Bible Dictionary C 2


This word is principally applied to the act of bringing things into existence that did not exist before. This is expressed in Heb. 11:3: "things which are seen were not made of things which do appear." It is also applied to making new things out of material already in existence, thus, though man was 'made' of the dust of the ground, Gen. 2:7, he is also said to have been created, the same Hebrew word, bara, being used in Gen. 1:1 for the creation of the world, that is used in Gen. 5:1-2, for the creation of man. The passage in Heb. 11 is important, because as men have no idea how anything can be brought into existence from nothing, they have talked of 'the eternity of matter;' the passage says it is 'by faith we understand' that the worlds were made by the word of God, so that seen things were not made of what is apparent.

The discoveries made by geologists of the various strata of the earth, the fossils found therein, together with the time that would necessarily be required for the formation of those strata, raised a cry that scripture must be incorrect in saying all was done in seven days. This led Christians to compare these works of God in creation with His words in scripture; and the principal question resolved itself into this: where in scripture could be found the many thousands of years which were apparently needed under ordinary circumstances for the formation of the strata? Putting aside the theories of the geologists, the facts are undeniable. There are the various beds of different substances in layers, which any one can see for themselves.

There are two ways in which Christians who have studied the subject hold that all difficulties are overcome.

1.   That a long gap, of as many thousands of years as were necessary for the formation of the earth's crust, may be placed between verses 1 and 2 of Gen. 1. That Gen. 1:1 refers to the original creation of the heaven and earth out of nothing; that the different beds were formed with the varying objects that are found therein as fossils, occupying a very long period. Then in Gen. 1:2 another condition is found: the earth by some means had become without form and void.* It was then ordered in view of the creation of man; and the various things were arranged and formed in the six days as detailed in Gen. 1, as they are now found in and on the earth.

*Some suppose this to have been the work of Satan.

The principal objection to this is, that though there had been upheavals, depressions, earthquakes, sudden deaths, as evidenced by the contortions of fishes, in some of the early strata, there is no appearance after the various beds had been formed of what would answer to Gen. 1:2, which says "the earth was without form and void."

2.   The other theory is that Gen. 1:1 and Gen. 1:2 refer to the formation of the earth as matter, or that Gen. 1:1 refers to the creation of the earth, and that Gen. 1:2 refers to its being disordered by some means, as in the above theory, but that the various beds were formed with the fossils found therein during the six days recorded in Gen. 1; and that the days were of any needed indefinite length. It has been shown that the first things named as on the earth were grass and herbs, and these are always found in the lowest beds; and the other things created are found exactly in the same order upwards from the lowest, until man appears. These, in short, form three divisions: plants in the lowest beds; reptiles in the middle; mammals in the highest, with man the most recent. It is also asserted that no break has been discovered, as would be the case if after the beds had been formed destruction had come in, and an entirely new work of creation had begun again in what is recorded in Gen. 1. Many of the existing species are contemporaneous with those that we know have ceased to exist. It is maintained that the term 'day' is often used for indefinite periods of time in scripture, and therefore may be so in Gen. 1; that they refer to God's days, and not to natural days, seeing that 'the evening and the morning' are spoken of before the sun, which naturally causes the evening and morning. Also that it is not consistent to hold that God's rest on the seventh day only alluded to 24 hours.†  It is true that the introduction of sin marred God's rest; but this is not there contemplated.

† It is asserted that long before any question of geology arose there were some among the Jews, as Josephus and Philo, and some among the Christians, as Whiston, Des Cartes, and De Luc, who believed that the 'days' of Gen. 1 were long periods. — 'Creation,' Kitto's Cyclopaedia.

To this theory it is objected that the words 'the evening and the morning' are too definite a description of the meaning of the word 'day' to allow the idea of indefinite periods. It is also held that Isa. 45:18 (translating the passage "He created it not without form, he formed it to be inhabited") proves that God did not create the world in the first instance "without form and void." The word 'created' here is the same as in Gen. 1:1; and the words 'in vain' in the A.V. are the same as 'without form' in Gen. 1:2. As to the correspondence in the order of created things it may be admitted that if the long periods come in between Gen. 1:1 and 2, the after order in the six days' creation is exactly the same — God working, in the same order on the large scale (ages), and on the smaller (six days' work).

Either of these theories sufficiently meets the supposed difficulty, and shows that God in His works does not clash with God in His word, though His word was never intended to teach science.

In the creation we read that of every living thing each was made 'after his kind;' man was entirely separated from all others by God forming him in His own image and likeness, and breathing into his nostrils the breath of life, thus leaving no room for the modern theory of evolution. God, who knew perfectly everything which He had created, declared it to be as it left His hands very good; and the more His works are examined the more perfection is discovered in every minute detail both as to plan and purpose, suiting everything for the place which each and every one is intended to fill. Sin has come in and spoiled God's fair creation, but man, who has been the occasion of it, dares to ignore God, or to blame Him for the pains and penalties attached to fallen humanity. Man everywhere endorses Adam's sin by his own individual sins.

Creation, The New.

This stands in contrast to the first creation ranged under Adam, who was blessed by God, and should have maintained his allegiance to Him. "If any one be in Christ, there is a new creation; the old things have passed away; behold all things have become new; and all things are of God." "If even we have known Christ according to flesh, yet now we know him thus no longer." 2 Cor. 5:16-18. Those who have died with Christ, and have risen with Christ, have lost their standing in the first Adam, and are in the Second man. "In Christ Jesus neither is circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision; but new creation. And as many as walk by this rule, peace upon them and mercy, and upon the Israel of God." Gal. 6:15-16. This is the wholly new position into which the believer is brought in Christ. Still, while in the body he is not entirely free from contact with the old creation: the wilderness life is a part of christian life, as well as Canaan and its conflicts. In reverse order to the first creation, here the Man was first brought out (Christ risen), and then those that are His, and lastly the heaven and earth. Rev. 21:1.


"In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth;" this was followed by His creating all that has breath, and finally man; who is exhorted to remember his Creator in the days of his youth. Ecc. 12:1. The heathen world are charged with serving the creature more than the Creator. Rom. 1:25. Of the Son of God it is said, "all things were created by him and for him." John 1:3; Col. 1:16. This has been deemed a difficulty by some minds, but Heb. 1:2 should entirely remove this, where it is stated that God has spoken by "his Son . . . . by whom also he made the worlds." Therefore God is the Creator, and the Son is the Person in the Godhead by whom the whole universe was created. To his Creator man owes allegiance. The Psalmist devoutly said, "Let us kneel before the Lord our Maker," Ps. 95:6; whereas of the wicked it is said, "Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker." Isa. 45:9.

Crescens. [Cres'cens]

Disciple with Paul at Rome. He left Paul and went to Galatia. 2 Tim. 4:10.

Crete, Cretians.

Large island about midway between Syria and Malta. It was the inhabitants of this island who had the evil report of being alway liars and lazy gluttons, according to one of their own poets (Epimenides). Some from Crete were present on the day of Pentecost. Acts 2:11. The ship in which Paul started for Rome visited the island. Acts 27:7-21. Paul left Titus at Crete to set things in order and ordain elders. Titus 1:5, 12.


Three Hebrew words are so translated.

1.  karmil, a colour prepared from an insect which inhabits a species of oak: it is crimson or deep scarlet. 2 Chr. 2:7, 14; 2 Chr. 3:14.

2.  shani, the word commonly translated 'scarlet.' Jer. 4:30.

3.  tola, name of a worm, thought to be a dye of a bluish tint. This word occurs in the memorable passage in Isaiah's prophecy, that though Israel's sins should be red like crimson, they should be as wool. Isa. 1:18. The same word is translated scarlet in Lam. 4:5.

Crisping Pins.

Generally held to be bags or purses, highly ornamented. Isa. 3:22. The word is charitim, and is translated 'bags' in 2 Kings 5:23.

Crispus. [Cris'pus]

Ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, who, with his household, believed, and was baptised by Paul. Acts 18:8; 1 Cor. 1:14.


The wooden structure to which criminals were nailed. Jesus died on a cross: hence it is an emblem of the crucifixion of Christ, so that we read of the 'death of the cross,' and the 'blood of his cross,' Phil. 2:8; Col. 1:20; also the 'preaching of the cross.' 1 Cor. 1:18. The cross of Christ makes nothing of man and sets aside all his pretensions: therefore to preach 'the cross ' arouses man's hatred and persecution. Gal. 5:11; Gal. 6:12, 14. 'The cross' is also a symbol of the shame and self-denial that lie in the believer's path. He is exhorted to take up his cross daily and follow the Lord. Luke 9:23.


The common ensign of royalty and of victory, 2 Chr. 23:11; it is also used symbolically for honour or reward; as "a virtuous woman is a crown to her husband." Prov. 12:4. Paul speaks of those whom he had been the means of converting as his 'joy and crown;' his 'crown of rejoicing.' Phil. 4:1; 1 Thess. 2:19.

In the A.V. the word 'crown' represents the word zer, the border or moulding placed round the top of the ark, the table of showbread, and the altar of incense. Ex. 37:2-27.

In the N.T. the word commonly rendered 'crown' is στέφανος, which is more a symbol of victory than of royalty. It is applied to the Son of Man and to others, Rev. 6:2; Rev. 14:14; and to the twenty-four elders in heaven, who cast their crowns before the throne, Rev. 4:4, 10; also to the perishable crown won by the victors in the ancient contests, and to the imperishable crown of the Christian. 1 Cor. 9:25. This latter is further described as a 'crown of righteousness,' 'crown of life,' 'crown of glory.' 2 Tim. 4:8; James 1:12; 1 Peter 5:4; Rev. 2:10. These may refer to the same crown, viewed in different aspects. The Christian is exhorted to beware that no man take his crown. Rev. 3:11.

Another Greek word, also translated 'crown,' is really DIADEM, diάδημα, and was the word used for the royal crown of ancient eastern kings. We read of it only in reference to the Lord Jesus as having on His head 'many diadems,' also as upon the 'seven heads' of the 'great red dragon,' and on the 'ten horns' of the head of the future Roman empire. Rev. 12:3; Rev. 13:1; Rev. 19:12.

Crown of Thorns.

The crown placed in derision on the head of the Lord Jesus, when arrayed in a scarlet robe. Though applied to His sacred head by the rough soldiers, it was connived at by Pilate, who presented the Lord in this garb to the Jews, but which only drew forth their cry, 'Crucify Him.' We read that the robe was taken off Him, but nothing is said of the crown, so that He may have worn that on the cross. It is supposed to have been made of the Arabian nabk, which has flexible branches with very sharp thorns, and ivy-like leaves: mocking the Lord, as some think, both as a king and as a victor. Matt. 27:29; Mark 15:17, John 19:2, 5.


The most painful and the most degrading capital punishment, reserved for the worst crimes and for the lowest class of people. The Romans used a short beam fastened to a long upright one, on which was placed a piece of wood for the feet to rest on. Nails were driven through the hands and feet; but historians say that sometimes the feet were only tied. The torture was dreadful, and the thirst great; but in some cases life lasted three days, none of the vital parts being reached. The crucifixion of the Lord Jesus and of the two malefactors are the only cases named in scripture: crucifixion was not practised by the Jews. A stupefying draught was given to the prisoners, but the Lord refused it. He would drink the bitter cup to the dregs. It is clear from scripture, by His crying with a loud voice just before His death, that as stated in John's gospel (John 10:18) He gave up His life. Luke 23:46; John 19:30. The Lord referred to the manner of His death as being lifted up out of the earth, so that death by stoning would not have answered to this. John 3:14; John 8:28; John 12:32. We also read that He was made a curse for us; for "Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree." Gal. 3:13; Deut. 21:23. Thus did the blessed Lord in saving rebellious man go down to the very lowest form of death.

The crucifixion is used metaphorically to instruct those who are associated with Christ: of believers it is said their 'old man' is crucified with Him. Rom. 6:6. Paul could say that he was crucified with Christ; and that by Christ the world was crucified to him, and he to the world. Gal. 2:20; Gal. 6:14. He accepted the judgement of himself in the cross, and he was cut off from the world by the same means.


1.  baqbuq, a bottle. 1 Kings 14:3.

2.  tselochith, dish or pan. 2 Kings 2:20.

3.  tsappachath, flask for water, etc. 1 Sam. 26:11-12, 16; 1 Kings 17:12, 14, 16; 1 Kings 19:6.


1.  zekukith, Job 28:17: probably glass highly ornamented, such as was made in Egypt: it is here classed with gold; but wisdom, the gift of God, far exceeds such things in value.

2.  qerach, ice, and so frequently translated. The firmament over the living creature was "as the colour of the terrible crystal." Ezek. 1:22.

3. κρύσταλλος John saw a sea of glass like unto crystal, Rev. 4:6; the water of life and the jasper stone were seen 'clear as crystal.' Rev. 22:1. The ancient glass may have been 'clear' in the sense of not having spots and blemishes, without its being wholly transparent.


Many efforts have been made to ascertain the length of this measure, from which others could be calculated. Its name signifies that it was the measure of a man's arm from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. Of course this would vary in different persons, and some measure would have to be taken as a standard. In the Palestine Exploration this subject has not been lost sight of. Many tombs have been measured, but they give no definite result. The inscription found in the Siloam tunnel states the length of the tunnel to be 1,200 cubits, as read by Major Conder; but 1,000 cubits as interpreted by Professor Sayce. Doubtless only a round number is intended. Its length has been found to be 1,750 feet; which makes the cubit by the two interpretations, 17.5 or 21 inches. There are however many other measurements that seem to give a cubit of 16 inches. Many of the ancient stones in the base of the temple area, the breadth of the pilasters found in the north-western corner of the area, together with their distances apart, and also the Galilean synagogues, all give a measure of 16 inches. 'Quarterly Statement,' Jan., 1894.

In Ezek. 41:8 we read of a 'great cubit,' and in the commencement of the description of the future temple the reed is described as being "six cubits long by the cubit and a handbreadth." Ezek. 40:5. This agrees with the former passage which speaks of 'a full reed of six great cubits.' From this we gather that there was an ordinary cubit, and a great cubit, the difference being a handbreadth, which is accounted to be the same as the palm, a sixth of a cubit. In Deut. 3:11 we find a cubit 'after the cubit of a man;' and in 2 Chr. 3:3, a cubit 'after the first measure,' or 'former' or 'older' measure. From these passages it is clear that there were different measures called the cubit. The 16 inches above named may have been the shortest, but what was the length of the longest is quite uncertain. See WEIGHTS and MEASURES.


shachaph.  Only named in scripture as an unclean bird not to be eaten. Some have supposed that a marine bird is alluded to: the R.V. has 'seamew.' There are however cuckoos in the land, and called also by that name, because of their cry. Lev. 11:16; Deut. 14:15.


qishshuim.  Probably the water melon, common in Egypt and highly valued in that hot country: the Israelites longed for them. Num. 11:5; Isa. 1:8.

Cumi. [Cu'mi]

An Aramaic word, signifying 'arise.' Mark 5:41.


A plant yielding a small aromatic seed, used as a condiment and for medicines. It is beaten out by a rod, and is one of the bountiful gifts of God. Isa. 28:25, 27. The Pharisees paid tithes of it, whereas they omitted the weighter matters of the law, judgement, mercy, and faith. Matt. 23:23.


Various Hebrew words are so translated, having regard to the different uses to which the cup was put. It is frequently used for that which the cup contains, causing either joy or sorrow, as "I will take the cup of salvation and call upon the name of the Lord." Ps. 116:13. "In the hand of the Lord there is a cup, and the wine is red . . . . the dregs thereof, all the wicked of the earth shall wring them out and drink them." Ps. 75:8: cf. Rev. 14:10; Rev. 16:19, etc. And so in many other instances; and especially in that of the cup of which the Lord Jesus drank when bearing sin. Matt. 26:27, 39, 42; John 18:11. In the Lord's Supper the 'cup' is put for the wine which was an emblem of the blood of Christ. 1 Cor. 10:16, 21; 1 Cor. 11:25-28.


Another name for 'butler,' who presented the cup to the king, and was responsible to see that there was nothing injurious in it. 1 Kings 10:5; 2 Chr. 9:4; Neh. 1:11.

Curious Arts.

Acts 19:19. The Greek word signifies 'working round about:' it was with mystifying words and signs that the sorcerers deceived the people, and carried on their incantations. See DIVINATION.

Curse, The.

The punishment pronounced by God consequent on the sin of Adam and Eve. Man was not cursed; but the curse fell on the serpent and on the ground: in sorrow man was to eat of the fruit of the ground all the days of his life, and in sorrow was the woman to bring forth children. Gen. 3:17. After the flood, the Lord smelled a sweet savour from Noah's sacrifice, and said in His heart, "I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth." Gen. 8:21. A new economy of the heaven and earth had begun, and God would not again curse; but acted in it according to the sweet savour of Noah's sacrifice. Man was encouraged; the seasons should continue as long as the earth remained. Gen. 8:22. God made a covenant with Noah and his seed, and with every living creature, and as a token thereof He set the bow in the cloud. Gen. 9:8-17.

The whole creation is made subject to vanity, and groans and travails in pain for deliverance. Rom. 8:20-22. Deliverance is certain. Thorns and briers were the proof of a curse, Isa. 32:13; but a time is coming when "instead of the thorn shall come up the fir tree, and instead of the brier shall come up the myrtle tree." Isa. 55:13. The weak and the strong of the animal world shall also dwell happily together in the millennium. Isa. 11:6-9. In a higher sense Christ has redeemed Jewish believers from the curse of the law, being made a curse for them, for cursed is every one that hangeth upon a tree. Gal. 3:13.


1.  Eldest son of Ham and grandson of Noah. Gen. 10:6-8; 1 Chr. 1:8-10. His descendants are called in the A.V. Ethiopians, though the Hebrew is the same: Cush. The district also occupied by the above people, Isa. 11:11, is mostly called in A.V. Ethiopia, q.v. It will be seen by the genealogy that the descendants of Cush were numerous:-


Seba, Havilah, Sabta, Raamah, Sebtecha, Nimrod
and of Raamah:   |
  Sheba, Dedan.

All these cannot be confined to Africa. Some were probably located in Arabia, and Nimrod is clearly associated with the East; so that though as a district Cush may usually refer to Africa, the Cushites must have had a much wider range. It seems clear too from Gen. 2:13 that even geographically the name Cush: or Ethiopia, was also applied to a region in Asia.

2.  A Benjamite enemy of David. Ps. 7  title. Some consider that Shimei is referred to, as intimated in the margin, 2 Sam. 16:5. Others think it is Saul.

Cushan. [Cu'shan]

Perhaps Ethiopia, as in the margin, Habakkuk 3:7; or it may refer to Chushan-rishathaim, the first recorded oppressor in the time of the judges. Judges 3:8-10.

Cushi. [Cu'shi]

1.  Joab's messenger to David on the death of Absalom. 2 Sam. 18:21-32, where the R.V. has 'the Cushite.'

2.  Ancestor of Jehudi. Jer. 36:14.

3.  Father of Zephaniah the prophet. Zeph. 1:1.


The words halak, τέλος, apparently allude to the duty paid on merchandise or produce, and should be distinguished from 'tribute.' Ezra 4:13, 20; Ezra 7:24; Matt. 17:25; Rom. 13:7.

Custom, Receipt of.

The place where taxes were received, custom house. Matt. 9:9; Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27.

Cuth, Cuthah.

One of the places whence the king of Assyria brought colonists into Palestine. They inhabited the cities of Samaria and became with others the ancestors of the Samaritans. 2 Kings 17:24, 30. The locality of Cuthah is not definitely known. Josephus places it in the interior of Persia; others in Babylonia.

Cuttings in the Flesh.

This practice was forbidden in the law, as also was making any mark in the flesh. It was customary among the heathen, who cut themselves for the dead and tattooed their bodies in honour of their gods: the Israelites belonged to Jehovah. Lev. 19:28; Lev. 21:5.


Ancient musical instruments, formed of metallic plates which were struck together; they produced no melodious sound in themselves (cf. 1 Cor. 13:1) and could only be used with other instruments. 1 Chr. 15:16, 19, 28; Ezra 3:10; Ps. 150:51 etc. In Corinthians it is a similitude of one making a show in speaking without love in the heart.


A species of oak which preserves its fragrance: it will not easily rot, nor is it eaten by worms. Isa. 44:14.

Cyprus. [Cy'prus]

Large island in the east end of the Mediterranean. It is the same as the CHITTIM of the O.T. where its commerce and its relation to Tyre are spoken of. Isa. 23:1, 12; Ezek. 27:6; Dan. 11:30. It was visited by Paul and Barnabas, the latter of whom, with Mnason, came from thence. Acts 4:36; Acts 11:19-20; Acts 13:4; Acts 15:39; Acts 21:3, 16; Acts 27:4. It has always been a place of importance and has been owned by the Syrians, the Greeks, the Egyptians, the Persians, the Romans, and latterly is divided between Greece and Turkey.

Cyrene, [Cyre'ne] Cyrenians. [Cyre'nians]

Greek city, capital of the classic Cyrenaica, in the north of Africa, and the inhabitants of the same. Some from thence were present on the day of Pentecost, and they had a synagogue in Jerusalem. Simon who bore the cross of the Lord was a Cyrenian. Matt. 27:32; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26; Acts 2:10; Acts 6:9; Acts 11:20; Acts 13:1.

Cyrenius. [Cyre'nius]

The same that is called by the Romans 'Quirinus.' He was governor of Syria in A.D. 6, and then carried out a taxing, which is probably alluded to in Acts 5:37. This for a long time created a difficulty as to the 'taxing' by Cyrenius being made when the Lord was born, B.C. 4; but Prof. A. W. Zumpt of Berlin has stated with apparently good authority that Cyrenius was twice governor of Syria: the first time from B.C. 4 to B.C. 1, which agrees well with Luke 2:2. The 'taxing' at that time may have been merely a census of the population and their property; and on his second governorship the census may have been for taxation, which, being always hateful to the Jews, probably led to the insurrection in Acts 5.


Called several times in scripture 'the king of Persia,' though from the monuments he is found to have been also king of Elam, and is otherwise called the founder of the Persian empire. On his taking Babylon, the second great Gentile empire of Daniel was set up. He was prophesied of by name long before his birth; that he would be God's shepherd, to perform all His pleasure, and that he would say to Jerusalem, "Thou shalt be built; and to the temple, Thy foundation shall be laid." He is also called the anointed of Jehovah, to subdue nations (type of Christ restoring Judah in the last days). Isa. 44:28; Isa. 45:1. When the 70 years' captivity of which Jeremiah prophesied, were expired (Jer. 25:12; Jer. 29:10) God stirred up the spirit of Cyrus, and a proclamation was made that the house of the Lord God of Israel was to be rebuilt, and permission was given to the captives to return. He also restored the holy vessels that had been carried from Jerusalem to Babylon. It was called the first year of Cyrus, when he began to reign alone over Babylon. Ezra 1:1-11; 2 Chr. 36:22-23. This would be about B.C. 536, the 70 years of captivity having begun in B.C. 606, the date of the first captivity of Judah. Daniel continued till the reign of Cyrus, and speaks of his third year. Dan. 6:28; Dan. 10:1.

An ancient cylinder speaks of the forces of Cyrus as 'marching like a cloud, and his army as the waters of a river: opposition comes to nothing before him.' Daniel, in the vision of the kingdom founded by Cyrus, and seen under the figure of a ram, saw it pushing "westward, and northward, and southward; so that no beasts might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his own will, and became great." Dan. 8:4. For a list of Persian kings see PERSIA. The name of Cyrus has been found thus:

Cyrus as originally enscribed

Dabareh. [Dab'areh]   


Dabbasheth. [Dab'basheth]

Border city of Zebulon. Joshua 19:11. Identified with ruins at ed Dabsheh, 33 N, 35 16' E.

Daberath. [Dab'erath]

City of Issachar, given to the Levites. Joshua 19:12; 1 Chr. 6:72. In Joshua 21:28 it is called DABAREH in the A.V., though the Hebrew is the same in both passages. Identified with Deburieh, 32 42' N, 35 22' E.

Dagon. [Da'gon]

The national god of the Philistines, whose principal temples were at Gaza and Ashdod. The name has been traced by some to dag, a fish; others however associate the fish-god with EA, the water-god; and trace Dagon to dagan 'corn' as a god of agriculture. This was the idol that fell to pieces before the ark of Israel, and it was in its temple subsequently that the Philistines hung the head of Saul.  A representation of a god found at Khorsabad has the head and hands of a man, and the body and tail of a fish. Judges 16:23; 1 Sam. 5:2-7; 1 Chr. 10:10.

Dalaiah. [Dalai'ah]

Son of Elioenai, a descendant of David. 1 Chr. 3:24.

Dalmanutha. [Dalmanu'tha]

District on the west of the Lake of Gennesaret. Mark 8:10. By comparing Matt. 15:39 it will be seen to be in the same neighbourhood as Magdala or Magadan. Not identified.

Dalmatia. [Dalma'tia]

District in Illyricum, on the east of the Adriatic Sea, visited by Titus, and perhaps by Paul, in going 'round about unto Illyricum.' Rom. 15:19; 2 Tim. 4:10.

Dalphon. [Dal'phon]

One of the sons of Haman, slain and hanged. Est. 9:7, 14.

Damaris. [Dam'aris]

A woman at Athens who believed the gospel preached by Paul. Acts 17:34.


One of the oldest cities in the world, being mentioned as a known city in the days of Abraham. Gen. 14:15; Gen. 15:2. Josephus says it was founded by Uz, grandson of Shem. It is not again mentioned in scripture until the time of David. It was the capital of Syria. Isa. 7:8. The Syrians of Damascus sided with Hadadezer, king of Zobah, against Israel, but David slew 22,000 of the Syrians. 2 Sam. 8:5. David put garrisons in Syria, and they brought him gifts. 1 Chr. 18:3-6. Rezon escaped and established himself at Damascus as king of Syria and was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon. 1 Kings 11:23-25.

A few years later Ben-hadad was induced by Judah to attack Baasha king of Israel, when all the land of Naphtali was smitten. 1 Kings 15:16-20. About 30 years after this Benhadad II. besieged Samaria; but God wrought for their deliverance, and Ben-hadad was taken prisoner; but Ahab called him 'brother' and released him, for which he was rebuked by a prophet. 1 Kings 20. About B.C. 890 Hazael murdered Ben-hadad and became king of Syria; and we read that Jehovah began to cut Israel short and He used Hazael as His instrument. He smote all the coasts of Israel, from Jordan eastward, in Gilead and the lands of Gad, Reuben, and Manasseh. 2 Kings 10:32-33. He took also Gath, and was only diverted from Jerusalem by Jehoash giving up the royal and temple treasures. 2 Kings 12:17-18. Ben-hadad III. his son continued to exercise dominion over Israel, 2 Kings 13:3-7, 22; but Jehovah had compassion on Israel, and Joash, according to the dying prophecy of Elisha, overcame the king of Syria three times and recovered the cities of Israel. 2 Kings 13:14-19, 23-25. Jeroboam also 'restored' the coast of Israel, and recovered Damascus and Hamath, according to the prophecy of Jonah. 2 Kings 14:23-28.

About a century later, Rezin king of Syria and Pekah king of Israel attacked Ahaz and besieged Jerusalem. Ahaz sent the royal and temple treasures to Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria to induce him to resist Rezin. He attacked Damascus, and took it, and carried away the inhabitants to Kir, and slew Rezin, about B.C. 740. 2 Kings 16:5-9; Isa. 7:1-9.

Isaiah prophesied that Damascus should be a ruinous heap, because of its confederacy with Ephraim against God's city Jerusalem. Isa. 17:1: cf. also Amos 1:3-5; Jer. 49:23-27; Zech. 9:1. God had used the kings of Syria to punish Israel; but, as in other cases, He afterwards for their arrogance and cruelty brought them to nought.

In the time of the Medo-Persian kingdom, Damascus was again rebuilt and was the most famous city of Syria; it afterwards belonged to the Greeks, and later to the Romans, and eventually to the Arabs, Saracens, and Turks.

In the N.T. Damascus is of note as the city near to which Paul was converted, and where he received his sight, and began to preach. He escaped from his enemies by being let down by the wall in a basket. Acts 9:2-27; Acts 22:5-11. In 2 Cor. 11:32 its inhabitants are called DAMASCENES. Damascus was the first Gentile city in which Jesus was preached as 'the Son of God;' and though it is now in possession of Muslims, yet in their great mosque a stone has been preserved that formed part of a church erected on the spot, bearing this inscription in Greek: "Thy kingdom, O Christ, is an everlasting kingdom, and Thy dominion endureth throughout all generations." The city is also lamentably memorable on account of the outburst of Muslim hatred in 1860, when on the 9th, 10th and 11th of July not less than 2,500 adult Christians were murdered by them in cold blood, and many besides lost their lives in their flight.

The city is beautifully situated (33 30' N, 36 18' E) at the foot of the south-east range of Antilibanus on a large plain, watered by the two rivers Barada and Awaj (the Abana and Pharpar of 2 Kings 5:12), the former of which runs through the city, and may be said to be the life of the place. The plain abounds in corn-fields, olive-groves, and meadows, with vines, figs, apricots, citrons, plums, pomegranates, and other fruits. There is a long street of more than a mile in length that may well have been called 'Straight,' but is now a street of Bazaars. This was divided into rows by Corinthian columns, the remains of which can still be traced.


Inhabitants of Damascus. 2 Cor. 11:32.


1.  ἀπώλεια, 'destruction.' 2 Peter 2:3.

2.  κρίμα, 'judgement, condemnation.' Matt. 23:14; Rom. 3:8; Rom. 13:2; 1 Cor. 11:29; 1 Tim. 5:12.

3.  κρίσις, 'judgement,' associated with eternity: judgement of hell,' Matt. 23:33; 'eternal judgement,' Mark 3:29 (where some Editors read 'guilty of eternal sin'); and 'resurrection of judgement.' John 5:29.

4.  κρίνω, κατακρίνω, 'judge, condemn.' Mark 16:16; Rom. 14:23; 2 Thess. 2:12.


Fifth son of Jacob, and first of Bilhah, Rachel's maid. Gen. 30:6, etc. Little is recorded of him personally: only one son is mentioned in Gen. 46:23. The tribe of Dan was, however, numerous: at the Exodus there were 62,700 fighting men, exceeding all the tribes except Judah; and at the second numbering they had increased to 64,400. Num. 1:39; Num. 26:42-43. Yet when in the land the Amorites forced the children of Dan into the mountains: for they would not suffer them to come down to the valley. Judges 1:34. This showed great want of faith in the DANITES (as they are called in Judges 13:2; Judges 18:1, 11; 1 Chr. 12:35); and Deborah in her song said, 'Why did Dan remain in ships,' when the Lord's enemies were being destroyed?

Their portion fell on the sea-coast between those of Manasseh and Judah. It was small in comparison with their numbers, which occasioned some going north and building the city of Dan, q.v. Dan was not conspicuous among the tribes, but Aholiab, who helped Bezaleel in the work of the tabernacle, was of the tribe, Ex. 31:6; and Samson also.

When Jacob blessed his sons he said, "Dan shall judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel. Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path, that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward." Gen. 49:16-17. This tribe was guilty of setting up very early in the land the idolatry, which continued until the people were carried into captivity. Judges 18:30-31. One naturally associates 'the adder that biteth the heels' with the serpent that would bruise the heel of the seed of the woman. Gen. 3:15. It seems to suggest that the Antichrist will arise out of the tribe of Dan, and this indeed has been the judgement of Christians from the earliest times. Moses said, "Dan is a lion's whelp: he shall leap from Bashan," Deut. 33:22, which may be a prophecy that Dan would do the work of Satan: cf. Ps. 22:12-13. This thought is confirmed by Dan's name being absent from 1 Chr. 2 - 8 (the book that records much of grace and blessing), and being omitted also from the list of tribes from each of which twelve thousand will be sealed in a future day. Rev. 7:3-8. Still God's promises to the twelve tribes will be kept, and the tribe of Dan will have its portion in the land as prophesied in Ezek. 48:1-2, 32.

Dan, City of.

The portion of land that fell to Dan being found too small, a party of them went far north unto Leshem or Laish, which they took, and destroyed; they built a city there and called it after their father Dan. Joshua 19:47. This is often named as the north border of Palestine; 'from Dan to Beersheba' implying the whole land. It was here that open idolatry was early set up. The city is identified with a few ruins at Tell el Kady, 33 15' N, 35 39' E. The place is visited because one of the sources of the Jordan issues from a spring near by.

In Ezek. 27:19 occurs in the A.V. 'Dan also and Javan.' This is now judged to be better translated 'Vedan and Javan,' though it is not known what place is alluded to by the name 'Vedan.'


1.  Second son of David, by Abigail the Carmelitess. 1 Chr. 3:1. Same as CHILEAB. 2 Sam. 3:3.

2.  Descendant of Ithamar, he returned with Ezra and sealed the covenant. Ezra 8:2; Neh. 10:6.

Daniel the Prophet.

One of the tribe of Judah and of the royal family of David, he was carried to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. He was chosen, as one who was well favoured and without blemish, to stand before the king, and to be taught the learning and tongue of the Chaldeans; his name being changed to BELTESHAZZAR. He was to be fed with the king's meat and to drink the king's wine, but Daniel resolved not to be thus defiled; the food had probably been offered to idols. He requested that he and his companions might be allowed to live upon vegetable food and water for a few days, and God blessed this faithfulness and when tested they were found well nourished. God also gave them knowledge and skill in learning, and to Daniel He gave understanding in all visions and dreams.

This was soon to be put to the proof, for the king having had a remarkable dream, which perhaps he had forgotten, he required the wise men to tell him the dream as well as its interpretation; or he may have intended it as a test. If by help of the gods they were able to give the true interpretation, the same gods could enable them to recall the dream. But they declared that this was an unheard-of demand. The magic and astrology of Chaldea was not equal to it, and Daniel and his companions were in danger of being destroyed with all the wise men; but they turned to the God of heaven and prayed to Him, and the dream was revealed to Daniel in a night vision. Daniel thanked and worshipped the God of his fathers. It was the vision of the Great Image. Its revelation had such an effect on the king that he did homage to Daniel, and said Daniel's God was the God of gods and the Lord of kings. He made Daniel ruler over the whole of Babylon and chief governor over all the wise men of Babylon. He sat in the gate of the king. Daniel was also able to interpret the dream that foretold Nebuchadnezzar's lunacy. He was next called to interpret the writing on the wall at Belshazzar's feast, and was made third ruler of the kingdom; but the city was taken and the kingdom fell into other hands.

Darius in settling the government made three presidents over 120 princes or satraps, and Daniel was first of the three. This raised their jealousy and they laid a plot to destroy him, finding nothing on which to accuse him except concerning his piety. Spite of the king's decree (which they had instigated) that no one should ask a petition of God or man for thirty days except of the king, Daniel still three times a day prayed and gave thanks to his God, having his window opened towards Jerusalem: cf. 1 Kings 8:47-49. On his being accused thereof Darius was grieved, but saw no way of keeping the law and saving Daniel, so he was cast into the lions' den. Darius spent the night in fasting, and in the morning he found that Daniel's God had been able to save him from the lions. He was rescued and his enemies were cast into the den. A decree was then sent throughout the kingdom that all should fear the God of Daniel, 'for He is the living God.' "So this Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian." Dan. 6:28.

This closes the history of Daniel in connection with the kings of Babylon and Persia. It reveals him as faithful to his God first, and then faithful to those whom he served. He was greatly concerned for the welfare of Israel, and confessed their sins as his own. God answered and blessed him, and revealed His purposes to him; gave him favour with those he served, and preserved him from the malice of his enemies. He is twice classed with Noah and Job as a faithful one. Ezek. 14:14, 20. He typifies the faithful Jewish remnant during the Gentile supremacy, in bondage yet possessing the secret of the Lord. Finally through them the Gentiles magnify their God.

Daniel, Book of.

This book holds a peculiar place among the prophecies: its subject is the "Times of the Gentiles." It is not an appeal to Israelites, but is mostly taken up with prophecies concerning the Gentile powers. The times of Gentile domination had begun by Nebuchadnezzar taking Jerusalem and being called king of kings, to whom God had given a kingdom, and made him ruler over all the children of men. God's personal dealings with this monarch are recorded and the kingdoms that would follow are revealed.

The book divides itself into two portions: the first six chapters give Daniel's intercourse with the great monarchs; and the latter six chapters the visions and revelations made to Daniel himself. For the personal history of the prophet see DANIEL. The prophetical aspect of the first division begins with Nebuchadnezzar's dream.

Daniel 2:   Under the figure of the Great Image are described the four Gentile empires that were to succeed each other, further particulars of which were afterwards revealed to Daniel. It is plainly manifested that these empires would depreciate. The first is compared to gold, the second to silver, the third to brass, and the fourth to iron and clay which would not mingle together. It is noteworthy that, notwithstanding this declaration, the great effort of many in modern days is to endeavour to unite the iron and clay, and others strive to make the clay (the mass of the people) the ruling power. The fourth empire will be resuscitated, for the Lord Jesus at His first coming did not set up His kingdom — He was rejected; but during the future renewal of the Roman empire God will set up a kingdom that shall subdue all others. The 'stone' is Christ who will break in pieces all that oppose, and will reign supreme. This prophecy presents the moral deterioration of Gentile power, until it is supplanted by the kingdom of God.

Daniel 3:   It is here uniformity of religion, established by the king, not by God — the principle of Church and State. Nebuchadnezzar commanded all to worship the image he had set up; but three faithful ones refused to obey, and were thrown into the fiery furnace. The king had to learn that the God of the Jews was the Most High God, who was able to set him and all his powers at defiance. The king acknowledged God's power and sent a proclamation to that effect throughout his kingdom; though his subsequent history proves that he was not humbled. In the last days the faithful Jews will be in the furnace of tribulation for not complying with the Imperial religion. They will be delivered, and God will be glorified by the nations: cf. Rev. 13. Thus is seen that the first characteristic of Gentile supremacy is idolatry.

Daniel 4:   The dream and the interpretation shows that Nebuchadnezzar himself was the great tree to be cut down, and the prophet exhorted him to renounce his sins and reform his ways, and peradventure the judgement might be postponed. But his pride was not subdued, for at the end of the year he boasted of the great city which he had built by the might of his power and for the honour of his majesty; but not a word about God. He was driven among the cattle for seven years. It is a solemn thing to have to do with the living God; but God had mercy on the king, his reason returned, and the kingdom was restored to him. Now he could say, "I Nebuchadnezzar praise and extol and honour the King of heaven, all whose works are truth, and his ways judgement: and those that walk in pride he is able to abase." He had learned God's lesson, and we hear of him no more. In the last days the Gentile rulers, after having used their power as 'beasts,' will acknowledge God as the source of all authority, and be brought into blessing in connection with Israel. The second characteristic which marked Gentile rule is that, refusing to own God, it descends to the level of a beast.

Daniel 5:   About twenty-five years later Belshazzar was reigning at Babylon. The monuments have revealed that he was son of Nabonadius, or Labynetus, and was reigning with his father. Nabonadius was defending the kingdom outside in the open country, and though defeated was not slain; his son was besieged inside, and was slain that night while holding a festival to the gods. This accounts for Belshazzar promising that Daniel should be the third ruler in the kingdom. Thus the monuments have now cleared away that which with respect to this king had seemed to make scripture and the historians discordant, for previously the name of Belshazzar had not been discovered. Daniel faithfully reminded Belshazzar of how God had dealt with his father (or rather his grandfather) Nebuchadnezzar for his pride; adding that though the king knew all this he had lifted up himself against the God of heaven, and had desecrated the vessels of God's house by drinking wine in them to his gods, and foretells his destruction. Type of the judgement on the Gentile world at the coming of Christ: cf. Rev. 18: The third characteristic of imperial power is, that it is infidel and profane.

Daniel 6:   Darius the Mede had to learn the power of God, his own weakness, and the faithfulness of Daniel the servant of God. Daniel was saved from the lions, and the God of Daniel was proclaimed throughout the empire as the living God. Typically, Darius represents the last Gentile emperor, who will be worshipped; Daniel, the godly Jews who will be saved from the very jaws of destruction; his opposers, the future infidel accusers of God's people. The fourth characteristic is self-exaltation.

Daniel 7:   This begins the second part of the book. It gives the character of the Gentile kings, already noted in chapter 4, as before God, and their conduct towards those who acknowledge God. The four empires prophesied of in Dan. 2 are here further described under the figure of 'great beasts.' The lion is Chaldean; the bear, Medo-Persian; the leopard, Grecian (or Macedonian); and the fourth, which was like no living animal, Roman, distinguished as having ten horns (ten kings), Dan 7:24. Out of the last arises a little horn, a power which persecutes the saints for 3-1/2 years; but which is judged by the Ancient of Days, and the saints of the Most High, or rather of the high places, eventually take the kingdom. This power is doubtless the future Roman prince in the West, who will combine with Satan and the Antichrist, as in Rev. 13.

Daniel 8:   The second and the third of the four empires are again prophesied of. Out of the third kingdom, the Grecian, after it was divided into four, arose a little horn, which magnified itself; and then follows the ceasing of the daily sacrifice at Jerusalem, 'the pleasant land;' but in Dan. 8:11 and part of verse 12 there is a change from 'it' to 'he;' and in Dan. 8:17 and Dan. 8:19 'the time of the end' is spoken of. Therefore, though the little horn refers to Antiochus Epiphanes (and though he caused the worship at Jerusalem to cease) a later and still future period is evidently referred to, and another king of Syria, who will stand against the Prince of princes, and shall be broken without hand. Dan. 8:25.  Dan. 8:23-25 are distinctly future: 'in the latter time.'*

* In reference to the 2300 days of Dan. 8:14, see under 'Antiochus'

B.C. 175  ANTIOCHUS IV., Epiphanes  (third paragraph)

Daniel 9:   Daniel was a student of prophecy, and learned from Jeremiah that the desolations of Jerusalem were to last 70 years. These were almost accomplished, and Daniel confessed his sins and the sins of his people; he prayed for forgiveness, and for the sanctuary which was lying desolate; he begged God to hearken and do, to defer not for His own sake, because the city and the people were called by His name. While he was yet speaking Gabriel was sent with a communication, which embraced not only the rebuilding of Jerusalem in the days of Ezra and Nehemiah, but the coming of the Messiah, and the action of a prince (head of the Roman power) in the last of the seventy weeks. See SEVENTY WEEKS.

Daniel 10:   Daniel mourned three full weeks. This was in the third year of Cyrus: in the first year Cyrus had proclaimed that God had charged him to rebuild the temple. Ezra 1:1. Some were elated at the small restoration in Ezra 1 - 3, but Daniel was still before God about His people, the previous chapter having revealed that 70 weeks (of years) would have to run on before blessing; Messiah would be rejected, etc. He did not go back to Jerusalem, but continued to mourn for God's people and sought to understand the prophecies. One was sent to comfort Daniel, and he revealed the fact that unseen evil powers had delayed his coming the entire three weeks. The messenger said, "I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days: for yet the vision is for many days . . . . now will I return to fight with the prince of Persia: and when I am gone forth, lo, the prince of Grecia shall come." Dan. 10:14, 20. This introduces Dan. 11 and 12 (Dan. 10, 11, and 12: being one). God's answer is a revelation extending from the days of Daniel to the final blessing of God's people. The city and sanctuary are in view in Dan. 9, here the people.

Daniel 11:   Dan. 11:1-35 are a history of the contests between the king of the north (Syria) and the king of the south (Egypt) — branches of the Grecian empire — often in the land of Palestine which lay between them. The prophecies are so definite that some critics have said they must have been written after the events. The correspondence of history with the particulars given in this chapter will be found under ANTIOCHUS. Dan. 11:21 to 35 refer to Antiochus Epiphanes, type of the king of the north, or Assyrian of the last days: cf. also Dan. 8.

Dan. 11:36-45.   The Spirit here, as elsewhere, passes from the type to the fulfilment at the end of the days, leaping over the present interval. Dan. 11:36-39 are a parenthesis and refer to Antichrist as a king: he will be a Jew and not regard 'the God of his fathers,' nor the Messiah as 'the desire of women,' nor regard any known god; but will set himself up above all. Yet apparently he will honour the god of war (for which nations are getting ready).

Dan. 11:40-45.   This is the final contest between a king of the North and a king of the South. The king of the North (elsewhere spoken of as 'the Assyrian,' antitype of Epiphanes) succeeds and passes into 'the glorious land,' and is generally victorious (but not against Edom and Moab, and the children of Ammon: these are judged later by the instrumentality of Israel. Isa. 11:14). Like Sennacherib's host of old, he will be smitten by the hand of God.

Daniel 12:   This is the deliverance and blessing of the Jewish remnant. Michael, their champion in the heavenlies, stands up for them. There is to be a time of great trouble such as never was: cf. Jer. 30:7; Matt. 24. Many of Israel that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake: some to millennial blessing, and some to judgement. This is not the resurrection of the dead, but a national rising of all Israel from among the Gentiles, like the rising from the valley of dry bones in Ezek. 37: a remnant only will enter the kingdom. Daniel was told to seal up the book to the time of the end: cf. Rev. 22:10. He heard one ask, "How long shall it be to the end of these wonders?" The reply is "a time, times, and a half " —  3-1/2 years, the last half-week of Daniel's 70 weeks. Two other periods are given: 1290 days from the time of the daily sacrifice being taken away: this is 30 days beyond the 3-1/2 years. Then blessed is he that waiteth and cometh to the 1335 days — full blessing. Daniel was told to go: he should stand in his lot at the end of the days.

Much of this remarkable prophecy stands alone, though it has many links that fit exactly with other prophecies. A general knowledge of prophecy wonderfully helps the understanding of any part of it, in this or in any other book. It is important to remember that Daniel's prophecy embraces the 'times of the Gentiles' — running on from the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar to the restoration of the Jews when ruled over by the Son of David. The present governments or states of Europe may be said to be the representatives of Gentile supremacy, but through the depreciation of the Roman empire by the mixture of the iron and clay. The Church and the Gospel have no place in Daniel.

The book is not all written in Hebrew: from Dan. 2:4 to end of Dan. 7. — namely, what concerns the Gentiles — is written in what is there called Syriac, or Aramaic — usually called Chaldee, the Gentiles' tongue.

Danites. [Dan'ites]

Members of the tribe of Dan. Judges 13:2; Judges 18:1, 11; 1 Chr. 12:35.

Danjaan.  [Dan-ja'an]

Place in the north of Palestine. 2 Sam. 24:6. Identified by some with ruins at Danian, 33 5' N, 35 8' E.

Dannah. [Dan'nah]

Mountain city of Judah. Joshua 15:49. Identified with Idhna, 31 34' N, 34 58' E.

Dara. [Da'ra]

Son or descendant of Zerah. 1 Chr. 2:6. In some Hebrew MSS DARDA is read. Doubtless the same as DARDA.

Darda. [Dar'da]

Son of Mahol: a wise man whose wisdom was surpassed by that of Solomon. 1 Kings 4:31.


1.  DARIUS THE MEDE, son of Ahasuerus. He was probably the Astyages of the historians. Some supposed 'Darius' to be a title and not a name, but the name has been found on the monuments. On the death of Belshazzar he possessed Babylon, being about 62 years of age: B.C. 538-6. Dan. 5:31; Dan. 6:9-28; Dan. 9:1; Dan. 11:1.   See BABYLON and DANIEL.

2.  DARIUS HYSTASPIS, king of Persia: B.C. 521-485. He confirmed the decree of Cyrus in favour of the Jews, and the building of the temple. Ezra 4:5, 24; Ezra 5:5-7; Ezra 6:1-15; Hag. 1:1, 15; Hag. 2:10; Zech. 1:1, 7; Zech. 7:1. To this king is ascribed the consolidating of the empire of Persia.

3.  DARIUS THE PERSIAN.  Darius Ochus (Nothus) of the historians, B.C. 424-405. Only mentioned in Neh. 12:22. For a list of the Persian kings see PERSIA.


Used in various significations in scripture.

1.  State of the earth before God said, Let there be light. Gen. 1:2.

2.  Temporary absence of light in the night. Gen. 1:5.

3.  Extraordinary darkness sent by God. Ex. 10:21; Ex. 14:20; Matt. 27:45.

4.  The darkness by which God shrouded His glory. Ex. 20:21; Ps. 18:9, 11; Ps. 97:2; Heb. 12:18.

5.  State of death as compared with natural life. Job 10:21-22.

6.  Moral darkness as the consequent state of man fallen. Ps. 82:5; Isa. 9:2; Matt. 4:16; John 1:5; John 3:19; 2 Cor. 6:14; 1 Peter 2:9.

7.  It characterises Satan and his agents. Luke 22:53; Eph. 6:12; Rev. 16:10.

8.  It is the abode of wicked spirits and will characterise the place of punishment of the wicked. Matt. 8:12; 2 Peter 2:4; Jude 6, 13. God is light, and Christ came into the world as the true light: everything shut out from God, or opposed to God and to the Lord Jesus, must partake of moral darkness.

Darkon. [Dar'kon]

One whose descendants returned from exile. Ezra 2:56; Neh. 7:58.


Arrow, short spear, javelin. 2 Sam. 18:14; 2 Chr. 32:5; Job 41:26, 29; Prov. 7:23.  FIERY DARTS signify darts tipped with combustible material which ignite in the projection or percussion and burn as well as pierce. Eph. 6:16: cf. Ps. 120:4. The Christian needs the shield of faith to quench such darts of the wicked one.

Dathan. [Da'than]

Son of Eliab the Reubenite: he joined with Korah and Abiram in rebellion against Moses and Aaron, and was with Abiram swallowed up by the earth. Num. 16:1-30; Num. 26:9; Deut. 11:6; Ps. 106:17. It was rebellion against God in His appointed servants: cf. Jude 11.  See KORAH.


Besides the ordinary meaning of this word it is used also for grand-daughter or female descendant in general, Luke 1:5; also as belonging to a race or country, or to Zion or Israel, Gen. 27:46; Num. 25:1; 2 Kings 19:21; Luke 23:28. The term is also applied to towns and villages associated with some city, as may be seen in the margin of Num. 21:25.

David. [Da'vid]

The name signifies 'well-beloved.' David was the son of Jesse, a descendant of Boaz and Ruth, a Jew and a Gentile: both Jews and Gentiles are to be blessed in the Christ whom David typified. David was anointed when in humility, 'keeping the sheep.' His seven brothers had passed before Samuel, but the one to be anointed must be one after God's own heart, one that would care for and feed God's people. The spirit of Jehovah came upon him from that day. Christ was the true Messiah, whom David prefigured, being anointed at His baptism by the Holy Spirit before entering on His service toward Israel. David's spirit was stirred within him when he heard the boasting of Goliath against the God of Israel, and he then told how in secret he had protected the sheep and had slain the lion and the bear: in the name of God the giant would also be overcome. His faith was in Israel's God, and the giant was slain.

The women's song in praise of David raised the jealousy of Saul, who had more sense of his own importance than care for the Lord's people. He gave his daughter Michal to be David's wife, and thought thus to entrap him; but his wife became his deliverer. This called forth Ps. 59. He had faith that God would laugh at his enemies: God was his defence and the God of his mercy. Though the Psalms show the experiences of David's inner man, it must not be forgotten that they are prophetic, and his language is often that of the remnant of Israel in the future, and sometimes that of Christ. Ps. 59: speaks of the heathen who will oppose Christ.

The love of Jonathan and David is beautiful, but Jonathan could not protect David from the hatred of Saul, and David resorted to the priest, who gave him the hallowed bread. The sovereign grace of God rises above the ordinances that are connected with blessing when that blessing is rejected. God's anointed one was rejected and the showbread was considered common. He received the sword of Goliath, and fled to the Philistines. Apparently he was seized by them (cf. the heading of Ps. 56); he cried for mercy, for man sought to swallow him up. "Put thou my tears into thy bottle: are they not in thy book?" he said; yet he knew he should escape, for God was for him. He changed his behaviour before the Philistines and assumed madness: connected with this is Psalm 34. David would bless the Lord at all times: he cried, and the Lord heard him; but the psalm is manifestly prophetic of Christ: see Ps. 34:20 and others. David escaped to the cave of Adullam, and his brethren and his father's house went to him, also those in distress, and those in debt, and the discontented; the prophet Gad was with him, and soon afterwards Abiathar the priest. But the enemy was not inactive, Doeg the Edomite informed Saul of how Ahimelech the priest had helped David, which led Saul to employ even Doeg to slay the family of Ahimelech. This drew forth Ps. 52: God would destroy the wicked, and the man who had not made God his strength. It must be remembered that the circumstances through which David passed are used by the prophetic Spirit to develop the experiences in the conflict between good and evil, which are to culminate in final deliverance and glory.

When the Philistines attacked and robbed the Israelites, David inquired of the Lord, and smote them with great slaughter. It is beautiful to see how David could inquire of God and receive an immediate answer. Even the city Keilah which he had relieved was against him, the king anointed of God to feed them. He was obliged to wander elsewhere, but Jonathan met him in a wood and encouraged him, assuring David that he knew he would surely be king; and there they made a covenant together: cf. Ps. 63.

When Nabal had repulsed David's messengers Abigail brought a present, and rehearsed what God would do for David, and appeased his wrath. God smote Nabal, and Abigail became David's wife. Now the Ziphites or Ziphim engaged to aid Saul to capture David. This called forth Ps. 54, in which David cries earnestly to be saved: strangers had risen up against him; but his faith could say that God had delivered him out of all trouble. David must wander hither and thither, sometimes in the wilderness, sometimes in the mountains, and sometimes in the caves: cf. Psalms 57 and 142.  He twice saved Saul's life, for he would not allow his followers to slay the Lord's anointed. He could wait God's time for deliverance, yet, alas, his faith failed him, and at length he said in his heart, "I shall now perish one day by the hand of Saul," 1 Sam. 27:1, and he fled to the Philistines: strange place for David! The Philistines prepared for war with Israel, and apparently David would have joined them, but he was prevented by some of the lords of the Philistines objecting to him, and he was sent back. In this the providential hand of God was seen. But chastisement from the Lord had fallen upon him, for the Amalekites had smitten Ziklag and carried off his family and those of his followers. Recourse was had to God, who never forsook David, and He graciously answered, and told him to pursue. All was recovered, and David was able to send presents of the spoil to his friends. Both Saul and Jonathan were slain in the contest that followed.

David now went up with his followers to Hebron, and the throne being vacant, the men of Judah came and anointed him king over their tribe. Ish-bosheth, son of Saul, was afterwards chosen king by the other tribes. For a time there was continual war between the two houses, but David grew stronger and stronger, and Ish-bosheth weaker and weaker. After David had reigned seven years and six months at Hebron, Abner revolted from Ish-bosheth, who was soon after slain by two of his officers, and David was anointed king over all Israel. All was now changed for David; but, alas, the first thing recorded after getting possession of Zion is "David took more concubines and wives out of Jerusalem, after he had come from Hebron."  2 Sam. 5:13.

Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David with timber and workmen, and a house was built for David. Ps. 30 would appear to have been indited on its dedication. It was God who had brought up his soul from the grave, had lifted him up and healed him.

Again and again David fought with the Philistines. He burned their idols, and smote them from Geba, to Gazer. He followed on to smite Moab; then extended his border to the river Euphrates, and put garrisons in Syria of Damascus; he smote of the Syrians in the valley of Salt 18,000. All they of Edom became David's servants: cf. Ps. 60: written after one of these victories, when apparently it had been a hard time for them: but it is also prophetic of the future.

David's great thought, when established in the kingdom, was to find a resting place for the ark, to bring God into the midst of His people. He attempted to bring up the ark, but at first not in God's way, and Uzzah was smitten, which displeased David and made him afraid; but he learned better, and the ark was carried up on the shoulders of the Levites, with sacrifices and much rejoicing. David, girded with a linen ephod, danced before the ark, and as the anointed of God he blessed the people and distributed his good things. Nature in Michal thought it shameful; but David was ready to be 'more vile' and 'base' in his own eyes.

David thought to build a house to Jehovah, for the ark was only within curtains; but God's message by Nathan was that God would build David a house: his kingdom should be established for ever. David's son should build God a house: cf. Ps. 132, and David's prayer in 2 Sam. 7:18-29. David's heart went forth in thanksgiving, as he sat before the Lord. David showed grace to Mephibosheth, a descendant of Saul, and brought him to his table; typical of the grace that will in the future be shown to the remnant that own their Messiah. His kindness to the Gentile king of Ammon was refused and his messengers were insulted, which brought punishment upon the Ammonites and their allies.

David, now at his ease instead of fighting the Lord's battles, falls into great sin respecting Bath-sheba and Uriah. He had to hear that the sword should not depart from his house, and evil should rise against him in his own family. David confessed his sin, and was told at once that it had been put away; but God's government must be fulfilled, and the child should surely die. David, knowing how gracious God was, remained prostrate while the child lived, but the child died; and Absalom's rebellion followed: cf. Ps. 51: for the exercises of David respecting his sin.

Sin followed in David's house: the defilement of Tamar, the murder of Amnon, and the flight of Absalom. On Absalom's return he ingratiated himself with the people and rebelled against his father. David fled from Jerusalem and toiled up Mount Olivet.  Ps. 3 tells out his heart. He did not lose confidence in God: Jehovah was his shield: he lay down and slept, and awaked, for Jehovah sustained him. God was taking care of him, though he had to drink the cup of sorrow. The counsel of Ahithophel was disregarded, and David was saved. He bore the curses of Shimei, saying in his piety, "The Lord hath bidden him." David was deeply grieved at the death of Absalom, and had to be reasoned into submitting to what was seemly. He returned to Jerusalem and pardoned Shimei. The revolt of Sheba followed, and David feared it might be worse than that of Absalom; but by the wisdom of a woman Sheba alone was destroyed. There were still wars with the Philistines, in one of which David nearly lost his life: four giants were slain, and a song of thanksgiving was rendered to God. 2 Sam. 22; Ps. 18.

In the last words of David he confessed that his house was not as it should be with God. He had signally failed in punishing sin in his family, especially in the case of Amnon and Absalom; yet he counted on the everlasting covenant that God had made with him, ordered in all things and sure. And he looked forward to that morning without clouds. The 'sure mercies of David' will reach Israel through Christ risen. Isa. 55:3: cf. Acts 13:34.

David was tempted by Satan to number Israel: it was allowed of God, for his anger was kindled against Israel, though we are not told what was the occasion of it. The number was no sooner told to David than his heart smote him, and he confessed that he had sinned greatly. A choice of three punishments was offered to him, and he piously chose to be dealt with by God, for he knew His tender mercies were great, rather than to fall into the hands of his enemies. The pestilence broke forth, and 70,000 men fell, and as the angel was about to smite Jerusalem, Jehovah stayed his hand; and David erected an altar on the spot, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings. The Lord was entreated for the land and the plague was stayed.

Though David was not allowed to build the temple, he made great preparations for it, with patterns or plans of the various parts, which he had by the Spirit, and he stored up abundance of silver, gold, and other materials. He also charged the princes to aid Solomon in the great work. David also arranged the details of the service, the priests, Levites, singers, etc. He established Solomon as his successor, and his work was done.

Only a few Psalms have been alluded to, those in which the circumstances of David are mentioned in the headings. The Psalms which bear his name were written by him, but only as an instrument; for it was by the Holy Spirit that they were indited: and thus are eminently prophetic.  See PSALMS.   Ps. 72 ends thus: "Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, who only doeth wondrous things. And blessed be his glorious name for ever: and let the whole earth be filled with his glory. Amen and Amen. The prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended."

David is a remarkable type of Christ: when he was hunted by Saul, he foreshadowed Christ in His rejection; and when on the throne he was a type of Christ as a man of war, putting down His enemies previous to His peaceful reign in the millennium, typified in Solomon. The Lord Jesus is often called the Son of David, and yet He is David's Lord, about which fact He Himself asked the Jews. Luke 20:41-44. In like manner He is called the root and the offspring of David, Rev. 22:16: being God as well as man He could be both. He also has the key of David. Rev. 3:7; cf. Isa. 22:22-24. He has the disposal of all things for the church, for the future kingdom on earth, and for the nations generally.

David, [Da'vid] City of.

1.  2 Sam. 5:7: same as ZION, q.v.

2.  BETHLEHEM, Luke 2:11: so called because David was born there.

David, [Da'vid] Tower of.

Doubtless part of the castle in Zion, wherein armour was stored: it is mentioned only symbolically in Cant. 4:4.


Besides the ordinary application of the word, it is used in scripture as defining different periods. The term 'that day' often occurs in the Prophets and in the N.T. referring to the Messiah's day, sometimes connected with judgement and sometimes with blessing, the context of each passage showing its application. The subject generally may be divided into:

1.   the days of the Law and the Prophets, which extended from the giving of the law until the coming of the Messiah. "At the end of these days [God] has spoken to us in [His] Son," as Heb. 1:2 should read. This introduced Messiah's Day. But He was rejected and His reign postponed. In the meantime:

2.  The Day of Grace supervenes, during which the church is being called out. The Lord Jesus wrought out redemption, ascended to heaven, and sent down the Holy Spirit. Of this time He said "In that day ye shall know that I am in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you" John 14:20 cf. also John 16:23, 26. The present period is referred to as man's day. 1 Cor. 4:3, margin. These are also 'the last days' in which scoffers would come. 2 Peter 3:3; Jude 18.

3.  Messiah's Day, when He returns in judgement and then to reign. "The day is at hand." Rom. 13:12; Heb. 10:25. "The day shall declare it." 1 Cor. 3:13. It is also called 'the last day.' John 6:39-51; John 11:24; John 12:48. And it is called 'the great day.' Elijah will come before the great and dreadful day of the Lord. Malachi 4:5. The kings of the earth will be gathered to the battle of that great day of God Almighty. Rev. 16:14. It is also called 'the day of Christ' and 'the day of Jesus Christ.' Phil. 1:6, 10; Phil. 2:16; cf. 1 Cor. 1:8; 2 Cor. 1:14.

Day of the Lord.

This cannot be separated from Messiah's day. It is often characterised by judgement: "A day of darkness and of gloominess, a day of clouds and of thick darkness . . . . the day of the Lord is great and very terrible." Joel 2:2, 11, 31; Malachi 4:1. "The day of the Lord so cometh as a thief in the night; for when they shall say, Peace and safety; then sudden destruction cometh upon them." 1 Thess. 5:2-3. "The day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; in the which the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the works that are therein shall be burned up." 2 Peter 3:10. This scene is followed by 'THE DAY OF GOD' in 2 Peter 3:12, which ushers in the new heavens and the new earth.

It is important to keep the 'day' quite distinct from the coming of the Lord to fetch His saints; for many have misapplied the term, and it has been constantly asserted that the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians was written to show the saints that it was wrong to be expecting the return of the Lord; whereas the fact is they thought the day of the Lord had come (though the First Epistle keeps the two things quite distinct: compare 1 Thess. 4:13-18 with 1 Thess. 5:1-4), and this could not come until Antichrist was revealed. There will be judgements before the millennium, and there will be judgements after the millennium, so that we may regard the Day of the Lord as extending through the millennium: it will be 'the Lord's' day in contrast to 'man's' day.


ἀνατολη. The word is from 'to arise up.' Luke 1:78. It is elsewhere translated 'east' because it is in the east that the sun rises. Christ is here compared to the spring of day from on high, as the true heavenly light, "to give light to them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace."

Day Star,

φωσφόρος The word is from φῶσ and φέρω, 'to bring light.' 2 Peter 1:19. Prophecy is a light in this dark world respecting things here and judgement. But, in contrast to judgement, the dawn and the day star are a better hope, not seen by those who appear only when the sun is risen, but for saints who look for Christ before He appears.


The word signifies 'mediator,' or 'umpire,' as in the margin:  one "that might lay his hand upon us both," Job 9:33: as the Lord Jesus is mediator between God and men.


διάκονος.  This name is generally applied to the seven who were chosen to superintend the distribution of the funds of the church in Acts 6:3; but they are not there called deacons, and though the name may be applicable to them, yet it cannot be restricted to such service. The term applies to any service not otherwise specified. The Greek word is more often translated 'minister' and 'servant' than 'deacon.' It twice refers to Christ, Rom. 15:8; Gal. 2:17; also to Paul and others, Col. 1:7, 23, 25; to magistrates, Rom. 13:4; and even to Satan's emissaries, 2 Cor. 11:15. The Epistle to the Philippians was addressed to the saints and to the 'bishops and deacons,' or overseers and servants. In 1 Tim. 3:8-13 the moral qualifications of the deacon or minister are given, but what his work was is not specified; it is evident that they carried out their service officially. The service of deacon must not be confounded with 'gift.' Phebe was DEACONESS of the assembly in Cenchrea. Rom. 16:1.

Dead Sea.



This is referred to in scripture under various aspects.

1.  The general appointment for sinful man — the death of the body by the separation of the soul from it. Heb. 9:27; Rom. 5:14; Rom. 6:23.

2.  The spiritual condition of fallen man, 'dead in trespasses and sins.' Eph. 2:1, 5; Rom. 7:24.

3.  Death personified as a power of Satan: the last enemy to be destroyed. 1 Cor. 15:26; Rev. 20:13-14.

4.  THE SECOND DEATH: eternal punishment. Rev. 2:11; Rev. 20:14; Rev. 21:8.

Debir. [Debir']

1.  Amorite king of Eglon, slain by Joshua. Joshua 10:3, 23, 26.

2.  City in the highlands of Judah near Hebron. It was one of the cities of the Amorites that was destroyed and its king slain. Joshua as the leader of Israel is represented as taking it, but in Judges we find that it was actually taken by Othniel, to whom Caleb gave his daughter Achsah in marriage for its capture. It was eventually given to the priests. Its former name was KIRJATH-SEPHER or KIRJATH-SANNAH. Joshua 10:38-39; Joshua 11:21; Joshua 12:13; Joshua 15:7, 15, 49; Joshua 21:15; Judges 1:11-12; 1 Chr. 6:58.   Identified with edh Dhaheriyeh, 31 25' N, 34 58' E.

3.  Place on the north boundary of Judah, near the valley of Achor. Joshua 15:7. Identified by some with Thoghret ed Debr, 31 49' N, 35 21' E.

4.  Place on the boundary of Gad, mentioned after Mahanaim. Joshua 13:26.

Deborah. [Deb'orah]

1.  Rebekah's nurse: she accompanied her mistress when she left Padan-aram and remained with her till her death; she was buried under the 'oak of weeping.' Gen. 24:59; Gen. 35:8.

2.  Wife of Lapidoth: she became a 'mother in Israel,' and was a prophetess and 'judged Israel;' it was she who incited Barak to attack Jabin, who had oppressed Israel twenty years. This led to the defeat of their enemies, the death of Sisera by the hand of Jael, and the destruction of Jabin. A remarkable song of triumph by Deborah over the enemies of God followed the victory. Judges 4 and 5. Deborah is a beautiful instance of how, under God, the faith of a single person may be the means of arousing those under deep depression into activity and thence to victory.



Decapolis. [Decap'olis]

A district embracing ten cities (as its name implies). After the conquest of Palestine by the Romans these cities were rebuilt and partly colonised, having peculiar privileges. Historians are not quite agreed as to which were the ten cities, but they are now generally held to have been Hippos, Gadara, Pella, Philadelphia, Gerasa, Dion, Canatha, Damascus, Raphana, and Scythopolis. All were on the east of the Jordan except Scythopolis: but the name Decapolis seems to have been used for a district on the west of the Jordan as well as on the east. Matt. 4:25; Mark 5:20; Mark 7:31. It was to Pella that the Christians fled just before the destruction of Jerusalem.

Dedan. [Dedan']

1. Son of Raamah, son of Cush. His descendants are supposed to have located themselves on the Persian Gulf. Gen. 10:7; 1 Chr. 1:9.

2.  Descendant of Abraham and Keturah, probably inhabiting the borders of Idumaea. Gen. 25:3; 1 Chr. 1:32.

3.  District mentioned in Jer. 25:23; Jer. 49:8; Ezek. 25:13. It is more than once in these prophecies associated with Edom, so that it was probably connected with the descendants of Abraham.

4.  In Ezek. 27:15, 20; Ezek. 38:13 apparently another place of the same name is referred to, which probably alludes to the district where the descendants of Cush settled.

Dedanim. [Deda'nim]

People mentioned in the 'burden upon Arabia.' Isa. 21:13. They were probably the descendants of Dedan the Cushite.

Dedication, Feast of.

An annual Feast to celebrate the dedication of the Temple by Judas Maccabeus after it had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes, B.C. 165.  John 10:22. It commenced on the 25th of the month Chisleu, and lasted eight days. The dedication of the Temple under Ezra was on the 3rd of Adar, Ezra 6:15-16; but this was not made an annual feast. The dedication of the Temple under Solomon was at the Feast of Tabernacles. 1 Kings 8:2; 2 Chr. 5:3.

Deep, The.

ἄβυσσος. In Rom. 10:7  'the deep' probably refers to the deep sea, for in Deut. 30:13 (from whence the quotation is made) it is "Who shall go over the sea for us?" and the sea is called 'the deep' elsewhere, as Isa. 51:10; Isa. 63:13, etc. In Luke 8:31 'the deep' refers to the abyss where evil spirits are confined. It is probably the place where the fallen angels are reserved in chains of darkness, 2 Peter 2:4, where the reference is to tartarus, not gehenna.   See BOTTOMLESS PIT.



Degrees, Songs of.

This is the title given to fifteen Psalms, Ps. 120 - 134. The word is maalah, and signifies 'going up, ascent,' and is translated, 'stairs, steps, going up.' These Psalms have been grouped together: four are by David, one by Solomon, and the rest are without a name. Scripture does not specify any particular occasion on which they were used. The principal thought in the title being 'a going up' it has been suggested that as all males had to go up to Jerusalem thrice in the year, these may be the songs they sang on their way. The return from captivity under Ezra and Nehemiah is also called 'a going up,' and these Psalms may have been used on that occasion. The Syriac Version heads them 'Songs of ascent from Babylon.' On a still future return to the land the Spirit of God may lead to a similar use of these Songs of Degrees. They represent Israel as in the land, but all opposition not as yet removed.

Dehavites. [Dehav'ites]

Heathen colonists placed in Samaria on the captivity of the ten tribes. Ezra 4:9. Perhaps the same as the Dahi spoken of by Herodotus, from the east of the Caspian Sea.

Dekar. [De'kar]

Father of one of Solomon's commissariat officers. 1 Kings 4:9.

Delaiah. [Dela'iah]

1.  Leader of one of the courses of priests. 1 Chr. 24:18.

2.  Founder of a family whose genealogy was lost. Ezra 2:60; Neh. 7:62.

3.  Father of Shemaiah who sought to dishearten Nehemiah. Neh. 6:10.

4.  Son of Shemaiah and prince at the court of Jehoiakim. Jer. 36:12, 25.

Delectable things.

Desirable things, as in the margin. Isa. 44:9,


Dainties. Jer. 51:34.

Deliciously, To Live.

To live luxuriously. Rev. 18:7, 9.

Delilah. [Delil'ah]

A Philistine harlot, of the valley of Sorek, loved by Samson.  She, being bribed by the Philistines, teased Samson till he told her wherein his great strength lay. Judges 16:4-18. By the great reward offered her — 5,500 'shekels' — it appears probable that she was a political courtesan. We wonder at the folly of Samson, for he had ample proofs of her design; but, alas, being away from God, the light had become darkness, and how great that darkness!  The 'lap of Delilah' should be a signal warning to all.





Demas. [De'mas]

Fellow-labourer with Paul at Rome, Col. 4:14; Philemon 24; of whom Paul had to write some five years later, "Demas hath forsaken me, having loved this present world, and is departed to Thessalonica."  2 Tim. 4:10. This may signify, not that he had apostatised, but that he had fallen from Paul's line of things through love of this present age.

Demetrius. [Deme'trius]

1.  Silversmith of Ephesus, who made silver shrines of the temple. Fearing that the preaching of Paul against idolatry would lessen the gains of himself and others, he raised an uproar. Acts 19:24, 38.

2.  A convert who was borne witness to by all, and by the truth itself. 3 John 12.


δαιμόνιον, δαίμων.  It is to be regretted that the translators of the A.V. did not use the word 'demon' where these words occur instead of 'devil,' for which there is another Greek word, διάβολος, signifying 'accuser.' This latter word is used only in the singular, referring to the devil — Satan; but there are many demons. Philosophers spoke of demons quite differently from the way they are represented in scripture. Thus Plato says, "Every demon is a middle being between God and the mortal. God is not approached immediately by man, but all the commerce and intercourse between gods and men is performed by the mediation of demons." This was a device of Satan, that God could be worshipped through the agency of demons or demi-gods. In a similar way the Roman Catholics pray to the Virgin and the saints to intercede for them. Scripture makes it plain that the demons were evil spirits: cf. Rev. 16:13-14.

Scripture also shows that idolatry was essentially demon-worship, the idol itself being nothing. "They sacrificed unto demons (shed) not unto God," Deut. 32:17; 1 Cor. 10:19-20; "they shall no more offer their sacrifices unto demons (sair)." Lev. 17:7; Rev. 9:20. Jeroboam had fallen so low as to have ordained priests for the demons (sair) and for the calves which he had made, 2 Chr. 11:15; and some had "sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto demons (shed)."* Ps. 106:37. The things worshipped may have been unseen objects, or they may have had some mystical representation, or may have been mere idols; but behind all these were real beings, evil, unclean spirits; so that it was morally impossible to have fellowship with the Lord Jesus and with these demons. 1 Cor. 10:19-21.

* The Hebrew word shed, though traced from the word 'lord,' properly signifies "a destroyer, extirpator, a violent one; hence metaphorically a mischievous demon." — Fürst. It occurs only in the above two passages. Sair signifies 'rough, hairy,' and specially a he-goat:  hence "a goat-shaped deity, which was idolatrously worshipped . . . . It was believed that such hostile beings inhabited the deserts and woods (Isa. 13:21; Isa. 34:14), and that they must be appeased by divine worship'. — Fürst.

The evil spirits that possessed so many persons when the Lord was on earth were demons, and from the instances given we learn much respecting them. The Pharisees said that the Lord cast out demons by Beelzebub the prince of demons. The Lord interpreted this to mean 'Satan casting out Satan;' by which we learn that the demons were the agents of Satan; and that Satan as a strong man had to be bound before his kingdom could be assailed. Matt. 12:24-29. The demons also were strong ones, by the way they handled those they possessed, and by one overcoming seven men and making them flee out of the house naked and wounded. Acts 19:16. We know also that they were intelligent beings; for they knew the Lord Jesus and bowed at once to His authority. They also knew that punishment awaited them: for some asked if the Lord had come to torment them before the time. Matt. 8:29.

It must not be supposed that demon-agency has ceased: the exhortation is, "Believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world." 1 John 4:1. With this agrees the declaration that "in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons." 1 Tim. 4:1. Spiritualists and Theosophists carry on intercourse with such, and are taught by them. In a future day also, when God will be pouring out His judgements on the earth, men will not repent, but will worship demons and all sorts of idols. Rev. 9:20. The spirits of demons also, by working miracles, will gather the kings of the earth together to the battle of that great day of Almighty God. Rev. 16:14. And mystical Babylon will become "the habitation of demons, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird." Rev. 18:2. The world and the professing church are evidently ripening for these things; and some, under the plea of investigating phenomena, are unconsciously having to do with the wicked spirits themselves!


This word is used to describe men who were possessed by demons, as revealed in scripture. In the N.T. those 'possessed' by demons were certainly under the control of the demons, even to casting them into the fire and into the water.

It has been argued that the persons said to be possessed were really lunatics, who imagined they were possessed; and to meet that fancy the Lord spoke to the supposed spirit and told it to come out! But this is simply an effort to deny the power of Satan and his emissaries over man, and also God's power in the miracles. The Lord spoke of the casting out of demons when he was not speaking to those possessed. The demons also knew the Lord to be the Son of God, answered Him, asked permission to go into the herd of swine, and feared he had come to punish them before the time. Those who were lunatics are mentioned along with, and as different from, those possessed with demons. Matt. 4:24. It is true that the father of a lad who was possessed by a demon called him a lunatic, and said the disciples could not cure him, in Matt. 17:14-16; but in Mark 9:17 he said his son had a dumb spirit, and in Luke 9:39 'a spirit taketh him.' It was clearly a case of possession: the Lord rebuked the demon, and it departed from him.

In all cases the relief was experienced immediately the demon was expelled; the words used are too explicit to mean aught else than that the persons were possessed, and that the wicked spirits were cast out. The case of Judas Iscariot was somewhat different, inasmuch as it was Satan himself that entered into that wretched man. Luke 22:3. Here it was more than the mere question of power over man, it was the Adversary standing up against Christ.

Besides the permanent possession of men, there was the unclean spirit of lying prophecy. In the O.T. we have a remarkable instance of a spirit influencing 400 prophets. Ahab was to be enticed to go to war, and a spirit said he would accomplish it. He would go out and be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets. "Now therefore," said Micaiah, "behold, the Lord hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of these thy prophets, and the Lord hath spoken evil against thee." 2 Chr. 18:20-22. We do not know the nature of this spirit, nor how he influenced the prophets.




In the O.T. governor of a district. 1 Kings 22:47; Est. 8:9; Est. 9:3. In the N.T. proconsul, one who acted as governor of a Roman province with consular power. Acts 13:7-8, 12; Acts 18:12; Acts 19:38.

Derbe. [Der'be]

City of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor, visited by Paul and Barnabas. Acts 14:6, 20; Acts 16:1; Acts 20:4. It is twice mentioned with Lystra, and is placed on the maps to the east of that city. It has recently been identified with Ambarrarasi, west of Eregli.

Descry, To.

To search, to spy out. Judges 1:23.




There are some thirty Hebrew and four Greek words translated 'destruction,' with various shades of meaning, some being applied to loss or devastation experienced in this life, and others to future and eternal destruction. There is no thought in scripture of annihilation in any of the passages, and even in material things it is agreed that there is no such thing as annihilation. In some passages destruction is spoken of as a place or a state of existence, thus "Hell and destruction are before the Lord;" "Hell and destruction are never full." Prov. 15:11; Prov. 27:20. 'Everlasting destruction' is 'everlasting punishment.' Compare Matt. 25:46 with 2 Thess. 1:9.

Deuel. [Deu'el]

Father of Eliasaph, 'prince' of Gad. Num. 1:14; Num. 7:42, 47; Num. 10:20. In Num. 2:14 he is called REUEL. This is plainly an instance where the letter ד (D) has been mistaken for the letter ר(R).

Deuteronomy, Book of.

The name signifies 'The Second Law,' but this does not properly describe it, as the ten commandments and Jehovah's name and His covenant made in Horeb are the basis of its instructions. Neither does 'Repetition of the Law' give the right thought, because some parts of this book were not given before. It rehearses God's covenant relationship with Israel under new circumstances: they had come to the border of the promised land, and were just about to enter into its possession, not on the ground of faithfulness to the law, but according to the covenant made with the fathers: Deut. 9:4-5. Some things are added which could have had no application in the wilderness, even referring to their having a king.

The style of the book is different from those preceding it: a vast typical system is portrayed in the three preceding books, while in this the Spirit of God is occupied with the actual circumstances connected with their possession of the land of promise. Nearly all of Deuteronomy is what Moses rehearsed in the hearing of the people. Thus, "Moses began to declare this law." Deut. 1:5. He called all Israel, and said unto them, "Hear, O Israel, the statutes and judgements." Deut. 5:1.

The book may be otherwise divided into three parts, thus:

   Deut. 1 - 11:  Moses rehearses the way the Lord had led them, the covenant with them, at Horeb, their disobedience, the resumption of God's relationship with them on the ground of Moses' mediation, and putting the law in the ark.

   Deut. 12 - 29:  various commandments are given with the results of obedience and disobedience fully stated.

   Deut. 30 — end:  things to come, the song of Moses, and his blessing the tribes.

The fact is stated that from Horeb by the way of Mount Seir, unto Kadesh-barnea on the south border of the land, was only an eleven days' journey, yet it had occupied them, going backwards and forwards, nearly forty years. Moses then reminded them of the burden and strife which fell on him consequent on their being so great a people, and of the system of government that had been appointed among them; also that it was themselves who were the instigators of sending the spies to search out the land. This appears to clash with Num. 13:1-2, which says "The Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Send thou men that they may search the land of Canaan." The two passages show that the people proposed it; Moses consented (it pleased him well, he says here); and God commanded it. God's first message was, "Go up and possess it;" but the people hesitated, and said they would send the spies. Deut. 1:21-23. Their rebellion and their wanderings were the result.

Deuteronomy 2, 3:    Moses continues their history after the many days of their wilderness wanderings. They had been told not to meddle with the Edomites — the descendants of Isaac through Esau; nor with the Moabites and Ammonites, for they were the descendants of Lot. Sihon the Amorite had been subdued. This was after they had travelled round to the east of the Dead Sea. Deut. 2:10-12 and Deut. 2:20-23 should be read as parentheses: they are valuable historical notes. Og king of Bashan had been conquered and his cities taken, a pledge of the full victory which the Lord would give over the nations of Canaan. The two tribes and a half had had their portion assigned on the east of the Jordan. Moses should see the land, but was not to go over the Jordan, and Joshua was to be his successor.

Deuteronomy 4:    Moses calls them to hearken to the commands he had given them, that they might live and go in and possess the land. The people must take heed unto themselves, that they make no similitude of Jehovah who had spoken to them, and so corrupt themselves.

Deuteronomy 5, 6:    The covenant at Horeb is rehearsed with exhortations to obedience, and the great truth pressed upon them of which they were the witnesses: "Jehovah our God is one Jehovah," to whom every affection should flow.

Deuteronomy 7, 8:    The people are warned against making any covenant with the people of the land; for they themselves were a holy people. God had chosen them for a special people above all upon the face of the earth. They are reminded of all God's goodness to them that they might not forget Him. He had humbled them and proved them, to do them good in their latter end.

Deuteronomy 9 - 11:    Moses declares that God was not going to bring them into the land on account of their own righteousness or uprightness of heart; but because He would fulfil His promises to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Moses plainly tells them "Ye have been rebellious against the Lord from the day that I knew you;" and he rehearses their failings, and God's goodness, and His securing His covenant in the ark.

Deuteronomy 12, 13:    The idolatrous altars and groves found in the land were to be destroyed. There was but one place to which all the sacrifices were to be brought, where Jehovah would put His name, and there only were the consecrated things to be eaten. They were not to inquire after the heathen gods, lest they should be ensnared thereby. Strong delusion is guarded against — if a prophet's sign came to pass, it might be to prove them. They must not follow such a one into idolatry, nor were they to spare the nearest relative who would lead them away from worshipping Jehovah their God.

Deuteronomy 14 - 19:    Many of the laws which were given in the former part of the Pentateuch are rehearsed. If they would have a king, he must be the one whom God would choose, and the king's duties are detailed.

Deuteronomy 20:    Instructions as to going to battle; what cities were to be spared, and what people were to be utterly destroyed.

Deuteronomy 21 - 25:    Divers commandments are rehearsed before the people.

Deuteronomy 26:    When they were brought into the land, and one came to worship, he was to confess "A Syrian ready to perish was my father." Then the goodness of God was to be confessed in the redemption from Egypt, and bringing into the promised land, and they were to rejoice in every good thing God had given them. Then grace should flow out to the fatherless and the widows. Obedience should follow, and all defilement be avoided. Blessing should be asked for all Israel.

Deuteronomy 27:    The law was to be written on great stones, and set up on mount Ebal, where also an altar of whole stones was to be reared for both burnt offerings and peace offerings. Here, too, certain tribes were to stand to pronounce the curses which follow. Other tribes were to stand on mount Gerizim to bless. The blessings however are omitted, as in fact the people were under the curse, being under the law, as the apostle shows in the epistle to the Galatians when dealing with the principle of law.

Deuteronomy 28:    The people being under the government of God, the consequences of obedience or disobedience are presented in blessings or cursings, the latter being realised in the subsequent history of the people.

Deuteronomy 29, 30:    The solemn fact is stated that, spite of all the signs and miracles they had seen, yet the Lord had not given eyes to see, nor ears to hear, nor a heart to understand: compare John 3:2-3. They all on that day stood before the Lord their God, and He made the covenant with them. Deut. 30:15 expresses it in few words — it was "life and good, death and evil." The secret purpose of God is referred to, and when all was ruined under law, the principle of righteousness by faith is introduced.

Deuteronomy 31, 32:    The law was to be read to the people every seven years. To Joshua the 'charge' was committed to bring the people into the land. Moses taught the people a song. It is partly prophetic, for their future is foretold. God would provoke them to jealousy by the Gentiles, as in Rom. 10:19; but would finally bless them. Moses longed to go over Jordan and see the land; but it was forbidden him because he had transgressed. (Dispensationally Moses represents the law and that could not bring them into the promised land.)

Deuteronomy 33:    Moses blesses the twelve tribes. When Jacob blessed them in Gen. 49 it was rather their prophetic history in the then future; here it is more their relationship with God in His government over them for blessing, when they will sit down at His feet and hear His words. Simeon is omitted; his portion was in the extreme south-west, near the desert; we read very little of this tribe, as if they were lost in the land. The number twelve was made up by the two sons of Joseph; however, we find that Simeon is among the twelve tribes sealed in Rev. 7: and in the future division of the land. Ezek. 48:25.

Deuteronomy 34:    The death of Moses is related and that God buried him in an unknown place, so his tomb could not be worshipped as a holy spot. There arose not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face.

The Book of Deuteronomy is in a word characterised by exhortations to obedience by a people brought into God's land. It is often quoted in the N.T. and the Lord three times quoted from it when tempted of the devil. It is cited as written by Moses. Rom. 10:19; 1 Cor. 9:9. The scripture thus fully refutes those who seek to attribute it to some unknown writer of a later date. Of course the last chapter is an exception: it may have been added by Joshua.

Devil, The.    See SATAN and DEMON.


Whatever may be said as to the source and cause of the dew, scripture shows that

1.   It descends: it is called the dew 'of heaven;' Gen. 27:28, 39; Dan. 4:15-33; 'the clouds drop down the dew.' Prov. 3:20.

2.   It falls in the night. Num. 11:9; Job 29:19, and disappears when the sun arises in its strength. Ex. 16:14; Hosea 6:4; Hosea 13:3.

3.   It is a blessing, a refreshment sent by God, and withheld for a punishment, or in discipline. Ps. 133:3; Isa. 26:19; Hag. 1:10; 1 Kings 17:1. In the summer the dew is very copious in Palestine, and aids greatly in the cultivation of the land. It is typical of the refreshment and strengthening which God sends down upon His people during the night of the absence of their Lord. It will not be needed when the day breaks, and the Sun of righteousness arises with healing in His wings. Malachi 4:2.


Imperial crown or crown of honour. Job 29:14; Isa. 28:5; Isa. 62:3; Ezek. 21:26.   See CROWN.

Dial, Sun-dial.

Some contrivance, not definitely specified, by which the divisions of the day were ascertained by the shadow of some gnomon or pillar, caused by the sun falling upon a series of steps or degrees. 2 Kings 20:8-11; Isa. 38:8. Hezekiah asked that the shadow might go backward ten degrees, and this took place on the dial of Ahaz. The same thing may not have occurred elsewhere, as it was simply to strengthen the faith of Hezekiah, nor is it necessary to suppose that the motion of the earth was reversed. May not the phenomenon have been produced by a peculiar state of the atmosphere causing refraction of the light passing through it? In whatever way it was brought about, it was by the power of God. Apparently a report of it reached Babylon, and ambassadors from the princes were sent to inquire of the 'wonder' that had occurred.  2 Chr. 32:31.


The Hebrew word in Ex. 28:18; Ex. 39:11; Ezek. 28:13, is yahalom. It occurs only in these places, and cannot be identified; it is generally held not to be what is now known as the diamond. In Jer. 17:1 the word is shamir. This is translated 'adament' in Ezek. 3:9. It is thought to be the corundum, a very hard stone, but being of different hues it has now various names.