1. Third son of Aaron and Elisheba (a descendant of Judah through Pharez). He succeeded as chief of the Levites on the death of Nadab and Abihu, and on the death of his father became high priest. He took part with Moses in numbering the people and with Joshua in the allotment of the land. The priesthood continued in his house until it passed to Eli who was of the family of Ithamar; Solomon restored it again to the family of Eleazar in the person of Zadok. Ex. 6:23, 25; Lev. 10:6-16; Num. 3:2, 4, 32; Num. 20:25-28; Num. 26:1, 3, 60, 63; Num. 27:19-22; Num. 31:6-54; Deut. 10:6; Joshua 14:1; 1 Chr. 6:3, 4, 50.
2. Son of Abinadab, set apart to keep the ark at Kirjath-jearim. 1 Sam. 7:1.
3. Son of Dodo, the Ahohite, and one of David's three mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:9; 1 Chr. 11:12.
4. Son of Mahli, a Merarite. He had only daughters who married their cousins. 1 Chr. 23:21, 22; 1 Chr. 24:28.
5. Son of Phinehas, a Levite. Ezra 8:33.
6. One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:25.
7. A priest who assisted at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:42.
8. Son of Eliud, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Matt. 1:15.
ἐκλογή, 'choice.' Spoken of :
1. the Lord Jesus: "Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect (bachir) in whom my soul delighteth." Isa. 42:1; 1 Peter 2:6. He was fore-ordained to be a mercy-seat through faith in His blood. Rom. 3:25, margin; 1 Peter 1:20.
2. Cyrus, who was called by God to be His 'shepherd' to work out His will, saying to Jerusalem, "Thou shalt be built; and to the temple, Thy foundation shall be laid." Isa. 44:28; Isa. 45:1-4. It was Cyrus who released the captives to go to Jerusalem and rebuild the temple. Ezra 1:2, 3.
3. When Jacob and Esau were born, Jacob was elected for blessing, and his descendants as the only nation chosen by God for His special favour. Rom. 9:11-13; Amos 3:2.
4. When God again restores Israel into blessing it will be a remnant that will be chosen, whom He calls His 'elect.' Isa. 65:9, 15, 22; Matt. 24:22, 24, 31; Rom. 11:28.
5. Elect angels. 1 Tim. 5:21.
6. Election of persons to eternal life. Rom. 8:29, 30, 33; Rom. 11:5, 7; Col. 3:12; 1 Thess. 1:4; 2 Tim. 2:10; Titus 1:1; 1 Peter 1:2; 1 Peter 5:13; 2 Peter 1:10; 2 John 1, 13.
The reason Christians feel a difficulty as to the doctrine of election to eternal life, is because they do not see the extent of the fall of man, and his utterly lost condition. Were it not for election, and the prevailing grace that follows it, not one would be saved. Christ died for all, and the gospel is proclaimed to all, Rom. 3:22; Heb. 2:9; but alas, except for the election and grace of God, none would respond. Luke 14:18. God must have all the glory.
Another error that has caused a difficulty as to 'election ' is the idea which some maintain that as some are ordained to eternal life, others likewise are fore-ordained by God to perdition, called 'reprobation.' But this is not taught in scripture — God desires that all men should be saved, 1 Tim. 2:4, and His election to life ensures that some will be. It was not before Esau was born, nor until long after he was dead, that it was said he was hated of God. Malachi 1:3. Some even judge that it refers, not to Esau personally, but to his descendants after their deeds had been fully manifested. Cf. Oba. 10; Ezek. 35.
The name given by Jacob to the altar he erected near Shechem. God had just before altered his name into Israel, 'a prince of God;' Jacob connected the blessing involved in this name with a piece of land he bought, instead of with God's house at Bethel, and calls the altar he had erected 'God, the God of Israel.' Gen. 32:28; Gen. 33:20.
στοιχεῖον, 'rudiments, first steps.'
1. Applied to children at the 'commencement' of their training; and to the law as the 'early' way of God's dealing with Israel; but now called 'beggarly' because it has lost its glory through the failure of man, and the introduction of Christ Himself. Gal. 4:3, 9. The word, with a similar meaning, is translated 'rudiments' in Col. 2:8, 20, and 'principles' in Heb. 5:12.
2. The material elements of the universe, which will be melted with great heat in the day of the Lord. 2 Peter 3:10, 12.
City in the tribe of Benjamin, Joshua 18:28. Identified by some with Lifta, 31 48' N. 35 11' E.
This is found only in the margin of the A.V. for 'Behemoth' in Job 40:15; and in 'elephants' teeth' for 'ivory' in 1 Kings 10:22; 2 Chr. 9:21: of. Rev. 18:1, 2. See IVORY.
1. Son of Jair, or Jaare-oregim: he slew Lahmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite. 2 Sam. 21:19; 1 Chr. 20:5.
2. Son of Dodo, and one of David's thirty valiant men. 2 Sam. 23:24; 1 Chr. 11:26.
Descendant of Ithamar, and high priest in Israel. It is not recorded whom he succeeded; the book of 1 Samuel opens with Eli as priest. Samuel was lent to the Lord by his pious mother, and he ministered unto the Lord before Eli. The two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were 'sons of Belial:' they assisted their father, but interfered with the due offering of the sacrifices, and sinned greatly before the people. Eli spoke to his sons of their evil doings, but he did not with energy prevent the dishonour to the Lord. It should be remembered that the responsibility of maintaining Israel, the people of the Lord, before Him, rested on the priestly house, hence the enormity of the young men's sin, and the solemnity of Eli's negligent conduct. A man of God came and told Eli plainly that he honoured his sons before the Lord, and detailed some judgements that should befall his house, and that his two sons should be slain in one day.
As Eli allowed his sons to continue in their evil ways, God sent a message to him by Samuel, reminding him of the judgements of which the man of God had warned him, and repeating that it was because "his sons made themselves vile and he restrained them not." Alas, poor Eli merely said, "It is the Lord: let him do what seemeth him good." A pious remark, but which did not correct the evil. This was Eli's great failing, though he otherwise apparently cared for God's honour. He trembled when the ark of God was carried to the war, which ended so disastrously. His two sons were killed and the ark was taken by the Philistines, and 'Ichabod' — 'the glory is departed' — marked the state of Israel through Eli's sin. When Eli heard these sad tidings he fell backward, and his neck brake. He had judged Israel forty years and was 98 years old. 1 Sam. 1 - 1 Sam. 4. Abiathar his descendant was thrust from the priesthood by Solomon that the word of the Lord might be fulfilled which He spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh. 1 Kings 2:27.
An Aramaic word signifying, 'My God.' Matt. 27:46. It seems strange that this should have been understood to be a calling for 'Elias.' The mistake may have been by some who did not understand the language used. See ELOI.
1. Son of Helon, and leader of the tribe of Zebulun at the time of the census being taken at Sinai. Num. 1:9; Num. 2:7; Num. 7:24, 29; Num. 10:16.
2. Son of Pallu, a Reubenite, and father of Dathan and Abiram. Num. 16:1, 12; Num. 26:8, 9; Deut. 11:6.
3. Eldest son of Jesse, and brother of David. 1 Sam. 16:6; 1 Sam. 17:13, 28; 1 Chr. 2:13; 2 Chr. 11:18. Perhaps the same as ELIHU in 1 Chr. 27:18.
4. A Gadite leader who was with David in the wilderness. 1 Chr. 12:9.
5. Levite musician and doorkeeper in the time of David. 1 Chr. 15:18, 20; 1 Chr. 16:5.
6. Ancestor of Samuel, a Kohathite. 1 Chr. 6:27. Apparently called ELIEL in 1 Chr. 6:34, and ELIHU in 1 Sam. 1:1.
1. One of the sons of David born at Jerusalem. 2 Sam. 5:16; 1 Chr. 3:8. He is called BEELIADA in 1 Chr. 14:7.
2. Powerful captain of the tribe of Benjamin in the army of Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr. 17:17.
Father of Rezon, an adversary of Solomon. 1 Kings 11:23.
1. Son of Jeroham, and one of the heads of the tribe of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:27.
2. One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:26.
The Shaalbonite, one of David's thirty mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:32; 1 Chr. 11:33.
1. Son of Hilkiah, and chief of the household of Hezekiah. 2 Kings 18:18, 26, 37; 2 Kings 19:2; Isa. 22:20; Isa. 36:3, 11, 22; Isa. 37:2. Eliakim must have held a high office; he is named before the scribe and the recorder. In Isa. 22 God calls him His servant: Shebna was to be set aside, and Eliakim was to be clothed and raised up as governor. He was to have the key of David, and be able effectually to open and shut. He is here a type of Christ when He comes to take His place over Israel.
2. The original name Of JEHOIAKIM, q.v. 2 Kings 23:34; 2 Chr. 36:4.
3. A priest who assisted at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:41.
4. Son of Abiud in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Matt. 1:13.
5. Son of Melea in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:30, 31.
1. Father of Bath-sheba, or Bathshua. 2 Sam. 11:3. He is called AMMIEL in 1 Chr. 3:5.
2. Son of Ahithophel, and one of David's thirty mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:34.
The Greek form of ELIJAH, q.v.
1. Son of Deuel, or Reuel: a chief man of the tribe of Gad. Num. 1:14; Num. 2:14; Num. 7:42, 47; Num. 10:20.
2. Son of Lael: a chief man of the Gershonites. Num. 3:24.
1. Head of the eleventh course of priests. 1 Chr. 24:12.
2. Son of Elioenai, a descendant of the royal house of Judah. 1 Chr. 3:24.
3. High priest at Jerusalem in the time of Nehemiah. He was allied to Tobiah, for whom he unfaithfully prepared a chamber in the courts of the temple. Ezra 10:6; Neh. 3:1, 20, 21; Neh. 12:10, 22, 23; Neh. 13:4, 7, 28.
4-6. Three who had married strange wives. Ezra 10:24, 27, 36.
Son of Heman: appointed to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:4, 27.
Son of Chislon and a chief of Benjamin. Num. 34:21.
1. One of the head men in the half tribe of Manasseh, on the east of the Jordan. 1 Chr. 5:24.
2. Son of Toah, an ancestor of Samuel. 1 Chr. 6:34. Apparently called ELIAB in 1 Chr. 6:27; and ELIHU in 1 Sam. 1:1.
3. Son of Shimhi, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:20.
4. Son of Shashak, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:22.
5. The Mahavite, one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:46.
6. Another of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:47.
7. A Gadite who joined David at Ziklag, 1 Chr. 12:11; perhaps the same as No. 6.
8. Chief of the sons of Hebron, a Levite: he assisted in bringing up the ark. 1 Chr. 15:9, 11.
9. Levite in the time of Hezekiah, 'overseer' of the offerings. 2 Chr. 31:13.
Son of Shimhi, a Benjamite. 2 Chr. 8:20.
1. Steward of Abraham's household. He was 'of Damascus' though born in Abraham's house. Gen. 15:2. It was probably he who was sent to obtain a wife for Isaac. He was evidently a devout man, and trusted in God to prosper his journey. His mission is a beautiful type of the Holy Spirit's work in providing a bride for the Lord Jesus, the object for which He is now gathering the church. Eliezer placed the jewels on Rebekah which she wore on her way to Isaac, answering to the graces or fruit of the Spirit with which He adorns those He is leading to the heavenly Bridegroom.
2. Second son of Moses and Zipporah, so named by Moses because 'God' had been 'his help.' He, with his mother and his brother were left in the care of Jethro until after the Exodus, when they joined Moses in the wilderness. Ex. 18:4; 1 Chr. 23:15, 17; 1 Chr. 26:25.
3. Son of Becher, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 7:8.
4. Priest who assisted in bringing up the ark to Jerusalem. 1 Chr. 15:24.
5. Son of Zichri and 'ruler' of the Reubenites. 1 Chr. 27:16.
6. Son of Dodavah: he was the prophet who rebuked Jehoshaphat for joining himself with Ahaziah king of Israel, for Ahaziah 'did very wickedly.' 2 Chr. 20:35-37.
7. One whom Ezra sent to fetch Levites to accompany him to Jerusalem. Ezra 8:16.
8-10. Three who had married strange wives. Ezra 10:18, 23, 31.
11. Son of Jorim, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:29.
Son of Zerahiah: one who returned from exile. Ezra 8:4.
Son of Shisha and scribe or secretary of Solomon. 1 Kings 4:3.
1. Son of Barachel the Buzite, of the kindred of Ram. He is introduced abruptly in the history of Job. He was young and had not spoken until Job and his three friends had ceased. His wrath was kindled against Job because he justified himself rather than God, and against his three friends because they had condemned Job though they had not understood his case. The purport of Elihu's address is that God acts in grace and blessing to deliver man from evil, and to chastise and break him down. Job was a righteous man, but needed God's discipline. Job 32 — Job 36.
2. Son of Tohu, and ancestor of Samuel. 1 Sam. 1:1. Apparently called both ELIAB and ELIEL in 1 Chr. 6:27, 34.
3. One of the captains of the thousands of Manasseh who resorted to David Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:20.
4. Son of Shemaiah, a Korhite of the family of Obed-edom, a valiant man and one of the door-keepers. 1 Chr. 26:7.
5. Brother of David, made ruler in Judah. 1 Chr. 27:18. Perhaps the same as ELIAB, No. 3.
This remarkable prophet is introduced abruptly in scripture in the midst of the apostasy of the kingdom of Israel, which was brought to a head in the reign of Ahab. The object of his ministry was to recover the people to the God they had forsaken. This will explain the miraculous displays accompanying his testimony, by which the people were left without excuse. It may be noted however that the miracles had a judicial character. He shut heaven that it did not rain, and he called fire down on the captains and their fifties. They were intended to recall the people to their allegiance and responsibility to God.
He is called "Elijah the Tishbite who was of the inhabitants of Gilead" (1 Kings 17:1), and with no further introduction he delivered a message to Ahab of fearful import to Israel, that there should be no rain or dew these years but according to his word. In the Epistle of James we learn that what was pronounced so boldly in public was the outcome of inward exercise and earnest prayer. He forthwith retired from the public eye, and was miraculously cared for at the brook Cherith, being fed with bread and flesh morning and evening by ravens. The brook at length becoming dry, he went to Zarephath belonging to Zidon at the commandment of the Lord, where he lodged with a poor widow, whose faith was tested at the outset by the prophet's request that she should provide for his need first from her slender store of meal and oil, on the assurance of the Lord God of Israel that her barrel of meal and cruse of oil should not waste till He sent rain on the earth. She was further tested by the death of her son, upon which the power of God in resurrection was taught her through the instrumentality of the prophet. The soul of the child came again into him and he revived. This widow is referred to in Luke's Gospel along with the case of Naaman the Syrian, as illustrating the abounding of the grace of God beyond the limits of Israel. 1 Kings 17.
In the third year the time had at length arrived for the rights of Jehovah to be vindicated before all Israel, to the confusion of the followers of Baal. Elijah under the full direction of the Lord came forth from his mysterious retreat, and showed himself to Obadiah, the governor of Ahab's house, who was engaged in searching the land for provender. This man, though in such apostate surroundings, was truly pious, and had befriended Jehovah's prophets when Jezebel had sought to slay them. Assured by Elijah that he was ready to show himself to Ahab (though this latter had in vain sought him in many kingdoms to wreak vengeance on him for the prolonged drought), he reported Elijah's appearance, and the prophet and king were soon face to face. Charged with troubling Israel, the prophet in the power of God rejoined that the guilt of this lay on Ahab and on his house, in forsaking Jehovah for Baal. He directed him to call all the prophets of Baal together to mount Carmel, and there before the assembled throng of Israel he stood alone for God. Nothing can exceed the interest of this moment when the question raised was whether Jehovah or Baal was the God. Sustained by the mighty power of Jehovah, His faithful servant directed everything. The issue is presented: the prophets of Baal offered their sacrifice, and from morning till noon in vain implored the intervention of their god. There was no voice nor any that regarded. Their failure being patent to all, Elijah then invited the people to draw near. He repaired Jehovah's altar that was broken down, building it of twelve stones, according to the number of the tribes of Israel, he offered his sacrifice, deluged three times with water the altar, wood, and victim, till the trench around the altar was full; then offered up in the hearing of Israel an affecting prayer to the "Jehovah God of Abraham, Isaac, and of Israel," upon which the fire of the Lord fell, and all was consumed, the sacrifice, wood, stones, dust, and water. "Jehovah, He is the God" was the twice repeated cry of Israel in view of these things; and, controlled by the power of God in the prophet, they, at his bidding, seized the prophets of Baal, who were to a man slain by him. Upon this he told Ahab that there was a sound of abundance of rain, while he himself retired to the top of Carmel to note the first indications of the approaching blessing; and then, still in the power of God, he ran before Ahab's chariot to the entrance of Jezreel. 1 Kings 18.
Jezebel let him know that her vengeance was at hand; and at the threat of this terrible woman, the prophet, lately so bold, fled the country. We now see Elijah in the wilderness, a weak and timid man, weary of the conflict, occupied with himself rather than the Lord, and asking to be allowed to die. Sustained by miraculous food, he went in the strength of it for forty days and nights to Horeb, the mount of God. Here the Lord dealt most graciously with his poor and feeble servant, who is found pleading his own jealousy for God while interceding against Israel. Wind, earthquake, and fire would have well suited the prophet in his frame of mind, but the still small voice was that of the Lord, and Elijah had to learn that He had not given up His people. He had yet 7000 whose knees had not bowed to Baal. But Elijah was to anoint Hazael to be king over Syria, Jehu to be king over Israel, and Elisha to be prophet in his room. Judgement should be executed where necessary and by instruments prepared of God. Elijah thereupon departed, and finding Elisha threw upon him his mantle. 1 Kings 29.
For a time Elijah was in retirement, but he again reappeared on the occasion of Naboth's murder, and with the old energy of faith prophetically announced the doom of Ahab and Jezebel to Ahab's face. Once more the prophet is seen, confronting Ahab's successor and son Ahaziah, who, following closely in his parents' steps, had sent messengers to Baalzebub the god of Ekron to inquire whether he should recover from his sickness. Two captains and their fifties, who had been sent to arrest him, were smitten with fire from heaven at Elijah's word. Accompanying the third, who humbly begged for their lives, the prophet announced to the apostate king the judgement of the God he had despised. 1 Kings 21; 2 Kings 1.
We have now reached the closing scene of this truly remarkable man's long and faithful service for Jehovah. The ordinary lot of man should not be his. Traversing in the close company of Elisha the spots which, however now perverted, told of certain great truths — Gilgal, of the necessity of the judgement of self, the place of circumcision — Bethel, of the faithfulness of God and the resources which are His for His own, the place where God had appeared to Jacob — Jericho, of the power of God as against all that of the enemy — they reached the Jordan through which they passed dry shod, the waters being separated hither and thither by Elijah smiting them with his mantle. The land of Israel is left by the well-known figure of death, "and it came to pass, that as they still went on and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven." Figuratively he had passed through death, and ascended to heaven: this forms the basis of Elisha's ministry. 2 Kings 2.
In the N.T. John the Baptist was in the character of Elijah as the prophet who was to come before "the great and terrible day of the Lord," to affect the hearts of the people, if he had been received; but not being received, except by a few, John declared to the Jews that he was not Elijah. So it remains for Elijah's ministry to be fulfilled ere Christ appears in glory. Mal. 4:5, 6; Matt. 11:14; Luke 1:17; John 1:21.
Moses and Elijah were seen on the mount of transfiguration, as representatives of the law and the prophets; but theirs was then a subordinate place, for the proclamation was "This is my beloved Son; hear him." Matt. 17:3; Mark 9: 4; Luke 9: 30. Elijah's testimony was given in righteousness: his ministry demanded that the righteous claims of God as the Jehovah of His people should be satisfied. Elisha's ministry differed from this, and was more of grace.
Priest who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:21.
One of David's thirty mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:25.
The second encampment of the Israelites after passing the Red Sea: it had twelve fountains of water and seventy palm trees. Ex. 15:27; Ex. 16:1; Num. 33:9, 10. Identified by some with Wady Ghurundel, 29 20' N, 33 E.
Inhabitant of Bethlehem-judah, husband of Naomi, and father-in-law of Ruth. He went to Moab on account of a famine and died there. Ruth 1:2, 3; Ruth 2:1, 3; Ruth 4:3, 9.
1. Son of Neariah, a descendant of David. 1 Chr. 3:23, 24.
2. Head of a family of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:36.
3. Son of Becher, a son of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 7:8.
4. Son of Meshelemiah, a Korhite. 1 Chr. 26:3.
5, 6. Priest and Israelite who had married strange wives. Ezra 10:22, 27.
7. Priest who assisted at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:41.
Son of Ur, and one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:35.
Eliphalet [Elipha'let], Eliphelet. [Eliphe'let]
1. One of David's sons, born in Jerusalem. 2 Sam. 5:16; 1 Chr. 3:8; 1 Chr. 14:7.
2. Another of David's sons born in Jerusalem. 1 Chr. 3:6. Apparently called ELPALET in 1 Chr. 14:5.
3. Son of Ahasbai: one of David's thirty valiant men. 2 Sam. 23:34.
4. Son of Eshek, a descendant of Jonathan. 1 Chr. 8:39.
5. Son of Adonikam: one who returned from exile. Ezra 8:13.
6. One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:33.
1. Son of Esau and Adah, and father of Teman, etc. Gen. 36:4-16; 1 Chr. 1:35, 36.
2. Chief of Job's three friends, a 'Temanite,' or descendant of Teman. He and his companions did not understand God, nor His dealings in discipline with a righteous man. His arguments were founded on experience, as Bildad's were on tradition. They therefore condemned Job as an evil doer, considering that this was proved by what God had brought upon him. God's wrath was kindled against them, for they had not spoken of Him correctly. They were directed to take seven bullocks and seven rams and offer them as a burnt offering: Job, His servant, should pray for them, and God would accept him. Job 2:11; Job 4:1; Job 15:1; Job 22:1; Job 42:7, 9.
Levite appointed as musician and door-keeper in the time of David. 1 Chr. 15:18, 21.
A righteous woman, of the tribe of Aaron, wife of Zacharias, and mother of John the Baptist. On being visited by Mary, she was filled with the Holy Spirit, and hailed Mary as 'the mother of my Lord.' She said, "Blessed is she that believed: for there shall be a performance of those things which were told her from the Lord." Luke 1:5-57. She was one of the God-fearing remnant, of which a glimpse is obtained in the early chapters of Luke's gospel.
Greek form of ELISHA, q.v.
Son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah. Elijah was instructed by God to anoint Elisha to be prophet in his stead. Elijah cast his mantle over him, but we do not read of the anointing: doubtless it was realised in receiving a double portion of Elijah's spirit. Elisha was not prepared then to take up Elijah's mantle, but first he made a feast for his people, and then he followed Elijah and ministered unto him. When God was about to take Elijah to Himself, it became known to the sons of the prophets, and they told Elisha, but he knew it already; and when Elijah suggested to him to remain behind he refused and followed him from place to place, until he had traversed Jordan (figuratively death) with Elijah. Being thus proved to be knit together in spirit, Elijah asked Elisha what he should do for him before he was taken. Elisha said, "Let a double portion of thy spirit be upon me." Elijah replied that, though he had asked a hard thing, it should be so if he saw him when he was taken up. A chariot and horses of fire separated them, and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven; and Elisha saw it. Elisha took up the mantle that fell from Elijah, which before he had failed to do, and went to the Jordan and smote it with the mantle, and the waters divided, and he passed over into the land, with the spirit of the ascended Elijah resting on him.
Elisha's first miracle was healing the waters at Jericho, the cursed city, by means of salt in a new cruse: type of the purifying power of grace. His mission was grace as from an ascended one; the waters were permanently healed, and the ground was no longer barren. But as he went to Bethel some boys out of the city mocked him, saying, "Go up, thou bald head." He cursed them in the name of the Lord, and two she bears tore forty-two of them. God vindicated the authority of His servant. Elisha had come as it were from heaven, into which Elijah had entered, and he came in grace, and if this was despised, judgement must follow, as it will be with Israel by-and-by. Elisha went to Carmel, where the priests of Baal had been destroyed, and thence to Samaria, the seat of the apostasy, and where his testimony was most needed. Jehoshaphat king of Judah joined with Jehoram king of Israel, and the king of Edom, to attack Moab; but they had no water. Elisha was sought for, and he boldly told Jehoram to go to the gods of his father and mother: if Jehoshaphat had not been there he would not have helped them, nevertheless there was grace for them. Ditches, or pits were made, and in the morning the valley was full of water; victory over Moab followed. 2 Kings 2, 3.
A widow of one of the prophets appealed to Elisha to save her two sons from the grasp of a creditor. She had nothing but a pot of oil. She was told to borrow vessels 'not a few,' and fill them with oil. On her doing this the oil was increased until there was not a vessel more to fill. Thus according to her faith in borrowing was her supply from God. The creditor was paid, and she and her sons lived on the remainder, showing how God far exceeded her request.
A great woman at Shunem bestowed hospitality on Elisha, and provided a chamber for his use whenever he passed that way. For this she was rewarded with a son; but when grown old enough to go into the fields he died. The woman laid him on Elisha's bed, and hastened to inform him of what had happened, but piously added 'It is well.' Elisha returned with the woman, and the child was raised to life and restored to his mother. Thus was manifested the power of God over death and a broken heart was bound up.
Two more miracles followed. In gathering herbs for a meal because of the dearth, a poisonous weed was included and there was 'death in the pot.' Elisha cast in some meal, and the pottage was cured. The other miracle was the increase of the bread so that a hundred men were supplied from twenty loaves, or cakes, and there was some left: similar to the Lord feeding the multitudes when He was on earth. 2 Kings 4.
The next miracle was healing Naaman the Syrian of leprosy. This was grace extending beyond the land, even to their enemies. Naaman had to be humbled as well as blessed, and to learn that there was "no God in all the earth but in Israel," as he himself confessed. Gehazi, Elisha's servant, was, alas, tempted with a lie in his mouth to take of the Syrian some of the presents which he had brought for Elisha, but which had been refused. This was revealed to Elisha, and the leprosy of Naaman cleaved to Gehazi and to his seed. The one nearest to the means of blessing, if he turns from it, suffers most. Elisha next made the iron head of the axe to swim, thus reversing the laws of nature: the axe was borrowed, and the trust must not be violated. 2 Kings 5, 2 Kings 6:1-7.
The Syrians had now to learn a lesson of the power of the God of Israel, but still in grace. They laid traps for the king of Israel, but Elisha warned him again and again of the danger, and he escaped. On this being made known to the king of Syria he sent an army to seize Elisha. He was at Dothan, and they compassed the city. Elisha prayed that his servant's eyes might be opened to see that they were surrounded with horses and chariots of fire which were otherwise invisible: cf. Heb. 1:13, 14. The army was then smitten with blindness, led to Samaria, fed with bread and water, and dismissed to their master with the wonderful tale. It was no use laying plots against people whose God protected them like this. "The bands of Syria came no more into the land of Israel;" that is, the marauding bands that laid plots to seize the king; for immediately we read that Ben-hadad king of Syria came with a great army and besieged Samaria. The famine became so severe that a woman's child was boiled and eaten. The king was greatly moved at this and threatened to take the life of Elisha, apparently linking the famine with God's servant. This was revealed to Elisha as he sat in the house. The king followed the messenger and he said, "This evil is of the Lord; what should I wait for the Lord any longer?" Elisha had a message of deliverance: by the next day a measure of fine flour should be sold for a shekel, and two measures of barley for the same. An unbelieving lord scoffed at this; but he saw it, though he did not eat of it, for he was trampled to death in the crowd. Thus judgement followed unbelief in the gracious provision of God. 2 Kings 6:8 - 2 Kings 7.
Elisha prophesied that there would be a seven years' famine, and he told the Shunammite woman to sojourn where she could during the time. She dwelt among the Philistines seven years, and on her return she cried to the king for the restoration of her house and land. God so ordered it that just at that time Gehazi was relating to the king the great things that Elisha had done. He recognised the woman as the one whose son Elisha had raised, and the king ordered the restoration of her property.
The prophet went to Damascus, and Ben-hadad, being sick, sent Hazael to inquire if he should recover. The answer was that he might certainly recover, yet he should die: an apparent enigma; but it was fully explained by Hazael causing his death when he would otherwise have recovered. Elisha prophesied that Hazael would be king over Syria, and he wept as he told the dreadful things he would do to Israel. Elisha sent one of the sons of the prophets to anoint Jehu to be king over Israel: he was to execute God's judgement on the house of Ahab and on Jezebel, which had been prophesied by Elijah. 1 Kings 21:23, 24. What had been foretold Jehu fulfilled. 2 Kings 8, 2 Kings 9.
The time now approached for Elisha's death. He was sick and Joash king of Israel went to visit him. Elisha prophesied that Joash should smite the Syrians till they were consumed, but he was angry with the king's want of energy and said he should smite them but three times. Elisha's work was now done and he died and was buried. When a corpse was let down into the same tomb, as soon as it touched the bones of Elisha life was restored. Type that though Israel is now dead towards God (cf. Dan. 12:2), when they are brought into connection with God's true Prophet they will be restored to life as unexpectedly and as powerfully. As we have seen, Elisha's mission was grace, and his history to the end is stamped with the power of life. 2 Kings 13:14-21. He is called ELISEUS in Luke 4:27.
Eldest son of Javan, the son of Japheth. Gen. 10:4; 1 Chr. 1:7. His descendants apparently occupied the 'isles of Elishah,' and supplied the Phoenicians with blue and purple. Ezek. 27:7. Josephus identifies them with the Æolians. Others connect Elishah with Elis in the Peloponnesus.
1. Son of Ammihud and grandfather of Joshua: he was a chief of Ephraim. Num. 1:10; Num. 2:18; Num. 7:48, 53; Num. 10:22; 1 Chr. 7:26.
2, 3. Two sons of David born at Jerusalem. 2 Sam. 5:16; 1 Chr. 3:6, 8; 1 Chr. 14:7: one of whom is apparently called ELISHUA in 2 Sam. 5:15; 1 Chr. 14:5.
4. Son of Jekamiah, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:41.
5. Father of Nethaniah, 'of the seed royal.' 2 Kings 25:25; Jer. 41:1.
6. Priest sent by Jehoshaphat to instruct the people. 2 Chr. 17:8.
7. Scribe or secretary of Jehoiakim. Jer. 36:12, 20, 21.
Captain of a hundred whom Jehoiada employed to protect Joash. 2 Chr. 23:1.
Daughter of Amminadab, and wife of Aaron. Ex. 6:23. She was of the tribe of Judah, and her marriage with Aaron united the priestly and royal tribes.
Son of David born in Jerusalem. 2 Sam. 5:15; 1 Chr. 14:5. Called ELISHAMA in 1 Chr. 3:6.
Son of Achim in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Matt. 1:14, 15.
1. Son of Uzziel, and a 'chief' of the Kohathites. Num. 3:30; 1 Chr. 15:8. He is called ELZAPHAN in Ex. 6:22; Lev. 10:4. With Mishael he had the painful duty of removing the dead bodies of Nadab and Abihu.
2. Son of Parnach and a prince of the tribe of Zebulun. Num. 34:25.
3. Father of certain Levites that assisted Hezekiah in cleansing the temple. 2 Chr. 29:13. Perhaps the same as No. 1.
Son of Shedeur, and prince of the tribe of Reuben. Num. 1:5; Num. 2:10; Num. 7:30, 35; Num. 10:18.
1. Son or grandson of Korah. Ex. 6:24; 1 Chr. 6:23.
2. Son of Jeroham and father of the prophet Samuel. 1 Sam. 1:1-23; 1 Sam. 2:11, 20; 1 Chr. 6:27, 34.
3, 4. Two descendants of Kohath. 1 Chr. 6:25, 26, 35, 36.
5. Grandfather of Berechiah, who dwelt in the villages of the Netophathites. 1 Chr. 9:16.
6. A Korhite who joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:6.
7. Door-keeper for the ark. 1 Chr. 15:23.
8. Officer in the household of king Ahaz. 2 Chr. 28:7.
Designation of Nahum the prophet. Nahum 1:1.
District in the East, of which Arioch was the king. Gen. 14:1, 9. It is supposed that Larsa or Larissu in Lower Babylonia, between Ur and Erech, was its capital, which is identified with ruins at Senkereh, about 31 30' N, 45 50' E.
elah. The terebinth, or oak as elah is often translated. Hosea 4:13.
Son of Er, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:28.
Father of Jeribai and Joshaviah, two of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:46.
1. Son of Achbor and father of Nehushta, Jehoiakim's queen: he begged Jehoiakim not to burn the sacred roll. 2 Kings 24:8; Jer. 26:22; Jer. 36:12, 25.
2-4. Three of those whom Ezra sent to fetch Levites to accompany him to Jerusalem. Ezra 8:16.
Aramaic word signifying 'my God.' Mark 15:34.
1. A Hittite, father of Bashemath, and Adah, wife, (or wives) of Esau. Gen. 26:34; Gen. 36:2. See BASHEMATH.
2. Second son of Zebulun and founder of the ELONITES. Gen. 46:14; Num. 26:26.
3. The Zebulonite who judged Israel ten years. Judges 12:11, 12.
4. Border-town of Dan. Joshua 19:43. Identified with Beit Ello, 31 59' N, 35 7' E.
One of the commissariat towns of Solomon, 1 Kings 4:9. Identified with Beit Anan, 31 51' N, 35 6' E.
In Isa. 3:3, for 'eloquent orator' translate 'skilled enchanter.' In Ex. 4:10; Acts 18:24, 'man of words,' 'ready of speech.'
Son of Shaharaim, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:11, 12, 18.
Son of David born at Jerusalem. 1 Chr. 14:5. Apparently called ELIPHELET in 1 Chr. 3:6.
In the margin 'the plain of Paran,' or some boundary mark in the wilderness of Paran in the south of Palestine. Gen. 14:6.
City of Dan given to the Kohathites. Joshua 19:44; Joshua 21:23. Identified with Beit Likia,
Mountain city of Judah. Joshua 15:59. Not identified.
City in the south of Judah, given to Simeon. Joshua 15:30; Joshua 19:4. Called TOLAD in 1 Chr. 4:29.
Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:5.
A name signifying 'magician,' applied to BAR-JESUS, a Jew. He was a false prophet and sorcerer, at Paphos in Cyprus, and sought to turn away the proconsul from the faith. He was for a time smitten with blindness. Acts 13:6-12.
1. Gadite who joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:12.
2. Son of Shemaiah and one of the Korhite door-keepers, 1 Chr. 26:7.
Jacob and Joseph were both embalmed in Egypt, but we do not read that it was ever practised by the children of Israel. Gen. 50:2, 3, 26. The historians Herodotus and Diodorus describe the process of embalming in Egypt. There were several modes according to the rank of the deceased, or according to what the relatives could afford to pay. In short it may be said that the body lay in nitre thirty days, for the purpose of drying up all its superfluous and noxious moisture, the brain and bowels being sometimes extracted; and then for forty days more it was anointed with gums and spices to preserve it. When this was complete it was wrapped round with many bandages, and finally put in a case somewhat resembling the person. In many museums Egyptian mummies may be seen, and the marvellous preservation of the body be attested.
Among the Jews the body was merely wrapped round with bandages with a quantity of spices enclosed. Asa, was laid "in the bed which was filled with sweet odours and divers kinds of spices prepared by the apothecaries' art." 2 Chr. 16:14. Nicodemus furnished "a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight," and they wound the body of Jesus "in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury." John 19:39, 40.
In the O.T. the word thus translated is nophek, but it is uncertain to which of the precious stones this refers. Some think it is the carbuncle. Ex. 28:18; Ex. 39:11; Ezek. 27:16; Ezek. 28:13. In the N.T. it is σμάραγδος, which signifies 'live coal,' and is supposed to refer to some stone with prismatic crystals. Rev. 4:3; Rev. 21:19.
Hemorrhoids or tumours. One of the diseases of the Egyptians, and with which the Philistines were smitten when they had possession of the ark. They returned 'images' of the same with the ark. Deut. 28:27; 1 Sam. 5:6-12; 1 Sam. 6:4-17.
A people, described as "great, and many, and tall, as the Anakims," who dwelt on the east of the Dead Sea. They were smitten by Chedorlaomer and his confederate kings and their land eventually passed to the Moabites, who called the people EMIM, that is, 'terrible.' Gen. 14:5; Deut. 2:10, 11 .
A village about threescore furlongs from Jerusalem, that is, about 7 miles, whither the two disciples were 'travelling on the day of the resurrection, to whom the Lord made Himself known. Luke 24:13. Some identify it with ruins at Khamaseh, about 8 miles S.W. of Jerusalem; others with el Kubeibeh, about 7½ miles N.W. of Jerusalem: but there are no data for its identification.
Acts 7:16, the same as HAMOR, q.v.
City in the lowlands of Judah. Joshua 15:34. Identified with the ruins at Wady Alin, 31 45' N, 34 59' E.
Father of Ahira, a prince of the tribe of Naphtali. Num. 1:15; Num. 2:29; Num. 7:78, 83; Num. 10:27.
City with its towns, possessed by Manasseh though situated in Issachar. It was apparently the scene of the death of Sisera and of Jabin; and it was the residence of the woman with a familiar spirit consulted by Saul. Joshua 17:11; 1 Sam. 28:7; Ps. 83:9, 10. Identified with Endor, 32 38' N, 35 23' E. The rock on which it stands has many caves, in one of which the witch may have carried on her incantations. From Gilboa it is distant 7 or 8 miles across difficult ground.
Place, apparently near the Dead Sea, where the fishermen will spread their nets when the waters have been cured by a river which will issue from the future temple. Ezek. 47:10.
1. City in the lowlands of Judah. Joshua 15:34. Identified with Umm Jina, 31 45' N, 34 57' E.
2. City on the border of Issachar allotted to the Gershonites. Joshua 19:21; Joshua 21:29. Identified with Jenin, 32 28' N, 35 18' E. Apparently the same as ANEM in 1 Chr. 6:73
Town in the wilderness of Judah. David resorted to the strongholds at this place when pursued by Saul. The king sought David 'upon the rocks of the wild goats,' and then lay down to rest in the mouth of the very cave in which David and his men were. David out off the skirt of Saul's robe, but would not allow his men to injure him. Joshua 15:62; 1 Sam. 23:29; 1 Sam. 24:1; 2 Chr. 20:2. The vineyards of En-gedi are spoken of in Cant. 1:14. When the Dead Sea is healed in a future day the fishermen will stand on its shores from En-gedi to En-eglaim. Ezek. 47:10. Identified with Ain Jidy, 31 28' N, 35 23' E.
Machines for discharging missiles. 2 Chr. 26:15. See ARMS. ENGINES OF WAR were battering rams. Ezek. 26:9.
Implanted: when God's word is received by faith it takes root in the soul, and influences the whole being of the receiver. James 1:21.
The cutting of words or designs on precious stones, as the names of the tribes on the breastplate and the shoulder-pieces of the high priest; and the words "Holiness to the Lord" on the plate of the mitre. There was also the devising of 'cunning work' for the tabernacle. For this service God endowed certain men with special skill, wisdom, and understanding. Devices were also engraved on seals. Ex. 28:11, 21, 36; Ex. 35:35; Ex. 38:23; Ex. 39:14, 30; Zech. 3:9; 2 Cor. 3:7. Engraving is used metaphorically when God says He had graven Israel upon the palms of His hands, and thus had them constantly before Him. Isa. 49:16.
Border city of the tribe of Issachar. Joshua 19:21. Identified with Kefr Adan, 32 29' N, 35 15' E.
This name, signifying 'the caller's spring,' was given by Samson to the place where God gave him water in answer to his call. The spring was doubtless in the rock, not in the jawbone (see margin), because of the words following, "which is in Lehi unto this day." Judges 15:19.
Fenced city of the tribe of Naphtali. Joshua 19:37. Identified with Hazireh, 33 6' N, 35 21' E.
The ancient name of KADESH q.v.
1. Eldest son of Cain. Gen. 4:17, 18.
2. City built by Cain, and named after his son: it is the first city that we read of. Gen. 4:17.
3. Son of Jared, and father of Methuselah. Of him it is said he "walked with God: and he was not; for God took him;" and also that by faith he was translated, and that before his translation he had this testimony that he pleased God. A bright example in those early days of how by grace a man can have communion with God, and so please God, and be made sensible of it, thus enjoying the light of His countenance in walking with Him in a sinful world. Enoch was taken to heaven without dying, as the living saints will be at the coming of the Lord Jesus. Gen. 5:18-24; Luke 3:37; Heb. 11:5; Jude 14. Called HENOCH in 1 Chr. 1:3.
In Jude a prophesy of Enoch is quoted which is not found in the O.T. As Jude wrote under the inspiration of God this could have been revealed to him, as many other things in scripture have been, and which could have been known in no other way; or he may have been inspired to record what had been handed down orally. There is an apocryphal book called THE BOOK OF ENOCH, from which some believe that Jude quoted, though it is not inspired. But there is no evidence that the book was then in existence. It refers to the Messiah as 'Son of God,' which has been judged to prove conclusively that it was written in the Christian era. The passage in the book of Enoch, speaking of Christ executing judgement, is worded thus: "Behold he cometh with ten thousand of his saints, to execute judgement upon them, and destroy the wicked, and reprove all the carnal, for everything which the sinful and ungodly have done and committed against him." The traveller Bruce, on his return from Egypt in A.D. 1773 brought three MSS of the entire book in Æthiopic. In 1821 it was translated into English. The book purports to be a series of revelations made to Enoch and Noah.
Enos, [E'nos] Enosh. [E'nosh]
Son of Seth and grandson of Adam. Gen. 4:26; Gen. 5:6-11; 1 Chr. 1:1; Luke 3:38.
City re-inhabited on the return from exile. Neh. 11:29. Probably the same as RIMMON in Joshua 15:32; Joshua 19:7. Identified with ruins at Umm er Rumamin, 31 22' N, 34 52' E.
A spring on the border of Judah and Benjamin. It was where Jonathan and Ahimaaz stayed in secret, to carry to David any message from Hushai, on the revolt of Absalom; and close to this spring Adonijah called the king's sons together when he exalted himself to succeed David as king. Joshua 15:7; Joshua 18:16; 2 Sam. 17:17; 1 Kings 1:9. It was no doubt a spring not far from Jerusalem. Bir Eyub, about half a mile south of Jerusalem was long supposed to be the spot, but this is a well, not a spring. The Fountain of the Virgin, near the south east corner of the city, is now more generally chosen; but this appears to be too near the city to coincide with the above events.
1. τύπος 'type, model, example.' 1 Cor. 10:11; Phil. 3:17; 1 Thess. 1:7; 2 Thess. 3:9; 1 Peter 5:3.
2. ὑπόδειγμα 'example, pattern.' 2 Peter 2:6.
Spring on the border of Judah and Benjamin mentioned next to En-rogel. Joshua 15:7; Joshua 18:17. Identified with Ain Haud, 31 46' N, 35 16' E. The sun shines on this spring all day, answering to En-shemesh, 'spring of the sun.'
Spring on the boundary of Manasseh. Joshua 17:7. Identified by some with Yasuf, 32 7' N, 35 14' E. See TAPPUAH, No. 2.
A Christian at Rome saluted by Paul as his well-beloved "the first fruits of Achaia unto Christ." Rom. 16:5.
Fellow prisoner with Paul at Rome. He laboured at Colosse, to which place he belonged. He is described as 'a faithful minister of Christ,' and one who agonised in prayer for the Colossians, with zeal for their welfare. Col. 1:7; Col. 4:12; Philemon 23.
One who brought supplies from Philippi to Paul, who styles him "my brother and companion in labour and fellow soldier." When with Paul at Rome he became very ill, 'nigh unto death.' The deep affection between him and the Philippian saints is very evident by his sorrow that they should have heard of his sickness. He hazarded his life by his association with Paul a prisoner. Phil. 2:25; Phil. 4:18.
See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
1. Son of Midian, being the son of Abraham and Keturah, and referred to by Isaiah as the head of a tribe. Gen. 25:4; 1 Chr. 1:33; Isa. 60:6.
2. Concubine of Caleb. 1 Chr. 2:46.
3. Son of Jahdai of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:47.
A Netophathite, whose sons were left in the land at the captivity. They apparently were slain with Gedaliah by Ishmael. Jer. 40:8.
1. Son of Midian, being the son of Abraham and Keturah. Gen. 25:4; 1 Chr. 1:33.
2. Son of Ezra, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:17.
3. A chief of Manasseh, east of the Jordan. 1 Chr. 5:24.
Place in Judah, the scene of the death of Goliath in the valley of Elah. 1 Sam. 17:1. Called PAS-DAMMIM in 1 Chr. 11:13.
The inhabitants of Ephesus. Acts 19:28-35; Acts 21:29.
Ephesians, [Ephe'sians] Epistle to the.
Paul first visited Ephesus on his way from Corinth to Syria: he did not stay then, but left Priscilla and Aquila there, who were afterwards joined by Apollos. Acts 18:18-24. Paul soon returned and stayed there two years. There was thus time for the saints to be grounded in the truth. The opposition was so great in the synagogue that Paul separated the disciples, and they met daily in the school of Tyrannus. The word grew mightily and prevailed. Acts 19:1-20.
In 1 Cor. 15:32 Paul speaks of having fought with beasts at Ephesus, doubtless alluding to the strong opposition manifested towards him there by the Jews. In Acts 20:17, etc., Paul exhorts the elders of Ephesus, as overseers, to feed the church of God. He warns them that grievous wolves would enter in, and some from among themselves would speak perverse things to draw away disciples after them. As their resource he commends them to God and the word of His grace. Following this was the Epistle he wrote to them during the two years he was a prisoner at Rome.
In 1 Tim. 1:3 Paul says he had besought Timothy to abide at Ephesus, and to exhort them to teach no other doctrine, and not to give heed to fables and endless genealogies. In 2 Tim. 1:15 there is the sad intelligence that 'all they which are in Asia' (which must have included Ephesus) had 'turned away from' Paul, doubtless signifying that they had given up the truth as taught by Paul, and settled down with a lower standard. In 2 Tim. 4:12 Tychicus had been sent to Ephesus. The great care and watchfulness with which Paul laboured for their welfare is very manifest. In Rev. 2:1-7 we have the address to this church, in which much is said in their favour, though the solemn charge had also to be made that they had left their first love, and the warning is given that if they did not repent their candlestick would be removed.
The Epistle to the Ephesians is remarkable in setting forth the counsels of God with regard to His people as connected with Christ. It is from this standpoint that they are viewed, rather than that of their need as sinners, and how it has been met. This latter is developed in the Epistle to the Romans. The state of the Ephesian believers enabled them to receive a communication of such a nature as this Epistle, in which glorious unfoldings of the mind of God about His own are given in the greatest fulness.
The key note is struck in Eph. 1:3, where God is blessed as "the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ" — the God, when our Lord Jesus Christ is looked at as man; the Father, when He is viewed as Son of God. Christians are brought in Christ into these very relationships, as stated by the Lord Himself when risen from the dead, "Go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God." It will be seen that the prayer at the close of Eph. 1 is founded on the title 'the God of our Lord Jesus Christ,' while that in Eph. 3 is on the title 'Father.' The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ has blessed believers with every spiritual blessing in the heavenlies in Christ. He has marked them out for adoption to Himself, that is, their being brought into the full position of sons in Christ Jesus, according to the good pleasure of His will. Brought into favour in the Beloved, they have in Him redemption, the forgiveness of sins. The mystery of God's will is set forth — to head up all things, whether heavenly or earthly, in the Christ for the administration of the fulness of times. Jews and Gentiles are the subjects of salvation according to the purpose of God, believers from among both being sealed by the Holy Spirit, who is also the earnest of their inheritance — an inheritance which will be to the praise of God's glory when everything is headed up in Christ.
The prayer at the close of Eph. 1 is that the saints might have the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the full knowledge of the God of the Lord Jesus Christ: that they might know the hope of His calling, His inheritance in the saints, and the greatness of the power towards them which He wrought in raising Christ (a Man) from the dead, and setting Him at His right hand in the heavenly places (cf. Ps. 8.). He being head over all things to the body, which is the fulness of Him who fills all in all.
Eph. 2. This same power had wrought toward the saints (as shown by the subject being continued without a break from Eph. 1: to Eph. 2.), in that having been dead in sins they had been quickened with Christ, had been raised up together (Jew and Gentile), and made to sit down together in the heavenlies in Christ Jesus. There is a new creation in Christ by God as regards His people. The apostle would have the Gentile Christians contrast their present privileges with their former hopeless state. Jew and Gentile believers had access by one Spirit to the Father, while the latter were now fellow-citizens of the saints, and were of the household of God, being part of the holy temple He was building. They were also built together for a habitation of God in the Spirit.
Eph. 3. This chapter, in a parenthesis, unfolds the administration of the mystery, hid in God, but now revealed by the Spirit, namely, that the Gentiles should be joint heirs and a joint body and joint partakers of His promise in Christ Jesus. A mystery is that which is understood only by the initiated. In the public dealings of God with men this mystery had no place; it is connected (though administered upon earth) with Christ while hid in the heavens, and the saints united to Him there; by its administration would be made known to principalities and powers in heavenly places the all various wisdom of God. A prayer follows that the saints might be strengthened inwardly by the Spirit; that the Christ might dwell through faith In their hearts; that they might apprehend the breadth, and length, and depth, and height and might know the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge, so as to be filled unto all the fulness of God. Christ is here presented as the centre of all the counsels of God, and His love is to be known in all its fulness by the hearts of His people.
Eph. 4. The apostle applies what is given in the earlier part of the epistle, particularly at the close of Eph. 2 — the bringing together in one in a new and heavenly manner of those who on earthly ground had been at enmity. The saints were to endeavour to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. Gifts are alluded to as given by the Head, for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ, till we all arrive at the unity of the faith, and the full knowledge of the Son of God, at the full grown man, and at the measure of the stature of the fulness of the Christ. Everything necessary for the body is derived from the Head. All is to grow up into Christ. Practical exhortations follow in Eph. 4:17. The truth 'in Jesus' is the having put off the old man and having put on the new: consequently all that characterised the old man must be put off, and what is of the new cultivated.
Eph. 5 and Eph. 6. Believers are to be imitators of God as dear children. They are light in the Lord, and are to walk as children of light. They are to be filled with the Spirit. Earthly relationships are now referred to: wives, husbands, children, fathers, bondmen, masters. Each relationship is to be taken up as in the Lord. Blessed instruction as to the mystery of Christ and the church is given in connection with the word to wives and husbands.
In view of the nature of the spiritual conflict waged in heavenly places, Christians are exhorted to put on the panoply of God. Without this they cannot stand. The apostle asks the prayers of the saints that he might make known the mystery of the glad tidings with boldness; and closes this remarkable epistle with a benediction.
The 'heavenlies' characterise the epistle: cf. Eph. 1:3, 20; Eph. 2:6; Eph. 3:10; Eph. 6:12. In the Epistle to the Romans man is taken up as alive in his sins, and grace meets his need: in Ephesians it is God's quickening power on behalf of those dead in sins, as displayed in raising Christ up from among the dead. In Colossians the saints are looked at as risen with Christ, but on earth with their hope in heaven: in the Ephesians the saints are seated in Christ in the heavenlies.
A renowned city of Ionia, and in the time of the Romans the capital of the part called 'the province of Asia,' being the west portion of Asia Minor. Being near the sea it was a place of great commerce, and as the capital of the province it had constant intercourse with the surrounding towns. The celebrated temple of Diana also brought multitudes of heathen. Its inhabitants are supposed to have been of Greek origin, with also a large number of Jews engaged in commerce. Acts 18:19-24; Acts 19:1, 17, 26, 35; Acts 20:16, 17; 1 Cor. 15:32; 1 Cor. 16:8; Eph. 1:1; 1 Tim. 1:3; 2 Tim. 1:18; 2 Tim. 4:12; Rev. 1:11; Rev. 2:1. It is now named Ayasolook. The ruins are extensive: the sea has retired, leaving a pestilential morass of mud and rushes.
Son of Zabad, a descendant of Judah through Jarha an Egyptian 1 Chr. 2:37.
1. The ephod worn by the high priest. Minute instructions were given as to its construction. It was to be made of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cunning work. The gold was beaten into thin plates and then cut into wires, which were woven into the fabric. Its GIRDLE was also to be of the same materials with embroidered work. On the shoulders were fastened two stones, engraved with the names of the twelve tribes, six names on each stone; so that whenever Aaron wore the ephod the twelve tribes were represented. We read also of the ROBE OF THE EPHOD, which was all of blue, and along the bottom of which were pomegranates of blue, purple, and scarlet, with bells of gold between them. The robe was doubtless much longer than the ephod, which is supposed not to have reached the knees, and which was worn over the robe, and the BREASTPLATE over the ephod. There was also a broidered coat of fine linen; this was worn under the robe. These with the mitre constituted Aaron's garments 'for glory and for beauty.' Ex. 28:1-39. Apparently the ordinary priestly garments worn by Aaron's sons are also said to be 'for glory and for beauty.' Ex. 28:40.
In the various textures of the ephod there are typified divine righteousness, heavenliness, royalty, dignity, and the graces of the Spirit: the virtues that characterised the Lord Jesus. Inseparably attached to the ephod was the breastplate, in which were the Urim and Thummim; thus in wearing the ephod the judgement of the children of Israel was borne before the Lord, according to His lights and perfections. Though not worn on ordinary occasions, it was required when directions were sought from God: cf. 1 Sam. 21:9. Thus receiving answers from God is also associated with the Urim and Thummim, which were placed in the breastplate. Ex. 28:28: cf. Num. 27:21; 1 Sam. 28:6; Ezra 2:63; Neh. 7:65. The word 'Ephod' is the same in the Hebrew, and is from 'to bind round or gird,' so that its meaning does not seem to go beyond 'a priestly garment.' Ex. 29:5; Ex. 35:9, 27; Ex. 39:2-22; Lev. 8:7; 1 Sam. 2:28.
2. Besides the above, which may be called the ephod, there were others which the priests wore, but which are not described. 1 Sam. 14:3; 1 Sam. 22:18; 1 Sam. 23:6, 9; 1 Sam. 30:7; Hosea 3:4. David, on the occasion of bringing up the ark, wore a linen ephod. 2 Sam. 6:14; 1 Chr. 15:27. Samuel also, when only a child, wore a linen ephod. 1 Sam. 2:18. In all the above passages the ephod bears the character of a priestly garment, though David was not of the tribe of Aaron. Type of the kingly Priest of the order of Melchisedec.
3. A strange deviation from the above was the ephod which Gideon made of the gold, the ornaments, and the purple raiment taken from the Midianites, after which all Israel went astray, and which became a snare to Gideon and his house. Judges 8:27. Still worse was the case of Micah who, having a house of gods, made an ephod, and consecrated one of his sons to be priest. A Levite coming to the house fell in with the whole arrangement, and pretended to inquire of God by the ephod. When the gods were stolen by the children of Dan, the Levite was glad to accompany the idols and the ephod, and to be a priest to this tribe. Thus was the priestly garment that should have been restricted to the service of Jehovah associated with idolatry. Judges 17:5; Judges 18:14-20.
Father of Hanniel, of the tribe of Manasseh. Num. 34:23.
An Aramaic word, signifying 'Be opened.' Mark 7:34.
Second son of Joseph and Asenath. The name is also given to the tribe of which he was the head, and also to the district of Palestine that fell to his lot. When Israel blessed the two sons of Joseph he set Ephraim before his elder brother, saying he should be greater, and his seed should become a multitude (or, 'fatness') of nations. Gen. 48:17-19. Little is recorded of Ephraim personally; and of his descendants, Joshua the son of Nun is the most renowned. The tribe on the second year from the Exodus numbered in fighting men 40,500; but had decreased during the forty years to 32,500. Num. 1:33; Num. 26:37.
The territory of the tribe was in the heart of Palestine, having Manasseh on the north, Benjamin on the south, and Dan on the west. It has beautiful valleys and noble mountains with many springs and streams. Its two principal towns were Shiloh and Shechem.
Ephraim had the place of the first-born (Jer. 31:9), the birthright being taken from Reuben and given to Joseph. 1 Chr. 5:1, 2. Also the place of the tabernacle was in the tribe of Ephraim, hence we find in the time of the judges this tribe asserting its own importance. They were angry with Gideon for not calling them to the war sooner than he did; but a soft answer appeased their wrath. Judges 7:24; Judges 8:1-3. Again they complained to Jephthah that he had gone without them to fight the Ammonites, though Jephthah declared that he had called them, and they had not responded. They also haughtily said of the Gileadites that they were fugitives of Ephraim, implying that they were not a tribe, but belonged to Ephraim, from whence they had escaped. The conflict was sharp; the Gileadites seized the ford of the Jordan, and then by putting all who wanted to pass to the test of pronouncing Shibboleth (which the Ephraimites could only call Sibboleth) they slew 42,000 of the men of Ephraim. Judges 12:1-6. Thus was this proud and envious tribe punished for molesting their brethren, whereas they had not driven out the heathen inhabitants of the land, as they should have done. Judges 1:29. Type of many in the church who in pride contend with their brethren, but do not fight God's battles against spiritual wickedness. Later on the Lord forsook Shiloh, and chose, not the tribe of Ephraim, but that of Judah both for the place of royalty and for the sanctuary.
In the kingdom under David and Solomon we read very little of Ephraim, but it is twice called in the Psalms 'the strength (or defence) of mine head.' Ps. 60:7; Ps. 108:8. At the division of the tribes Ephraim took the most prominent place; Shechem and Samaria being in their territory naturally contributed to this, and accounts for the ten tribes being constantly called 'Ephraim' by the prophets. In the same way the two tribes are called 'Judah.' Hosea 5:3, 5, 13, 14, etc. Isaiah prophesied that in sixty-five years Ephraim should be broken and should not be a people. Isa. 7:8. This was in B.C. 742, and Samaria was taken and Israel carried into captivity in B.C. 721, so that the prophecy doubtless referred to Esarhaddon planting a colony of foreigners in Samaria in B.C. 678, which fulfils the sixty-five years. This also agrees with the prophecy saying 'the head of Ephraim ' is Samaria.
In the prophecies also that refer to the future blessing of the twelve tribes Ephraim is regarded as representing the ten tribes. Ezek. 37:16-22, where the twelve tribes are to become one nation in their own land, with one king over them: a prophecy which clearly has never yet been fulfilled, but which will surely be accomplished in God's own time.
1. Town near to Absalom's sheep-farm, where Amnon was killed. 2 Sam. 13:23.
2. City near to the wilderness, to which the Lord and His disciples withdrew from the threatened violence of the leaders of the Jews at Jerusalem. John 11:54. Identified with et Taiyibeh, 31 57 N, 35 18' E.
Ephraim, [E'phraim] Gate of.
A gate in Jerusalem. By its name it would evidently have been on the north of the city, as is the present Damascus gate. 2 Kings 14:13; 2 Chr. 25:23; Neh. 8:16; Neh. 12:39.
Ephraim, [E'phraim] Mount.
This does not refer to any particular mountain, but to the range of hill-country in Ephraim. Joshua 17:15; Joshua 20:7; Jer. 4:15; Jer. 31:6; Jer. 50:19; etc.
E'phraim, [E'phraim] Wood of.
A forest on the east of the Jordan where the battle was fought against Absalom, and where he was killed. It is said that the wood devoured more people than the sword, probably referring to swamps, morasses, and pits, for Absalom's body was thrown into a 'great pit.' 2 Sam.18:6-17. Why the place was called 'Ephraim's Wood' is not known.
One of the tribe of Ephraim. Judges 12:4, 5. See EPHRATHITE.
City with its 'towns' or hamlets, taken by Abijah from Jeroboam. 2 Chr. 13:19. The R.V. has EPHRON.
Ephratah [Eph'ratah], Ephrath. [Eph'rath]
1. Ancient name of Bethlehem-judah. Gen. 35:16, 19; Gen. 48:7; Ruth 4:11; Ps. 132:6; Micah 5:2.
2. Caleb's second wife and mother of Hur. 1 Chr. 2:19, 50: cf. also 1 Chr. 4:4.
Inhabitant of Ephrath or Beth-lehem-judah. Ruth 1:2; 1 Sam. 17:12. The same Hebrew word occurs in 1 Sam. 1:1; 1 Kings 11:26, where some translate 'Ephraimite,' as in the R.V., and as is evidently the meaning of the same word in Judges 12:4, 5. As to 1 Sam. 1:1, Elkanah, though a Levite, may have been called an Ephraimite because located in that tribe: cf. Judges 17:7.
Son of Zohar, a Hittite, and from whom Abraham bought the field of Mamre, containing the cave of Machpelah. Gen. 23:8-17; Gen. 25:9; Gen. 49:29, 30; Gen. 50:13.
A mount on which were 'cities' on the border line of Judah. Joshua 15:9. Not satisfactorily identified.
Epicureans, [Epicur'eans] The.
A school of philosophers that derived their name from the Athenian Epicurus, who had his 'garden' at Athens. His theory was that pleasurable emotions should be the aim of human life, quiet ease of mind being the sum of happiness. Experience and not truth was the test he applied. Paul endeavoured to turn the thoughts of the Athenians from their self-made philosophy, and their many idols, to the one true God. Acts 17:18.
The name given to the twenty-one 'Letters' (for this is the signification of the word επιστολή, and which is often thus translated) of the New Testament. Each epistle should be regarded as a letter, and be read as a whole. The word is twice used in a figurative sense. Paul said that the saints at Corinth were his 'epistle' written in his heart. They were living examples of Paul's doctrine which could be known and read of all men. The genuine power of his work was being exhibited in them. They were also manifestly the 'epistle of Christ.' By means of Paul, the Spirit of the living God had written Christ upon the fleshy tables of their heart, just as surely as God's finger had written the law on tables of stone. 2 Cor. 3:2, 3.
1. Eldest son of Judah by a daughter of Shuah, a Canaanite. "He was wicked in the sight of the Lord, and the Lord slew him." Gen. 38:3, 6, 7; Gen. 46:12; Num. 26:19; 1 Chr. 2:3.
2. Son of Shelah, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:21.
3. Son of Jose, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:28.
Eran [E'ran], Eranites.
Son of Shuthelah, and his descendants. Num. 26:36.
1. One who ministered to Paul. He was sent by Paul into Macedonia, and later on is found abiding at Corinth. Acts 19:22; 2 Tim. 4:20.
2. Chamberlain or treasurer of Corinth. Rom. 16:23. Perhaps the same as No. 1.
One of the cities of Nimrod in the land of Shinar. Gen. 10:10. It is judged to have been the ancient Orchoe of the Greeks and Romans. It is identified with extensive ruins at Warka, 31 30' N, 45 40' E. Its original Accadian name was UNU, UNUG, or UNUGA; the Babylonians and Assyrians called it URUK or ARKU; hence the Hebrew name Erech, and the Arab Warka. By the Accadians it was also styled 'the heavenly grove,' 'the heavenly resting place,' 'the seven enclosures,' etc. The Babylonians thought much of the city, and the ruins show that it had large and elegant buildings.
Eri [E'ri], Erites [E'rites]
Son of Gad, and his descendants. Gen. 46:16; Num. 26:16.
Greek form of ISAIAH in the N.T.
Son of Sennacherib and grandson of Sargon. He succeeded Sennacherib as king of Assyria. He united Babylonia to Assyria without reducing it to a mere province, and resided at Nineveh and sometimes at Babylon. This will account for the captain of the Assyrians carrying Manasseh to Babylon. It was this king who sent foreigners to colonise Samaria. 2 Kings 19:37; Ezra 4:2; Isa. 37:38. From the records on the monuments he appears to have been one of the most powerful of the Assyrian kings. He calls himself "the great king, the powerful king, the king of legions, . . . . the just, the terrible . . . . who reigned from the rising of the sun to the setting of the sun." He says, "I counted among the vassals of my realm twelve kings of Syria, beyond the mountains: Balon, or Baal, king of Tyre; Manasseh, king of Judah," etc. About B.C. 671 he conquered Egypt, took Memphis, and captured two of the king's sons. He divided Egypt into twenty provinces, placing some of them under native princes, and others under Assyrian governors with Assyrian troops. He reigned from B.C. 681 to 668.
A twin son with Jacob of Isaac and Rebekah, though Esau was actually the first-born. He is described as "red, all over like a hairy garment;" with this his name corresponds, which signifies 'hairy.' Gen. 25:25. The first thing we read of him is the selling of his birthright to his over-reaching brother Jacob, for a mess of pottage. Concerning this he is called in the N.T. a profane person, because he valued not that which was the gift of God. He afterwards sought the blessing carefully with tears, but found no place of repentance. Gen. 25:29-34; Heb. 12:16,17.
Jacob, through want of faith in God, surreptitiously obtained the blessing of his father (who, contrary to God's election, intended it for Esau), in which Isaac said that he had made Jacob Esau's lord, and given all his brethren to be his servants. The blessing of Esau was "Thy dwelling shall be the fatness of the earth, and of the dew of heaven from above; and by thy sword shalt thou live, and shalt serve thy brother; and it shall come to pass, when thou shalt have the dominion, that thou shalt break his yoke from off thy neck." Gen. 27:37-40. Esau hated his brother, and intended, when the days of mourning for his father were ended, to kill him. The words of Isaac were fulfilled. David put garrisons throughout all Edom (where the descendants of Esau dwelt, Gen. 36:8) and all they of Edom became his servants, 2 Sam. 8:14; but later on in the days of Joram, Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah; and though Joram was able to punish them, yet Judah was growing weaker, and 'Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah, unto this day.' 2 Kings 8:20-22. Obadiah announces Edom's final judgement: no remnant is restored. See EDOM.
Esau had three wives (see BASHEMATH) and a numerous posterity, which increased to a powerful tribe. When he went to meet Jacob he was accompanied by four hundred men. It may be God had warned Esau, as He did Laban, not to hurt Jacob; or possibly his anger may have abated: for when they approached, "Esau ran to meet him, and embraced him, and fell on his neck and kissed him, and they wept." They were thus happily reconciled, and at the death of Isaac his two sons buried him. Gen. 33:4; Gen. 35:29.
In Mal. 1:2, 3 Esau is referred to as having been hated by Jehovah, whereas Jacob had been loved. This is quoted by Paul in Rom. 9:13, where God's sovereignty is being enforced. It was foretold that the elder should serve the younger before they were born, and before they could have done either good or bad: this was God's sovereignty. But it was not foretold that God would hate Esau; it is not mentioned till the close of the Old Testament, after Esau in his descendants had displayed his unrelenting enmity to Israel, and Esau personally had long before that despised the gift of God in his birthright. The passage in Malachi is thought by some to refer to the nations which descended from the two brothers.
A well in the valley of Gerar, dug by the servants of Isaac, and striven for by the servants of Abimelech; hence its name, which signifies 'strife.' Gen. 26:20.
Fourth son of Saul. 1 Chr. 8:33; 1 Chr. 9:39. Apparently the same as ISH-BOSHETH, q.v. The one name signifies 'man of Baal,' and the other 'man of shame.'
Son of Dishon, a descendant of Seir. Gen. 36:26; 1 Chr. 1:41.
Brother of Aner and Mamre, and one of the three Amorite allies of Abraham when he pursued the kings who had carried off Lot. Gen. 14:13, 24.
Eshcol, [Esh'col] Yalley of.
Called both a brook and a valley because the one ran in the other, now called a Wady, which are very numerous in Palestine. It was near Hebron, the place explored by the spies, and from whence they carried the huge bunch of grapes. Num. 13:23, 24; Num. 32:9; Deut. 1:24. In the district around Beersheba there are still miles of grape vines.
City in the mountains of Judah. Joshua 15:52. Identified by some with es Simia, 31 26' N, 35 2' E.
Descendant of Saul through Jonathan. 1 Chr. 8:39.
Inhabitants of Ashkelon. Joshua 13:3.
Town in the lowlands of Judah, allotted to Dan. It was near to this town that Samson spent his early life, and there he was buried. Joshua 15:33; Joshua 19:41; Judges 13:25; Judges 16:31; Judges 18:2, 8, 11. Identified with Eshu'a, 31 47' N, 35 E.
Inhabitants of Eshtaol. 1 Chr. 2:53.
Eshtemoa [Eshtemo'a], Eshtemoh. [Eshtemoh']
1. City in the mountains of Judah, given to the Priests. Joshua 15:50; Joshua 21:14; 1 Sam. 30:28; 1 Chr. 6:57. Identified with es Semua, 31 24' N, 35 4' E.
2. Son of Ishbah, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:17.
3. The Maachathite. 1 Chr. 4:19.
Son of Mehir, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:11, 12.
Son of Nagge in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:25.
Son of Phares in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Matt. 1:3; Luke 3:33.
A Jewish sect in existence when the Lord was on earth, and whose principles in some respects resembled the more recent monasticism. They enjoined celibacy, isolation, ceremonial ablutions, and abstinence from animal food. The worshipping of angels was part of their profession. They neglected sacrifices and the temple service, but had priests of their own. They are not mentioned by name in the N.T., but may be alluded to in Col. 2:18, 23; and it is to be remarked that two of the tenets, celibacy and abstaining from animal food, are specially condemned in 1 Tim. 4:3, which things are being revived in the present day by Theosophists and Spiritualists.
The Persian name of Hadassah, daughter of Abihail, son of Shimei, son of Kish, a Benjamite. Being an orphan she was brought up by her cousin Mordecai. She was fair and beautiful and was thought suitable to be presented to the king. God gave her favour in the eyes of the royal household, and also caused the king to choose her for his queen, though she was a captive. The king is called Ahasuerus, but he is supposed to have been the Xerxes of history.
Mordecai, refusing to bow to Haman the Agagite, roused the wrath of the latter, who procured an edict for the destruction on a certain day of all the Jews in the empire. Esther was hereupon charged by Mordecai to plead with the king for their deliverance. She therefore called all the Jews in Shushan to fast with her three days and nights, saying she would go in to the king unbidden, and if she perished she perished. God gave her favour in the eyes of the king and he held out the sceptre to her. At a banquet she told the king that Haman had sold her and her people. The king was enraged, and being told at this moment of the gallows on which Haman intended to hang Mordecai (who had been the means of the king's life being saved), orders were at once given to hang Haman thereon. Esther had again to endanger her life by appearing before the king unbidden; but again the king received her graciously and gave her the desired authority to rescue the Jews from their threatened calamity: they were allowed to defend themselves when attacked by their enemies.
By a remarkable providence, the king not being able to sleep one night, Mordecai had been brought into favour, and he was now exalted to fill the office of Haman. This gave the Jews great advantage, for the provincial rulers all stood in fear of Mordecai. When the appointed day arrived, instead of the Jews being destroyed, they were able, not only to defend themselves, but avenge themselves on their enemies, ending with a day of feasting and gladness. The days of deliverance were appointed by Esther and Mordecai as an annual festival. See ESTHER, BOOK OF.
Esther, [Es'ther] Book of.
In the article on ESTHER the principal events of the book are glanced at, but a few remarks are needed as to the object of the book. It has been a sad puzzle to Christians. It looks very much like a tale, they say; and how can it be inspired, they ask, without the name of God from beginning to end? How different is Mordecai from Ezra or Nehemiah, captives like him, but who were not content to spend their lives at the gate of a heathen's palace when they had the opportunity of returning to Jerusalem.
That it is a true history is manifest. The great feast with which it opens is just such as a Persian monarch would celebrate with the nobles and princes of the various provinces. If Xerxes was the Ahasuerus of the book, as is generally supposed, it quite agrees with his character, that when elated with wine he should send for the queen; and, on her refusal to be thus exposed, to cast her aside, and seek another queen. The way this was accomplished was exactly Persian. The posts also, on horses, mules, camels, and young dromedaries, according to the nature of the country traversed — from India to Ethiopia — was also the method adopted.
The main teaching of the book is that God was watching over and caring for His ancient people during their captivity, altogether apart from their faithfulness to Him, or their desire to return to the land of promise. They were scattered over the entire kingdom, and it is not revealed what sort of lives they were living: the only two described in the book are Mordecai and Esther. God was their God, and they were His people, and, without His name being mentioned in the book, He was surely secretly watching over them, and making things work together for their protection. The king being unable to sleep on the very night when it was needed he should remember Mordecai is a signal example of His watchfulness. Esther and Mordecai may not have acted well in wishing a second day of vengeance, and in killing the sons of Haman, and petitioning to have them hanged on the gallows: how few can have power over their enemies without abusing it! The good behaviour of the Jews forms no part of the book: they are cared for whether good or bad. God in His government would in due time set all that right. In fine, we have an illustration of how God cared providentially for His earthly people, when they were under the Lo-ammi sentence, and He was unable to own them publicly as in relationship with Himself.
Historically Esther comes in between the beginning of Ezra and its close; that is, at the end of Ezra 6 the Artaxerxes of Ezra 4:7 being the pseudo-Smerdis; and the Artaxerxes of Ezra 7:1, being Artaxerxes Longimanus. The Ahasuerus of Esther (Xerxes) comes in between them. For a list of the kings see PERSIA.
There are several apocryphal additions to the book of Esther in the LXX and the Vulgate. The principal of these are:
1. A preface containing Mordecai's pedigree, his dream of what was about to happen, and his appointment to sit at the king's gate.
2. In chap. 3 a copy of Artaxerxes' decree against the Jews.
3. In chap. 4 a prayer of Mordecai, followed by a prayer of Esther, in which she excuses herself for being the wife of an uncircumcised king.
4. In chap. 8 a copy of the king's letter for reversing the previous decree, in which Haman is called a Macedonian! and the statement made that he had been plotting to betray the kingdom of Persia to the Macedonians!
5. In chap. 10 Mordecai shows how his dream had been fulfilled, and gives glory to God. Some parts of these additions are declared to be 'thorough Greek' in style, and the patchwork is very manifest elsewhere.
1. Village of the tribe of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:32.
2. City of Judah, fortified by Rehoboam. 2 Chr. 11:6. Identified with ruins at Aitun, 31 30' N, 34 55' E.
3. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:3. The meaning is doubtful; some MSS read 'sons of Etam;' and others, 'sons of the father of Etam;' it may refer to the 'founder' of the above city, No. 2.
Etam, [E'tam] The Rock.
Place in Judah where Samson dwelt for a short time. Judges 15:8, 11. The A.V. reads ambiguously, "he went down and dwelt in the top of the rock Etam." It is better translated "dwelt in the cleft of the rock Etam."
Three Hebrew words are translated 'eternal.'
1. ad: very often translated 'for ever,' and with another word, olam, 'for ever and ever.' "The Lord shall reign for ever and ever." Ex. 15:18. "The Lord is king for ever and ever." Ps. 10:16: cf. also Ps. 45:6; Ps. 48:14; Ps. 52:8. Micah 4:5. Ad is also translated 'everlasting:' "the everlasting Father," or "Father of the everlasting age." Isa. 9:6. Also 'eternity;' "the high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity." Isa. 57:15.
2. olam, signifying 'everlasting,' 'never ending.' It is often translated 'for ever:' "his mercy endureth for ever," 1 Chr. 16:41; and 'everlasting:' "the everlasting God." Gen. 21:33; Ps. 90:2; Ps. 93:2; Ps. 103:17. "I will make thee an eternal excellency." Isa. 60:15.
3. qedem, 'ancient, that which is before.' "The eternal God is thy refuge." Deut. 33:27. "Art thou not from everlasting?" Hab. 1:12. "God is my King of old." Ps. 74:12.
4. In the N.T., ἀΐδιος, 'perpetual:' occurs only in Rom. 1:20, "his eternal power and Godhead;" and Jude 6, "reserved in everlasting chains."
5. αἰών, 'age, duration, ever.' With a preposition 'unto the ages' is often translated 'for ever;' and, when repeated, 'for ever and ever.' "He that eateth of this bread shall live for ever." John 6:58. "Christ abideth for ever." John 12:34. "To whom be glory for ever and ever." Gal. 1:5. "According to the eternal purpose." Eph. 3:11. "Now unto the king eternal . . . . be honour and glory for ever and ever." 1 Tim. 1:17. This word is often translated 'world,' but may at times be better rendered 'age,' as "be not conformed to this age," Rom. 12:2; and 'for ever and ever' may be translated 'to the ages of ages,' though the meaning would be the same.
6. αἰώνιος, from αἰών, signifying 'ever enduring.' It is always translated 'eternal' or 'everlasting,' except in Rom. 16:25, "since the world began," or "in the times of the ages." 2 Tim. 1:9; Titus 1:2, "before the world began," or, "before the ages of time;" and Philemon 15, "for ever." This word is applied to God Himself as "the everlasting God." Rom. 16:26; to the Holy Spirit. Heb. 9:14; to redemption. Heb. 9:12; inheritance. Heb. 9:15; salvation. Heb. 5:9; glory. 1 Peter 5:10; and constantly to life. John 3:15, 16, 36. On the other hand it is applied to punishment, Matt. 25:46; damnation, Mark 3:29; destruction, 2 Thess. 1:9; and fire, Jude 7: cf. Isa. 33:14.
The above passages show that the same word is used for the existence of God Himself; for the salvation and blessedness of the saved; and for the punishment of the wicked.
See LIFE, ETERNAL.
A term not found in scripture, but often applied to the future, when the Lord Jesus will deliver up the kingdom to God the Father, and be Himself subject unto Him who put all things under Him, that God may be all in all. 1 Cor. 15:24-28: cf. Rev. 21:1-8.
The place of the second encampment of Israel 'in the edge of the wilderness.' Ex. 13:20; Num. 33:6-8.
1. A wise man, 'the Ezrahite,' whose wisdom was exceeded by that of Solomon. 1 Kings 4:31; Ps. 89 title. Apparently the same as the son of Zerah, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:6, 8.
2. Levite, son of Kishi or Kushaiah. 1 Chr. 6:44; 15:17, 19. 3. Levite, son of Zimmah. 1 Chr. 6:42.
King of Sidon, and father of Jezebel wife of Ahab. 1 Kings 16:31.
City of Judah, allotted to Simeon. Joshua 15:42; Joshua 19:7.