacob born.
1706 The Israelites enter Egypt.
1491 The Exodus. The law given.
1451 The Israelites cross the Jordan.
1444 The division of the land. (See JUDGES.)
1095 Saul anointed king: the kingdom begins.
1055 David, king.
1015 Solomon, king.
1005 Dedication of the Temple.
  975 Division of the kingdom. (See KINGS.)
  (776 Era of the Olympiads begins.)
  (753 Rome built: era of A.U.C. begins.)
  740 Captivity of the two and a half tribes east of the Jordan.
  721 End of the kingdom of Israel.
  658 Manasseh carried to Babylon.
  606 Jerusalem taken: first captivity of Judah.
  605 Nebuchadnezzar reigns alone. Time of the Gentiles begins in the first great empire — Babylon.
  599 Jerusalem re-taken: the great captivity.
  588 Jerusalem re-taken and destroyed.
  538 Belshazzar slain: the second great empire commences. The Medes and Persians.
  536 Cyrus reigns alone. The 70 years of Jer. 25:11-12 end. The Jews return. Ezra 1, 2: (See PERSIA.)
  475 Artaxerxes succeeds Xerxes.
  455 Artaxerxes commissions Nehemiah to build Jerusalem. The Seventy Weeks of Daniel begin.
  336 Alexander the Great, head of the third great empire — The Greek.
  323 Death of Alexander the Great: his four Generals divide the kingdom, but it mainly merged into two kingdoms:
  Egypt, 'kings of the South,' and Syria, 'kings of the north.' (See ANTIOCHUS.)
  191 All Asia Minor on the west of Mount Taurus delivered to Rome.
  166 to about 65 The times of the Maccabees. In 166 Jerusalem was recovered and the temple re-dedicated.
    65 Rome, the fourth great empire, rapidly gains ascendancy. Syria becomes a Roman province.
          In 63 Judaea is subjected to Rome. In 30 Egypt becomes a Roman province.
    40 Herod is appointed by Rome king of Judaea.
    20 Herod begins to rebuild the temple
      6 Birth of John the Baptist.
      5 Birth of Christ. (See NEW TESTAMENT.)


Probably the ancient topaz of a golden colour. Rev. 21:20. The Greek word χρυσόλιθος occurs in the LXX in Ex. 28:20; Ex. 36:20 (Ex. 39:13); Ezek. 28:13.


Supposed to be a variety of Chalcedony of a green shade. Rev. 21:20. The word χρυσόπρασος does not occur in the LXX.


A people in league with Egypt, otherwise unknown. Ezek. 30:5.


City in the North captured by David, from whence he took much brass, which was used by Solomon in the Temple. 1 Chr. 18:8. Apparently the same as BEROTHAI in 2 Sam. 8:8.


This English word is said to be derived from the Greek κυριακός , which signifies 'pertaining to the Lord,' and is commonly used both for an association of professing Christians, and for the building in which they worship. It is the scriptural use of the word ἐκκλησία, or 'assembly,' that is here under consideration.

The word is used in reference to Israel in the N.T. on one occasion in Acts 7:38, and to a Gentile throng in Acts 19:32, 41. Its first occurrence in relation to Christianity is in Matt. 16:18, where upon Peter's confession that Jesus was the Son of the living God, the Lord rejoins, "upon this rock I will build my assembly," etc. Historically this spiritual building, (for 'building' never refers to a material edifice) was begun after His death and resurrection, when the Holy Ghost descended at the day of Pentecost. In this aspect of the church there is no room for any failure — the "gates of hades shall not prevail against it." It is what Christ Himself effects by His Spirit in souls, and it contemplates the full and final result. In 1 Peter 2:4-5 we have the progressive work, "ye also as living stones are being built up a spiritual house," etc. The idea of 'building' here supposes a work so wrought that souls become conscious of forming part of the dwelling place of God, and are rendered able to offer up spiritual sacrifices as a holy priesthood.

But there is an aspect of the assembly as a building in which it is viewed in relation to human responsibility, and where consequently human failure has left its unmistakable mark. In 1 Cor. 3. the apostle speaks of himself as a wise master-builder, who has well laid the foundation, which is 'Christ Jesus;' but he adds that 'others build thereupon,' and warns every one to take heed how he does so. Here may be found 'wood, hay, stubble,' as well as 'gold, silver, precious stones.' Men may 'corrupt the temple of God,' and alas! this has been done only too effectually, professing Christendom being the outcome of it. But this aspect of it must in no way be confounded with that which Christ builds, where no failure is found.

There is also another view of the church or assembly as the body and the bride of Christ. Eph. 1:22-23; Eph. 5:26-27. By one Spirit believers are baptised into one body. 1 Cor. 12:13. They are God's "workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works. . . . ." Eph. 2:10. There is the effectual operation of God in quickening them with Christ, in raising them (Jews and Gentiles) up together, and making them to sit together in heavenly places in Christ. They are livingly united to the Head in heaven by the Spirit of God. This body is on earth that the graces of the Head may be displayed in it. His people are to put on, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, bowels of compassion, kindness, lowliness, meekness, longsuffering, etc. Col. 3:12-17. It is the mystery hidden throughout the ages, but now revealed, in order that to the principalities and powers in the heavenlies might be known through the assembly the all various wisdom of God. Eph. 3:9-10. The assembly will be eventually presented by Christ to Himself as His bride, without spot or wrinkle or any such thing. There can be no false members of Christ's body, and no spot or wrinkle in His bride. Those united to Him are 'all of one' with the sanctifier Himself; they are 'His brethren;' they derive from the corn of wheat which has fallen into the ground and died, and which has borne much fruit. Heb. 2.; John 12:24. Moreover the assembly is one. Eph. 4:4; 1 Cor. 12:13. There is not another.

If division has come in on every hand, as it did at Corinth, faith will still recognise that the body is one, and will maintain the truth of it. Gifts were bestowed on the assembly, and will be acknowledged as such by faith, and their exercise welcomed in whatever feebleness. If the assembly has become like a great house, where there are vessels of gold and silver, as well as of wood and of earth (2 Tim. 2:20), the believer is encouraged to purge himself from the latter — the dishonourable vessels — that he may be a vessel unto honour, sanctified and meet for the Master's use, and prepared unto every good work. He is taught in scripture how to behave himself in the house of God, which is the assembly of the living God, the pillar and ground of truth. 1 Tim. 3:15.

It must be carefully observed that the churches or assemblies at Jerusalem, Corinth, Rome, etc., were not separate or independent organisations, as in the modern idea of the Church of Rome, the Greek Church, the Church of England, and so on. There was only one assembly, the Church of God, though expressed in different localities, in which indeed there were local office bearers, as elders and deacons, and where also discipline was locally carried out. There was entire inter-communion. In the present divided state of God's people, the man of faith will be careful to recognise that every true Christian is a part of that one body, with which, as has been said, there can be no failure; while, at the same time, he will pursue a path of separation from evil; and will "follow righteousness, faith, charity, peace, with them that call on the Lord out of a pure heart." 2 Tim. 2:22.

The church will continue on earth until the rapture, revealed in 1 Thess. 4:15-18. As there were saints on earth before the church was formed, so there will be saints on the earth after the rapture: all will be equally saved, but all will not form a part of the church of God as revealed in scripture. This fills a wonderfully unique place, designed of God that in it the principalities and powers in the heavenlies should even now learn the manifold wisdom of God; and in the ages to come the exceeding riches of God's grace be manifested "in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus." Eph. 2:7; Eph. 3:10.

Churches, Robbers of.

This is 'temple-robbers.' Acts 19:37.

Chushanrishathaim.   [Chu'shan-rishatha'im]

King of Mesopotamia, who oppressed Israel for eight years: he was conquered by Othniel, Caleb's nephew. Judges 3:8-10.

Chuza. [Chu'za]

Steward of Herod Antipas, and husband of Joanna. Luke 8:3.

Cilicia. [Cilic'ia]

Province in Asia Minor on the extreme north-east of the Mediterranean, separated from the other provinces by a range of mountains. It was more accessible to Syria by road than to the rest of Asia Minor. There were evidently Gentile believers there, for Cilicia was mentioned in the letter from Jerusalem on the exemption of the Gentiles from keeping the law. Paul and Silas visited the district, confirming the churches. Acts 6:9; Acts 15:23, 41; Gal. 1:21; etc.


The bark of the Cinnamon tree, a well-known aromatic product, which formed one of the ingredients of the holy anointing oil. It was a valuable article of merchandise. Ex. 30:23; Prov. 7:17; Cant. 4:14; Rev. 18:13.

Cinneroth. [Cin'neroth]



The rite appointed by God to be a token of the covenant that He made with Abraham and his seed, and also the seal of the righteousness of his faith. Every male in Abraham's house was to be circumcised, and afterwards every male of his seed on the eighth day after birth. It signified the separation of a people from the world to God. During the 40 years in the wilderness this rite was not performed, but on entering God's land all were circumcised at Gilgal, when the reproach of Egypt was rolled away. Joshua 5:2-9. Circumcision became a synonym for Israel, so that they could be spoken of as 'the circumcised,' and the heathen as 'the uncircumcised.' Judges 14:3; Ezek. 31:18; Acts 11:3. Contrary to the design of God, circumcision became a mere formal act, when the covenant itself was disregarded, and God then speaks of Israel as having 'uncircumcised hearts.' Stephen charged the Jewish council with being 'uncircumcised in heart and ears.' Lev. 26:41; Acts 7:51. In Rom. 4. Abraham is shown to be 'the father of circumcision,' that is, of all that believe as the truly separated people of God.

Hence circumcision is typical of the putting off the body of the flesh by those who accept the cross as the end of all flesh, because Christ was there cut off as to the flesh: see Col. 2:11: "In whom also ye are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of the [sins of the] flesh by the circumcision of Christ;" and again, "We are the circumcision which worship God by the Spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh."  Phil. 3:3. "Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth." Col. 3:5.


The same as Kish, the father of Saul. Acts 13:21.


These were extensively used in Palestine for the collection of rain water. In Jerusalem every house has its cistern, and some have more than one. Solomon also brought water from long distances to be stored in cisterns, of which there are many under the Temple area. Some were really pits, for we read of the 'wheel' being broken. Ecc. 12:6. There were also many cisterns in fields or by the road side as reservoirs for the irrigation of the land. For every man to be able to drink water out of his own cistern, was held out as a boon. 2 Kings 18:31; Isa. 36:16. This is also used as a symbol not to indulge in illicit desires. Prov. 5:15. Israel is charged with forsaking God, the fountain of blessing, and making for themselves cisterns which could hold no water.  Jer. 2:13.

Cities of Refuge.



πολίτης. This is 'one having municipal rights, duties, and protection.' Paul was a 'citizen' of Tarsus. Acts 21:39. Gentile believers are no longer strangers and foreigners to the privileges of the people of God, but are 'fellow-citizens' with the saints, and of the 'household of God.' Eph. 2:19. The Christian's citizenship, πολίτευμα, is not on earth, but in heaven, Phil. 3:20.

Clauda, [Clau'da] or Cauda.

A small island S.W. of Crete. Acts 27:16.  Now called Gaudo, or Gozzo.

Claudia. [Clau'dia]


Claudius. [Clau'dius]

Fourth Roman emperor, A.D. 41-54. His full name was Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus. Herod Agrippa I: used his influence in favour of Claudius being chosen as emperor, and in return for these efforts the emperor added to Agrippa's territories Judaea, Samaria, and some parts of Lebanon. It was Claudius who, on account of a tumult of the Jews, banished all Jews from Rome. He was poisoned by his fourth wife Agrippina, the mother of Nero. Acts 11:28; Acts 18:2.

Claudius Lysias.   [Clau'dius Ly'sias]

The Roman officer at Jerusalem who, when Paul was arrested, protected him and acted promptly in sending him away from his murderous enemies. Acts 23:26; Acts 24:7, 22.

Clean and Unclean.



Fellow labourer with Paul at Philippi. Phil. 4:3. He is accounted to be one of the Apostolic Fathers, a name given to those who lived in the times of the apostles and who have left writings bearing their names.

CLEMENT, EPISTLES OF.  There are two epistles ascribed to Clement, and which in the Codex Alexandrinus follow the Revelation. The first is considered genuine, but the second is very doubtful. Eusebius says of the first that it was read in the churches in early times and also in his own day. He calls it 'an Epistle in the name of the church of Rome (over which church Clement is recorded as bishop) to the church at Corinth.'  Apparently there was dissension in the church at Corinth: he thus addresses them: "It is disgraceful, beloved, yea, highly disgraceful and unworthy of your Christian profession, that such a thing should be heard of as that the most steadfast and ancient church of the Corinthians should, on account of one or two persons, engage in sedition against its presbyters." A great deal is said about repentance, love, and good works; but sacrifices to be offered at Jerusalem are strangely interwoven with the exhortations, though he was writing to Gentiles.

His fanciful use of the O.T. scriptures is remarkable. Thus in speaking of the appointment of bishops and deacons he says, "Nor was this any new thing, since indeed many ages before it was written concerning bishops and deacons. For thus saith the scripture, in a certain place, 'I will appoint their bishops in righteousness, and their deacons in faith.'" Chap. xlii. This is doubtless intended as a quotation from Isa. 60:17 in the LXX, but altered to suit his purpose; for the LXX reads "I will make thy princes peaceable, and thine overseers righteous." As an emblem of the resurrection Clement relates the heathen fable of the phoenix living five hundred years, and then rising again as a fresh bird from its own ashes. He then adds that God "even by a bird shows us the mightiness of His power to fulfil His promise." Chaps. xxv., xxvi. Though there are many pious remarks scattered through the epistle, there is on the whole a great difference between it and holy scripture; a deep dark line separates it widely from everything that bears the stamp of divine inspiration.

Cleopas. [Cle'opas]

Luke 24:18. One of the two disciples who were walking to Emmaus on the day of the resurrection, when the Lord drew near and talked with them. He is supposed to be the same as CLEOPHAS (or CLOPAS as in the Greek) mentioned in John 19:25.

Cleophas. [Cle'ophas]





The two Hebrew words translated 'cloth,' beged and simlah, are also translated 'garments,' and do not explain of what it was composed nor how wrought. In Ex. 31:10, etc., beged is used for 'cloths of service,' and in Num. 4:6-13 for the 'cloth of blue' that covered up the furniture when the tabernacle was removed. Simlah occurs in Deut. 22:17; 1 Sam. 21:9. The THICK CLOTH in 2 Kings 8:15 is makber. See LINEN.




Clouds fill an important place both in the O.T. and N.T. They were the celestial veil of the presence of God — His chariot, and the hiding place of His power. It pleased God to manifest His presence to Israel in a cloud. The PILLAR OF CLOUD guided the children of Israel through the wilderness. Ex. 40:34-38. When they constructed the tabernacle Jehovah promised to appear in the cloud upon the mercy seat. Lev. 16:2. On special occasions Jehovah came down in a cloud, and spake unto Moses. Num. 11:25. At the dedication of the temple 'the cloud' filled the house so that the priests could not minister because of the cloud: "for the glory of Jehovah had filled the house of Jehovah." 1 Kings 8:10-11: cf. Num. 14:10. This visible symbol of God's glory, is often called the SHECHINAH. The word is from the Aramaic shakan 'to rest.' The word does not occur in scripture, but is often used by Jewish and Christian writers as signifying the dwelling or resting place of Jehovah.

In the N.T. on the mount of Transfiguration, a cloud overshadowed those present, and "a voice came out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son: hear him." Luke 9:34-35. At the ascension a cloud received the Lord out of their sight. Acts 1:9. At rapture the dead and the living saints will be caught up in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, 1 Thess. 4:17, and when He comes to the earth He will come with clouds. Luke 21:27; Rev. 1:7. In the future, one 'like unto the Son of man' will sit upon 'a white cloud,' and execute judgements upon the earth. Rev. 14:14-16. The mighty God who dwells in light unapproachable by man manifested His presence shrouded by clouds.


The shoes of the Gibeonites were 'patched' to deceive Joshua. Joshua 9:5.

Cnidus. [Cni'dus]

City and seaport on the extreme S.W. corner of Asia Minor. Acts 27:7. The spot is now called Cape Krio.


Mineral coal is now known to exist in the Lebanon range, but was unknown in Biblical times. Fires were seldom needed for warmth, and were as a rule used only for the cooking of food: the fire named in John 18:18 was in the night; food was cooked by charcoal or by warming the ovens with any vegetable refuse. The coal generally referred to in the O.T. was charcoal; but other words are used which imply the hot or glowing stones on which cakes were cooked. 1 Kings 19:6; Cant. 8:6; Isa. 6:6; Habakkuk 3:5.

Heaping coals of fire on an enemy's head by kindness (Prov. 25:21-22; Rom. 12:20) becomes a test to him (as metal is tested by the fire), the kindness shown him will either bring about contrition and friendship, or harden him yet the more.


A term in scripture signifying any 'border,' inland as well as near the sea, it also may imply large districts. Ex. 10:4; Joshua 1:4; 1 Kings 1:3; etc.



Coat of Mail.



Mentioned only in connection with the denial of Peter, Matt. 26:34, 74, 75; and with the 'cock crowing,' a division of time at which the Lord may come, Mark 13:35: this corresponds to the third watch of the night, and would be about 3 o'clock, A.M.


What reptile is alluded to is not definitely known: the Hebrew words (tsepha in Isa. 14:29 only) and tsiphoni are from 'to hiss.' The texts in which they occur refer to its dangerous character. Its deadly sting will be changed in the millennium, when a little child shall put its hand on its den. Of Israel it is said figuratively 'they hatch cockatrice' eggs.' Isa. 11:8, Isa. 59:5; Jer. 8:17. The latter word is translated 'adder' in Prov. 23:32.


Job asked that if he had done wickedly cockle might grow instead of barley: in the margin it reads 'noisome weeds.' Job 31:40. Some suppose the darnel is alluded to, as in Matt. 13:25.


The box or case in which the golden mice and the images of the emerods were placed by the Philistines when the ark was returned. 1 Sam. 6:8-15.


Being made in Egypt and for an embalmed body, Joseph's coffin doubtless resembled the ancient mummy cases. Gen. 50:26. They were ornamental cases larger than European coffins.

Colhozeh.  [Col-ho'zeh]

1.  The father of Shallun who returned from exile. Neh. 3:15.

2.  Grandfather of Maaseiah who dwelt in Jerusalem on the return from exile. Neh. 11:5. Perhaps the same as No. 1.


A jewel or appendage. Judges 8:26. In the margin it is 'sweet jewels.' The R.V. has 'pendants.' The same word is translated 'chains' in Isa. 3:19. In Job 30:18 it is merely the collar of a coat: the mouth or opening for the throat.


The Hebrew word signifies 'second part,' as in the margin of 2 Kings 22:14; 2 Chr. 34:22. It may refer to a part of the city where there was a school. The Rabbis derive it from 'to teach;' hence 'the school' of the prophets.


Fat, fatness, lumps of fat. Job 15:27.


Spoken of Philippi in Macedonia. Under Augustus that city became a Roman colony. Acts 16:12, 21. Such colonies were subject to the parent government, and the townsmen enjoyed the privilege of Roman citizenship.

Colosse, or Colassae.  [Colos'se, or Colas'sae]

City on the river Lycus in Phrygia of Asia Minor. Col. 1:2. It appears as though Paul had not visited the city when he wrote the epistle to the church there, cf. Col. 1:7; Col. 2:1; but he may have done so in his journeys or have gone thither from Ephesus. He hoped to visit them soon, Philemon 22, for to this place Philemon and Onesimus belonged. Col. 4:9. Colosse had been a place of importance, but declined on the rise of Hierapolis and Laodicea. The modern village Khonas is about three miles distant from the ancient ruins.

Colossians, Epistle to the.

This is generally believed to have been written by Paul during his two years' imprisonment at Rome, A.D. 61-2, notwithstanding that Meyer and other critics refer it to the imprisonment of Paul at Caesarea. The personal glory of Christ as head of the body, the church, is specially brought out. The hope before the saints is in heaven: they are viewed as risen, but not seated in the heavenlies in Christ, as in the Epistle to the Ephesians. The life of the new man is dwelt on, but the Holy Spirit is only once mentioned: 'your love in the Spirit.'

After the salutation, and thanking God for what Paul had heard of their faith (for apparently he had not been to Colosse) he at once prays for them that they might be filled with the full knowledge of God's will; might walk worthy of the Lord, pleasing Him in all things; and might be strengthened with all power. Col. 1:9-11. Then he gives thanks for what God had done for them, which is true of all Christians. Col. 1:12-14. The glories of Christ follow: as man, and as the Creator-God: He is head of the body, the church. Col. 1:15-19. All fulness was pleased to dwell in Him, and by Him, to reconcile all things to Himself (or itself), having made peace through the blood of His cross: the saints were already reconciled if they continued in the faith (which would prove their reality). Col. 1:20-24. Paul had a double ministry: in the gospel, Col. 1:23; and in the church, Col. 1:25. His sufferings in his body filled up the (non-atoning) sufferings of Christ; and the revelation he had, concerning the mystery of the church, filled up the word of God (not as to time, for some portions were added afterwards, but as to the circle of subjects). Paul laboured to present every man perfect (that is, full grown) in Christ.

Colossians 2:   Paul was deeply anxious for the welfare of the saints, that they might be rooted, built up, and established in the faith, lest they should be led astray by the philosophy of the world and the deceitful teaching of men, which would in no way minister Christ to them. In Him dwelt 'all the fulness of the Godhead bodily,' and they were 'complete in Him': nothing must be allowed to come between them. In Christ they had the reality of the things signified in the ordinances of circumcision and baptism. They had died and were risen with Christ. The saints were warned in Col. 2:16-17 against being entangled with the Jewish things; and with the occult philosophy of the fleshly mind of the Gentile: all of which was in contrast and in opposition to holding Christ as Head. Having died with Christ they were set free from all the ordinances of men. This has been called the negative side.

Colossians 3:   This gives the positive side, being 'risen with Christ.' Their mind was to be set on things above, as heavenly people walking on earth. When the Lord appeared they would appear with Him in glory. Christ was their life, and in consistency therewith they were to mortify — put to death — all that sprang from the motions of the flesh. A catalogue of things is given which were to be practically put off, because the old man had been put off with his deeds. Then having  put on the new man, a catalogue of things is given which in consistency therewith were to be put on (the display of Christ, who is 'in each one'): above all things was love. Peace was to rule their hearts, and the word of Christ to dwell in them; helping one another with their songs. Exhortations follow to wives, husbands, children, fathers, and servants. Practical Christianity should be manifest in every station of life.

Colossians 4:   Exhortations to masters, and then to all. Tychicus and Onesimus would declare to them the affairs of Paul. Salutations follow. The epistle was to be read to the church of the Laodiceans, and some epistle coming to them from Laodicea was to be read at Colosse. (Perhaps the epistle to the Ephesians was being circulated from church to church.) A message to Archippus: the salutation by the hand of Paul, and a request to remember his bonds close the epistle with "Grace be with you. Amen."



Commandments, The Ten.

These have a special place as having been written on the tables of stone by 'the finger of God.' Ex. 31:18. Deut. 10:4 margin reads 'the ten words,' and they are often referred to as the DECALOGUE. They are also called 'the words of the covenant,' in Ex. 34:28. It was after hearing these ten commandments rehearsed by Moses that the Israelites said to him, "Go thou near, and hear all that the Lord our God shall say; and speak thou unto us all that the Lord our God shall speak unto thee; and we will hear it and do it." Deut. 5:27. The two stones are also called the 'tables of the testimony,' Ex. 34:29, and they were laid up in the ark of the covenant, Ex. 40:20; 1 Kings 8:9; Heb. 9:4; over which were the two cherubim as guardians of God's rights together with the mercy-seat.

The giving of the two stones to Israel by God (who, though gracious and merciful, would by no means clear the guilty,) amid a measure of glory is referred to by Paul, when he describes the commandments written in letters thereon as 'the ministration of death;' in contrast to which he speaks of the glory of the ministration of the Spirit (that is, of Christ, for the Lord is that Spirit), and of the ministration of righteousness: it is the story of man's failure, and of God's righteousness available to the believer through Christ. 2 Cor. 3:7-11.


This is πολιτεία, and refers to the privileges of Israel Eph. 2:12. Gentiles are declared to be strangers, outside the community of Israel; having no promises and no hope, and being without God in the world: fit objects for the grace of God.




The word is from πληρόω, 'to fill full.' The believer is complete in Christ, or filled full, referring to all fulness dwelling in Christ: the fulness of the Godhead is in Christ, as towards the believer, and the believer, as toward God, is complete in Him. Col. 2:10. The Colossians are prayed for that they might be 'complete in all the will of God,' or 'fully assured' in all the will of God, as most Editors read it. Col. 4:12.

Conaniah. [Conani'ah]

A chief Levite in the time of Josiah. 2 Chr. 35:9.


This is a 'cutting, mutilation,' κατατομή, in contrast to the true circumcision, which is a cutting off. It is a term of contempt for the Judaising teachers. Phil. 3:2.


These were a class of inferior wives: they were at times personal servants given by wives to their husbands from their great desire for children, who then accounted the children of the servant as their own, as it was with Rachel and Leah. Such cases may have been comparatively rare, and would in no way account for the prevalence of men having concubines. Deut. 21:11 gives the root of it: a man saw a beautiful woman and lusted after her. God seems to have simply allowed it: as the Lord said about their easy way of writing a bill of divorcement: Moses permitted it 'because of the hardness of your hearts.' When God spoke of Israel having a king, one of the things forbidden to him was that of multiplying wives, lest his heart be turned away. Deut. 17:17. This alas, was the very fall of Solomon, who had 700 wives and 300 concubines, and they did turn away his heart. 1 Kings 11:3. In the Canticles we read of 60 queens and 80 concubines and virgins without number; but there was one, a choice one, the only one of her mother, that excelled them all — the bride of the song. Cant. 6:8-9. Est. 2:14 and Dan. 5:2 show that concubinage was a custom also among the heathen. Christianity disallows such evil, and recognises the relationship as established of God, and hence the sanctity of the marriage tie in those whom God joins together.


Undue and unlawful lust. Rom. 7:8; Col. 3:5; 1 Thess. 4:5.


Channel for conducting water. There are still the remains of one that conveyed water from what are called Solomon's pools to Jerusalem. We read that Hezekiah by means of a pool and a conduit brought water into Jerusalem. 2 Kings 20:20: cf. also 2 Chr. 32:30.


One of the animals the Israelites were not to eat: it is described as chewing the cud, but not dividing the hoof. The rabbit, which is only another name for Coney, is not known in Palestine. The Hebrew word shaphan is supposed to signify the Syrian Hyrax, an animal about the size of the rabbit, but which does not really chew the cud. It has the habit of continually rubbing its teeth together when at rest, and thus has the appearance of chewing. It is an animal that forms a wholesome meal, and therefore one that would have needed to be specified under the Jewish ritual. Lev. 11:5; Deut. 14:7. It exactly answers to the other notices respecting the shaphan, such as living among the rocks, which it constantly does, and it is exceedingly quick in leaping from rock to rock, Ps. 104:18; it is also extremely difficult to catch; one of their number being on the watch while the others feed: at the approach of an enemy a signal is given, and all disappear. This agrees with its being called 'exceeding wise.' Prov. 30:24, 26. The Hyrax is classed among the pachydermatous animals.

Confection, Confectionary.

Ointment and perfumery, and those that compound the same. Ex. 30:35; 1 Sam. 8:13.


There are two applications of this word, one of which is apt to be overlooked. The one is the confession of sin. This was enjoined by the law, and if accompanied with a sacrifice it led to forgiveness. Lev. 5:5; Num. 5:7. It is beautiful to see how Ezra, Nehemiah, and Daniel confessed the sins of the people as if they had been their own. Ezra 9:1-15; Ezra 10:1; Neh. 1:6; Neh. 9:2-3; Dan. 9:4-20. When John the Baptist was fulfilling his mission, the people 'confessed' their sins, and were baptised, Matt. 3:5-6; and of the Christian it is said, "If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness." 1 John 1:9: cf. Ps. 32:5. We are exhorted to confess our faults one to another. James 5:16.

The other application of the term is confessing the Lord Jesus. The Jewish rulers agreed that if any one 'confessed' that Jesus was the Christ he should be excommunicated. John 9:22. On the other hand, "If thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved . . . . . Confession is made unto salvation." This is PROFESSION, as indeed the same word, ὁμολογέω, is translated. "Let us hold fast our profession" — "profession of our faith." Heb. 4:14; Heb. 10:23.

The Lord Jesus before Pontius Pilate witnessed a good confession: He confessed that He was king of the Jews. Timothy is reminded that he professed a good profession. 1 Tim. 6:12-13. Every tongue will have to confess that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory of God the Father. Phil. 2:11. What grace for the believer to be able from the heart to confess Him now! To Him be the glory for evermore!


The trust and boldness that faith in God and His word gives. "In the fear of the Lord is strong confidence;"  "The Lord shall be thy confidence." Prov. 3:26; Prov. 14:26. "We are made partakers of Christ if we hold the beginning of our 'assurance' firm unto the end." Heb. 3:14. In contrast to this the 'fearful' are classed with the 'unbelieving.' Rev. 21:8.


Paul and Barnabas went to Lystra, Iconium, and Antioch, confirming the souls of the disciples, and exhorting them to continue in the faith. Judas and Silas, messengers from Jerusalem to Antioch, being prophets, exhorted the brethren with many words and confirmed them. Again Paul and Silas went through Syria and Cilicia, confirming the churches. Acts 14:22; Acts 15:32, 41. These passages, with Acts 18:23, where the word is translated 'strengthen,' are all the places where the word ἐπιστηρίζω occurs. (There is no idea of any ceremonial, like what is now called 'Confirmation.')


The term is constantly applied in the O.T. to the community of Israel, and also to the actual assembling together of the people according to the unity of the congregation. Every descendant of the twelve tribes formed a part of that community. Those of other nations were received into the congregation on becoming PROSELYTES, q.v. The Ammonite and the Moabite were forbidden ever to come into the congregation of Jehovah, and there were a few other restrictions. Deut. 23:1-4.  For various offences an Israelite was cut off from the congregation. Ex. 12:19; Num. 9:13, etc. See EXCOMMUNICATION.

Coniah. [Coni'ah]

Name given to Jehoiachin king of Judah, who was carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar. Jer. 22:24-28; Jer. 37:1.

Cononiah. [Cononi'ah]

Levite who had the care of the offerings, tithes, and dedicated things in the time of Hezekiah. 2 Chr. 31:12-13.


The conscious knowledge of good and evil. This resulted from the fall of Adam. He could have had no knowledge of good and evil before any evil was there. It is remarkable that the word conscience does not occur in the O.T.  In the N.T. the word is συνείδησις, lit. 'joint-knowledge.' This agrees with what God said of Adam after the fall, "Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil." Gen. 3:22. The above word occurs once in the LXX in Ecc. 10:20: "Curse not the king, no not in thy conscience." This knowledge of good and evil is universal: some of the most benighted heathen, for instance, have owned that they knew such things as stealing were wrong. They are thus 'a law to themselves:' their conscience bearing witness and their thoughts accusing or excusing themselves between themselves. Rom. 2:14-15. The law gave more light as to what was right and wrong: Paul said, "I had not had conscience also of lust unless the law had said, Thou shalt not lust." Rom. 7:7. Christianity brings the conscience into the light of God, fully revealed by His word; the believer is thus exercised to have a conscience void of offence towards God and men. This may be called a 'tender conscience.' Acts 24:16.

Scripture speaks of

1.  a 'good conscience,' enabling one when accused of evil, to know that the charge is untrue. 1 Peter 3:16.

2.  a 'pure conscience,' which is characterised by the separation from evil. 1 Tim. 3:9.

3.  a 'weak conscience,' as on the subject of meats, days, etc. 1 Cor. 8:7.

4.  a 'purged conscience.' Through faith in the infinite efficacy of the blood of Christ the believer has no more conscience of sins. This does not mean no consciousness of ever sinning, but that as regards imputation of sins before God, the conscience is purged. Paul speaks of some who have a 'defiled mind and conscience,' Titus 1:15; and of others who in departing from the faith have their 'conscience seared with a hot iron,' 1 Tim. 4:2, that is, a hardened conscience, insensible to that which should touch them to the quick.

Conscience, with the Christian, should be exercised in the sight of God fully revealed in Christ, and be governed by the word, otherwise, on the plea of 'conscience,' many actions displeasing to God way be advocated. This is exemplified in the case of Paul before his conversion. He could say that he had lived in all good conscience before God, and yet he had been haling men and women to prison because they were Christians. Doubtless he did it with an unoffending conscience, according as the Lord stated: "The time cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service." John 16:2. Paul's zeal for Judaism so blinded his eyes that he was unable to recognise in his conscience the God who gave the law, and had sent His Son also; nor to see that God could act outside of it: it was an unenlightened conscience, a zeal without knowledge, by which even the Christian may be led astray.


This principally refers to the consecration of Aaron and his sons to the priestly office, which is given in detail in Ex. 29, and Lev. 8. They were washed, clothed, and anointed with oil. One bullock was offered for a sin offering, and one ram for a burnt offering; another ram was offered, and this ram is called 'the ram of consecration:' its blood was put upon the right ear, the thumb of the right hand, and the great toe of the right foot. Aaron and his sons were sprinkled with blood and anointed with oil. Parts of the ram were placed in the hands of Aaron and his sons, these were waved before the Lord, and then burnt on the altar upon the burnt offering. The breast of the ram was also waved before the Lord and was for Moses. Aaron and his sons ate of the flesh and other consecrations at the door of the Tabernacle.

The words mostly used for 'to consecrate' are mala yad, which signify 'to fill the hand' (as often rendered in the margin), doubtless alluding to their taking portions of the ram into their hands and waving them before Jehovah. Their hands being filled with offerings was suited to their character as priests to God. All was typical of believers being cleansed by water, sprinkled with blood, and anointed with oil: entirely consecrated to God, and constituted a priestly company for worship in the holiest.


The Hebrew word is kesil, and is translated ORION in Job 9:9; Job 38:31; Amos 5:8. It is supposed to mean the same in Isa. 13:10, only there it is in the plural.

Consulter with Familiar Spirits.



1.  Being brought to an end by judgements. Isa. 10:22-23; Isa. 28:22.

2.  Wasting away of the body. Lev. 26:16; Deut. 28:22.


This word is not used in scripture in the sense of familiar discourse. It occurs in the O.T. in Ps. 37:14; Ps. 50:23, and refers to the walk; it reads in the margin 'the upright of way,'  'that disposeth his way.' In the N.T. the word ἀνασττοφή has a similar sense of 'walk, conduct, behaviour,' Gal. 1:13; Eph. 4:22; 1 Tim. 4:12; and in all other passages except Phil. 1:27; and Phil. 3:20 (where it is πολίτευμα, 'citizenship' which for the Christian is in heaven, separating him from citizenship on earth and its politics); and Heb.13:5, τρόπος, 'general manner of life.'


This is from ἐπιστρέφω, 'to turn to.' It is in scripture the real effect that accompanies the new birth, a turning to God. It is beautifully expressed in the case of the Thessalonians, showing how they "turned to [the same word] God from idols, to serve the living and true God." 1 Thess. 1:9. Paul and Barnabas were able to make known to the saints the 'conversion of the Gentiles.' Acts 15:3. In Peter's address to the Jews he said, "Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out." Acts 3:19. Without being converted they could not enter the kingdom of heaven. Matt. 18:3. The word is used in a somewhat different sense in respect to Peter himself. The Lord, knowing that he would fall under the sifting of Satan, said, "When thou art converted strengthen thy brethren;" that is, when he had returned in contrition, or been restored. In the O.T. the Hebrew words signify the same, 'to be turned,' 'to turn back.' Ps. 51:13; Isa. 6:10; Isa. 60:5: cf. Isa. 1:27, margin


'A calling together,' and always called 'holy.' The occasions called 'holy convocations' are specially given in Lev. 23 when the Feasts are recorded; they included the Sabbath, and ended with the Feast of Tabernacles. "These are the feasts of the Lord, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, to offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord." Lev. 23:37. It occurs also in Ex. 12:16; Num. 28:18, 25, 26; Num. 29:1, 7, 12. The same Hebrew word is translated 'assemblies' in Isa. 1:13; Isa. 4:5.

Coos, Cos.

Acts 21:1. Small island in the Mediterranean, N.W. of Rhodes: now called Stanchio.




A general worker in common metals, especially in copper or its alloys. 2 Tim. 4:14.  In Gen. 4:22 the same word in the LXX refers to a worker in brass and iron.




The Hebrew word is ramoth, and occurs only in Job 28:18 and Ezek. 27:16: it signifies high priced or costly things. The Rabbis think it refers to red coral.


This is the Greek word, κορβᾶν, representing the Hebrew word qorban, 'an offering,' and signifies anything brought near or devoted to God. The Jews allowed, and perhaps encouraged, sons to devote their property to God, and then refuse to assist their parents under the plea that their substance was 'corban,' or devoted. The Lord blames the rulers for this as one of their traditions, by which they had made the word of God of none effect. Mark 7:11.




A round aromatic seed, the Coriandrum sativum, to which the manna was compared, both as to form and colour. Ex. 16:31; Num. 11:7.

Corinth. [Cor'inth]

Capital of the province of Achaia. The city visited by Paul was founded by Julius Caesar about a century after the fall of a former Corinth on the same site. It was a great centre of commercial traffic on the route from Rome to the East. It was also rich and very profligate. Paul on his first visit remained there eighteen months (A.D. 52-3), and from thence wrote the two epistles to the Thessalonians. A church was gathered out, to which Paul wrote two epistles. In A.D. 58 he again visited Corinth, staying three months, Acts 20:2-3, during which time he wrote the Epistle to the Romans. The Jews plotted against his life, and he left the city. Acts 18:1, 11; Acts 19:1; 1 Cor. 1:2; 2 Cor. 1:1, 23; 2 Tim. 4:20. It is now a mean village, called Gortho, with only relics here and there of its former greatness.

Corinthians, Epistles to the.

Some three years after Paul's first visit to Corinth he heard that there were divisions among them, 1 Cor. 1:11-12; that there was allowed evil in their midst, 1 Cor. 1:1; and that there were some among them who said that there was no resurrection. 1 Cor. 15:12. These things, and the fact that he had received a letter of inquiry from them (1 Cor. 7:1) called forth the First Epistle. Its contents may in short be said to be the internal ordering of the church, with collateral subjects.

THE FIRST EPISTLE.  It must be noted that this epistle, though written to the church of God at Corinth is also addressed to "all that in every place call upon the name of Jesus Christ our Lord." This accounts for the language employed in some places, all who make a profession being addressed in their responsibility to the Lord.

After the introduction the apostle at once enters upon the subject of, and condemns, the divisions among them. "Is Christ divided?" Paul would not be the head of one of their schools. When he came to them he preached Christ crucified, and determined, because they were boasting so much in man, to know nothing among them except that which expressed God's judgement of the first man. Any glorying must be 'in the Lord'. The wisdom of this world was nothing.

The revelation given to the apostles was not of man, but of God. By them it had been received, not by the spirit of man, but by the Spirit of God, and it was spoken in words taught by Him. Such a revelation could not be apprehended by the natural man; it was spiritually discerned.

1 Cor. 3:   The apostle could not speak unto them as unto spiritual but as to fleshly-minded Christians, who needed to be fed with the simplest food. He placed the ministry of himself and Apollos in its true light: they were fellow-labourers in God's husbandry. Paul, as architect, had laid the foundation, which was Jesus Christ, and others were warned as to what they built thereon. The fire of judgement would try the work, and if it would not bear the testing it would all be burned up, and the workman would lose his reward. If any defiled the temple of God, as for instance, by denying foundation truth, he would be destroyed. The saints were the temple of God, and that temple was holy. None were to glory in men.

1 Cor. 4:   The apostles were stewards of the mysteries of God, not to be judicially examined by the Corinthians or of man's day, but by the Lord. All the Lord's servants being for the saints, they were not to set up this one or that as against another. The Corinthians were reigning as kings (as though the gospel were intended to make men prosperous in this world), while the apostles were in affliction and dishonour, yet rendering blessing for railing. As their father in Christ he entreats them to be his imitators.

1 Cor. 5:   This refers to the flagrant case of sin in their midst. Paul judged the case as present in spirit to deliver the guilty one to Satan; but they themselves must put away the wicked person.

1 Cor. 6:   Paul reproves them for their litigation before the world, and their defrauding one another. He exhorts them to holiness. Each one was a temple of the Holy Spirit, in distinction from 1 Cor. 3:16, where collectively they were the temple of God.

1 Cor. 7:   The apostle answers their questions as to marriage. It was an institution of God, but Paul gave it as his judgement, for the time of distress (1 Cor. 7:26), that it was better when persons had the power to remain unmarried.

1 Cor. 8:   This refers to things offered to idols, a question which could only arise in the same way in a heathen country, though the principle of regarding the conscience of a weak brother is always true.

1 Cor. 9:   Paul asserts his apostleship, which some among them were setting at naught. He was made all things to all that he might save some. Christians were as runners in a race, each seeking to obtain a crown. He kept under his body, lest he should be rejected, as the Israelites were, many of whom, he proceeds to show in the next chapter, had never reached Canaan.

1 Cor. 10:   The failings of Israel are dwelt upon, and held up as a warning to the Corinthians. Their fellowship with the death of Christ at the Lord's table is introduced, showing that it signifies communion with the body and blood of Christ (as in the Peace Offering, in which part was burnt on the altar; part eaten by the priest; and part by the offerer): hence they could not also have communion with idolatry.

1 Cor. 11:   The fact of Christ being the head of every man, and man being the head of the woman, indicated that the head should be covered by the woman, and uncovered by the men, that the angels might not see God's order in creation set aside in those who were of the house of God. The actual coming together of the assembly to eat the Lord's supper is introduced, in connection with which great disorder had supervened. On this account, in the Lord's dealings with them many were weak and sickly, and many had died. In chapter 10 there is the responsibility of those who have fellowship with the Lord's death, and in this chapter the privilege of remembering the Lord.

1 Cor. 12:   Spiritual manifestations are referred to. There were different gifts, but one Spirit; different administrations, but one Lord; different operations, but one God, who worketh all things in all. Then follows a list of the gifts. In the power of the Spirit believers are all baptised into one body, in which each has his appointed place. It is the living organisation of the body on earth, as divinely ordered, that we have here.

1 Cor. 13:   The character and workings of love. It is the great mainspring of practical Christianity, the very nature of God, without which a person, however gifted, is nothing.

1 Cor. 14:   Here we get the practical working of the organisation of chapter 12 when actually in assembly, love being the spring, and the edification of the saints the result. All had been confusion at Corinth.

1 Cor. 15:   Speculations having arisen as to the resurrection, the subject is discussed. Resurrection is a fact essential in the gospel. Here the resurrection of the just is specially contemplated. Adam and Christ are the two heads. All under the first head die: all under the second shall be made alive. A mystery is revealed as to the dead being raised and the living being changed at the coming of Christ.

1 Cor. 16:    Speaks of the collection for the poor saints. Certain labourers are mentioned, and the salutations close the epistle.

THE SECOND EPISTLE.  Paul was exceedingly anxious as to the reception given to the First Epistle. He was at Troas, where there was a door open for the gospel, but he had no rest in his spirit because Titus had not reached him. He therefore proceeded to meet him in Macedonia. When Titus arrived, Paul was greatly consoled by the tidings that the First Epistle had been well received, and the wicked man had been put away.

In this Second Epistle he desires to comfort them with the consolation he had received from God. He had been in great danger (probably referring to the uproar at Ephesus, Acts 19), but the God of resurrection had delivered him. He was still concerned for the spiritual well-being of the Corinthians, but refers to his own authority with tenderness. As the man who had been put away was repentant, Paul exhorts them to forgive and restore him.

2 Cor. 3:   Paul enters on the subject of his ministry, the authority of which had been much shaken by the devices of Satan at Corinth. Paul was a competent new covenant minister, as Moses had been of the old covenant. The contrast between the two ministries is now given. The one ministered death and condemnation, the other the Spirit (which quickens) and righteousness. There is no veil on the Lord's face, and in result the privilege of Christians under this ministry is to behold the Lord's glory (the delight of God resting in a man, all His attributes being glorified) without a veil, and to be changed into the same image from glory to glory.

2 Cor. 4:   Paul shows how the gospel of the glory of Christ was set forth in himself as the vessel of it, so that, if veiled, it was in those that were lost, not in him. God had shone in his heart for the shining forth of His glory in the face of Jesus Christ. But the vessel was but an earthen one, nothing in itself, that the surpassing nature of the power might be of God. Paul always bore about in the body the dying of Jesus, and was always being delivered to death. The outcome of it was life in the Corinthians. He contrasts the temporal things with the eternal. He walked in view of the latter.

2 Cor. 5:   Enlarging on this subject he refers to the house from heaven with which the believer is to be clothed in the eternal state. He introduces the solemn truth of the judgement-seat of Christ, before which all must be manifested, and then passes on to the new creation, where all is of God. A man in Christ is already of this new creation. The ministry of reconciliation is then touched upon, showing the terms on which Christians are privileged to be with God, as the ministry of the new covenant had shown the terms on which God was with them. It is based on the One who knew no sin, having been made sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.

2 Cor. 6:   He shows how he and his fellow-labourers commended themselves in everything as God's ministers. His heart being enlarged towards the Corinthians, he entreats them to be wholly separated from the world and every pollution of the flesh and spirit, so that, as regards their testimony, the grace of God might not be received in vain.

2 Cor. 7:   Paul continues his appeal, setting forth all the deep exercises he had passed through as to them.

2 Cor. 8 - 9:   Contributions for the poor saints and exhortations to liberality.

2 Cor. 10 - 12:   The apostleship of Paul is maintained in contrast to the false teachers who were counteracting his influence at Corinth. He feared that there might be some among them who had sinned and had not repented.

2 Cor. 13:   Paul tells them to examine themselves; if they were Christians, was not that a proof that Christ had been speaking in Paul? A few exhortations follow, and the epistle closes without any being greeted by name.


In Isa. 34:11 and Zeph. 2:14 the Hebrew is qaath, and signifies PELICAN, q.v.  In Lev. 11:17 and Deut. 14:17 the Hebrew word is shalak, and is rightly translated Cormorant, a large bird that lives upon fish. It dashes down upon its prey, and can follow it in the water or dive after it if it descends. It is only mentioned in scripture as an unclean bird.


Various Hebrew words are translated 'corn,' and usually signify any kind of grain. The 'OLD CORN OF THE LAND' was what the Israelites began to eat after crossing the Jordan, when the manna ceased. Joshua 5:11-12). It typifies a heavenly Christ, on whom those feed who have spiritually passed through Jordan — who are experimentally dead and risen with Christ. The manna is rather heavenly grace for wilderness circumstances. In the N.T. Christ speaks of Himself as a 'CORN OF WHEAT,' which had to die or it would abide alone: there could be no association in life with Christ except through death and resurrection. John 12:24.

Cornelius. [Corne'lius]

A devout centurion of Caesarea, to whom God spoke in a vision, and to whom He sent Peter, who preached the gospel to him and to those he had invited. It led to their salvation; they received the Holy Spirit, and were baptised. Acts 10:1-31. Peter was thus opening the door of the kingdom to the Gentiles.

Corner Stone.

One of the designations of Christ. In Isa. 28:16, the Lord God lays in Zion "for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation: he that believeth shall not make haste." This is quoted in 1 Peter 2:6. In 1 Cor. 3:11 we are told "other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ;" and in Eph. 2:20 we read "Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone." Thus the Lord Jesus is the chief corner stone that binds all together, and is the foundation upon which all rests. In addition to this, as the stone which the Jewish builders rejected, Christ has become the head stone of the corner. As well as being the foundation He must have the highest place. "This is Jehovah's doing; it is marvellous in our eyes." Ps. 118:22-23; Zech. 4:7; Matt. 21:42; 1 Peter 2:7.


In Dan. 3:5-15 the word is qeren and signifies 'horn or cornet.' In 2 Sam. 6:5 the word is manaanim, and signifies an instrument that makes a tinkling sound on being shaken, as a 'sistrum.' In the four other places the word is shophar, which is often translated 'trumpet.' 1 Chr. 15:28; 2 Chr. 15:14; Ps. 98:6; Hosea 5:8.

Cosam. [Co'sam]

Son of Elmodam in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:28.


Cribs, stalls. 2 Chr. 32:28.


Temporary booth or lodge, without stability. Isa. 1:8; Isa. 24:20. In Zeph. 2:6 it is rather a shelter cut out of the rock.


These were mostly divans, low raised seats round the room. They served for reclining on in the day and for sleeping on at night, which accounts for their being often called 'beds.' Some, with light frames, were movable, on which a corpse could be carried for burial. Job 7:13; Amos 6:4; Luke 5:19, 24.


eth.  An agricultural instrument that needed sharpening; some suppose that the word signifies a ploughshare; others, a mattock, 1 Sam. 13:20-21.




Various words are so translated:

1.  dethabar. Dan. 3:2-3.

2.  haddabrin. Dan. 3:24, 27; Dan. 4:36; Dan. 6:7.

3.  yeat. Ezra 7:14-15.  These three words are Chaldee, and refer to various heathen officials as counsellors of state.

4.  yaats, the counsellors in Israel, such as Jonathan, and Ahithophel, David's counsellors, 1 Chr. 27:32-33. In Isa. 9:6 the same word is applied to the Lord Jesus: "His name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace."

5.  βουλευτής, a member of the Sanhedrim. Mark 15:43; Luke 23:50.

6.  σύμβουλος, 'a joint counsellor.' Rom. 11:34.


David divided the priests into 24 courses: 16 of them were of the house of Eleazar, and 8 of Ithamar. A list of them, under the name of each head, is given in 1 Chr. 24:6-19. The Levites were divided in a similar manner. 1 Chr. 23.  David also instituted in the army a kind of militia, each course to serve a month. 1 Chr. 27.

The courses of the priests and Levites were restored by Ezra on the return from captivity, Ezra 6:18, and we find them still in operation in the N.T. Zacharias the father of John the Baptist was of the course of Abia, which doubtless refers to Abijah, the eighth name mentioned in 1 Chr. 24:10. At the end of his service he returned to his house. Luke 1:5, 23. The length of service was a week, commencing from the Sabbath. 2 Chr. 23:8.

Twenty-four is a number seldom found in the scripture: there may therefore, as to number, be an allusion to the 24 courses of priests in the 24 elders seated on thrones in Rev. 4:4, etc. representing the complete heavenly priesthood.


To this subject as spoken of in scripture there are two branches:

1.  man's covenant with his fellow, or nation with nation, in which the terms are mutually considered and agreed to: it is then ratified by an oath, or by some token, before witnesses. Such a covenant is alluded to in Gal. 3:15; if a man's covenant be confirmed it cannot be disannulled or added to. When Abraham bought the field of Ephron in Machpelah, he paid the money "in the audience of the sons of Heth" as witnesses, and it was thus made sure unto him. Gen. 23:16. In the covenant Jacob made with Laban, they gathered a heap of stones to be witness between them, and "they did eat there upon the heap." Gen. 31:46. When the Gibeonites deceived Joshua and the heads of Israel, "the men took of their victuals, and asked not counsel at the mouth of the Lord, and . . . sware unto them." Joshua 9:14-15. So to this day, if a stranger in the East can get the head of a tribe to eat with him, he knows he is safe, the eating is regarded as a covenant. In 2 Chr. 13:5 we read of  'a covenant of salt;' and to eat salt together is also now regarded as a bond in the East.

2.  The covenants made by God are of a different order. He makes His covenants from Himself, without consulting man. With Noah God made a covenant that he would not again destroy the world by a flood, and as a token of that covenant, He set the rainbow in the cloud. Gen. 9:8-17. This kind of covenant takes the form of an unconditional promise. Such was God's covenant with Abraham, first as to his natural posterity, Gen. 15:4-6; and secondly, as to his seed, Christ. Gen. 22:15-18. He gave him also the covenant of circumcision, Gen. 17:10-14; Acts 7:8, — a seal of the righteousness of faith. Rom. 4:11.

The covenant with the children of Israel at Sinai, on the other hand, was conditional: if they were obedient and kept the law they would be blessed; but if disobedient they would be cursed. Deut. 27, 28.

In the Epistle to the Galatians the apostle argues that the 'promise' made by God —  "the covenant that was confirmed before of God in Christ" — could not be affected by the law which was given 430 years later. Gal. 3:16-17. The promise being through Christ, the apostle could add respecting Gentile believers, "If ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to promise." Gal. 3:29.

Covenant, The New.

This is an unconditional covenant that God has declared He will make with the houses of Judah and Israel: He will put His laws into their minds and write them upon their hearts; He will be their God, and will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and remember their sins no more. Jer. 31:31-34, etc. The foundation for this was laid in the cross. This is obscured in the A.V. by the word (διαθήκη) not being uniformly translated. Sometimes it is rendered 'testament' and sometimes 'covenant.' At the institution of the Lord's supper the Lord spoke of His blood as 'the blood of the new covenant,' Matt. 26:28; 1 Cor. 11:25; and 'He is the mediator of the new covenant.' Heb. 9:15; Heb. 12:24. From which we gather that though the making of this covenant with Israel is still future, the principle of it, namely, that of sovereign grace, is that on which God is now acting as setting forth the terms on which He is with His people, the Lord Jesus being the Mediator, through whom all the blessing is secured. See inter alia Rom. 5:1-10, and 2 Cor. 3 where Paul speaks of himself and those with him as 'able ministers of the new covenant,' not of the letter which killeth, but of the spirit which giveth life. 2 Cor. 3:6. The word διαθήκη better always translated 'covenant,' except in Heb. 9:16-17, where the 'will or testament' of a man is referred to.

Covet, To.

In 1 Cor. 12:31; 1 Cor. 14:39, the word is ζηλόω , and is quite different from the coveting that is condemned in scripture; it is translated in Rev. 3:19 'be zealous,' and the above passages in Corinthians can be so translated, or 'desire earnestly' the best gifts, and 'desire earnestly' to prophesy.


The words used, except in Isa. 7:21, do not necessarily imply the female, the same Hebrew being employed for 'bullock,' ' herd,' etc. the gender being shown by the context.


Father of Anub, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:8.

Cozbi. [Coz'bi]

The Midianitish woman who was slain by Phinehas. Num. 25:15, 18.


A kind of cake not definitely known. 1 Kings 14:3.


Term used for any artificer. Deut. 27:15; 2 Kings 24:14, 16; 1 Chr. 4:14; Neh. 11:35; Hosea 13:2; Acts 19:24, 38; Rev. 18:22.


Two things are said of this bird in scripture: it chatters or makes a querulous noise, Isa. 38:14; and it knows its time of migration. Jer. 8:7. The common crane answers to both of these characteristics. In the above passages the swallow is mentioned after the crane, the Hebrew words being sis and agur; many hold that the translators have transposed the words, and that sis refers to the swallow, and agur to the crane. It is so translated by the Revisers and by Mr. Darby.