Bible Dictionary E 2, F.

Ethiopia. [Ethio'pia]

This is the Greek and Roman name for CUSH, a kingdom in Africa to the south of Egypt. The boundary between the two kingdoms is not well defined, indeed, it may have varied at different times. The first cataract, 24 N, 32 52' E is generally taken as its northern boundary: its extent southward is altogether unknown. Gen. 2:13; Esther 1:1; Ezek. 29:10. At times Ethiopia conquered Egypt: two of the kings mentioned in scripture were Ethiopians. 2 Chr. 14:9; Isa. 37:9. In some of the prophecies they are mentioned as separate kingdoms. Nahum 3:9. See EGYPT, LAND OF.

Ethiopians. [Ethio'pians]

Some of the descendants of Cush, the son of Ham. They are represented on the Egyptian monuments as darker in colour than the Egyptians. Without being black they may have been the darkest of any people known to the Israelites, as the question is asked: "Can the Ethiopian change his skin?" Jer. 13:23. As 'Ham' signifies 'black,' he was probably a dark man, and it is implied in Cant. 1:6 that the sun causes the complexion to be black or dark, therefore the farther south in Africa (to the Equator), the darker would be the skin. This, with degraded habits, had changed the features of those in the centre of Africa, from the more cultivated sons of Ham in the north. The Ethiopians appear to have been nearly as far advanced in the arts and sciences as the Egyptians, but some of the monuments in the south are by Egyptian kings. As far south as Abu-Simbel, about 22 20' N, 31 37' E are two temples hewn in the rock, which rank in interest next to the ruins at Thebes; these are attributed to Rameses 2 king of Egypt, with colossal statues of himself cut out of the solid rock. It was an Ethiopian who befriended Jeremiah and drew him out of the pit, for which his life was spared. Jer. 38:7, 10, 12; Jer. 39:16. It was a pious Ethiopian, of great authority with his queen, to whom Philip preached of Jesus, and then baptised him. Acts 8:27.

Ethnan. [Eth'nan]

Son of Ashur, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:7.

Ethni. [Eth'ni]

Son of Zerah, a descendant of Levi. 1 Chr. 6:41.

Eubulus. [Eubu'lus]

Christian at Rome who sent salutations to Timothy. 2 Tim. 4:21.



Eunice. [Euni'ce]

Timothy's mother, 'a Jewess that believed,' and of whose 'unfeigned faith' Paul testified. Acts 16:1; 2 Tim. 1:5.


The Lord distinguished three classes of eunuchs: those that were thus born; those emasculated by men; and those who had made themselves such for the kingdom of heaven's sake. Matt. 19:12. It is the second class that are otherwise mentioned in scripture. They often became men of influence in the eastern courts, and had care of the harems; and where there were several there was one called their 'prince.' Jer. 29:2; Dan. 1:3-18; Acts 8:27. Ebed-melech who befriended Jeremiah was a eunuch in the house of Zedekiah. Jer. 38:7-13. And they were eunuchs who threw Jezebel out of the lattice. 2 Kings 9:32. This shows that Israel had followed the custom of the East in employing such persons.

One of the things prophesied against Israel was that their sons should be made eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon. 2 Kings 20:18; Isa. 39:7. The case of Daniel and his companions was an instance of the fulfilment of this, for they were committed to the care of 'the master of the eunuchs.' Though the word saris signifies 'eunuch' it is often in the A.V. translated 'chamberlain' and 'officer' because the eunuchs were employed in such positions of trust. The man of Ethiopia baptised by Philip was a eunuch of great authority under the queen. Acts 8:27.

Euodias. [Euo'dias]

A Christian woman at Philippi who is exhorted with Syntyche to be "of the same mind in the Lord." Phil. 4:2.

Euphrates. [Euphra'tes]

This river is first mentioned in connection with the garden of Eden, but cannot be thereby traced. Gen. 2:14. It was the N.E. boundary of the land promised to Abraham, as the river of Egypt was the S.W. Gen. 15:18. It is called the great river, the river Euphrates, Deut. 1:7, and at times is merely called 'the river.' Gen. 31:21. David was able to possess the land to the Euphrates, 2 Sam. 8:3, which also Solomon maintained. 1 Kings 4:24.

In one of Jeremiah's typical actions he hid his girdle by the Euphrates then found it spoiled and useless; so should the pride of Judah and Jerusalem be marred (Jer. 13:4-11) — a figure of the carrying away to Babylon of those who should have cleaved to the Lord for His praise, as a girdle to the loins of a man. The prophecy against Babylon was written by Jeremiah in a book, and given to Seraiah, who was to read the same when he arrived at Babylon, then tie a stone to the book and cast it into the Euphrates, and. say "Thus shall Babylon sink." Jer. 51:59-64. The book was thus placed in the river in which the Babylonians trusted for safety, but which was the channel of their destruction. Isa. 45:1.

The Euphrates is mentioned in the Revelation as the place where four angels are or will be bound, who will be loosed at the sixth trumpet, letting loose the Eastern forms of Satanic wickedness hitherto held in check. Rev. 9:14. Viewing Palestine as the centre of God's dealings with the earth, the Euphrates was the barrier between East and West. The sixth vial will be poured upon the great river Euphrates, that it may be dried up and a way be made for the kings from the East to come unto the great battle of Armageddon. Rev. 16:12.

There are two sources of the river; one in the Armenian mountains, about 40 N, 41 30' E, and the other in the mountain range of Ararat, about 39 30' N, 43 E. When the streams join they run nearly south and then south east for 1000 miles. After being joined by the Tigris it falls into the Persian Gulf. It is generally supposed that the river has not always in all parts run in the same channel; that after overflowing its banks it has not always returned to its former course, though it ran into it again farther south. A glance at a map will show that the possessions of David could have embraced but a very small part of the Euphrates, about Lat. 35 to 36 N. The great Syrian desert of Arabia separated the southern part of the river from Palestine.


εὐροκλύδων. The name used by the sailors for a tempestuous wind in the Mediterranean, experienced when Paul was being taken to Rome. Acts 27:14. The etymology of the word is not known: some MSS read εὐρακύλων, euraquilo. It way simply imply a furious wind, like a Levanter in modern times, irrespective of the quarter from whence it blew.

Eutychus. [Eu'tychus]

The young man who when Paul was preaching fell, while asleep, from the third floor, and was restored to life by the apostle. Acts 20:9.


εὐαγγελιστής. One who evangelises, or preaches the glad tidings of the grace of God unto salvation. Such are included among the gifts from the ascended Lord. Eph. 4:11. Philip is the only one so called in the N.T., Acts 21:8, though doubtless there were many others who were true evangelists. Paul said, "Woe unto me if I preach not the gospel." He was the apostle to whom an especial administration was entrusted, to evangelise Jesus as the Son of God among the Gentiles. Timothy was exhorted to do the work of an evangelist though he had other gifts. 2 Tim. 4:5. Though there was and is an especial gift to some to proclaim the gospel, we read of others who helped to spread the good news, as when there was persecution at Jerusalem, all were scattered abroad except the apostles, and they went everywhere 'announcing' the glad tidings of, or evangelising, the word, Acts 8:4; and Paul speaks of some women who 'laboured with him in the gospel,' Phil. 4:3; this they could have done in various ways without preaching publicly.

Evangelists, The Four.

A term often used to designate the four writers of the Gospels — Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.


A name given by Adam to his wife after they had fallen, and after God had spoken of 'her seed,' and had told her that in sorrow she should bring forth children. The Hebrew name is chavvah, which signifies 'life,' Adam adding that at she was 'the mother of all living.' Gen. 3:20; Gen. 4:1. Eve being formed from a rib taken out of Adam, which God 'built' into a woman, and hence called by him Isha, is a beautiful type of the church being of Christ and presented to Him: cf. Eph. 5:31-32.

Eve is twice mentioned in the N.T. A woman is to be silent in the church: she is not to exercise authority over the man, for Adam was formed before Eve; and Adam was not deceived, but she was. This deception is further explained by showing that it was the serpent who beguiled Eve by his subtilty, and it is the same enemy who seeks now to ensnare the saints. 2 Cor. 11:3; 1 Tim. 2:13.


The period from sunset till night. This was naturally the closing of the day, for God called the light 'day:' cf. John 11:9. "The evening was, and the morning was, one day:" that is, there was not day continuously, but through the alternation of night and morning day succeeded day. Gen. 1:5. The common way of reckoning the day among the Jews was from evening until the next evening. A difficulty has arisen as to the phrase 'between the two evenings.' The paschal lamb was to be killed between the two evenings, and some have thought that this allowed the passover lamb to be killed any time between the evening of the 14th and the evening of the 15th Abib. This however cannot be the meaning because none of it was to be left till the morning; and because the same phrase is used respecting the daily sacrifice, and also as to lighting the lamps. Ex. 12:6, margin; Ex. 29:39; Ex. 30:8. The Jewish writers are not agreed in their definition of the expression: some suppose it lies between the beginning and ending of sunset; others, from sunset to full darkness. Josephus says that the time of killing the passover was from the ninth hour till the eleventh, which would be about from three o'clock to five; but this would seem to make the 'evening' come at the end of the Jewish day, and not at the beginning.



Evi. [E'vi]

One of the princes of Midian, who was slain by the Israelites, and whose lands were given to the tribe of Reuben. Num. 31:8; Joshua 13:21.

Evilmerodach. [E'vil-mero'dach]

Son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar. In his first year he had compassion upon Jehoiachin king of Judah, who had been in prison thirty-seven years, raised him to honour, and appointed him to sit at his own table for the rest of his life. 2 Kings 25:27-30; Jer. 52:33. The name is recorded as AMELU-MARDUK. He reigned from B.C. 561 to 559, and was murdered by Neriglissar, a nobleman who had married his sister, and who then seized the crown.


τραπεζίτης. Public banker who pays interest on money deposited and loans it out again at a profit. Matt. 25:27. A kindred word is translated 'bank' in Luke 19:23.


Though this word does not occur in the A.V. the duty of excommunicating wicked persons from the fold of Israel, and from the church as the house of God, is plainly taught. Again and again we read in the O.T. that for particular sins "that soul shall be out off from Israel" or "cut off from his people." Ex. 12:15; Ex. 30:33, 38; Lev. 7:20-21, 25, 27; Num. 9:13; Ezra 10:8; etc. How far this was acted upon we do not know. In the N.T. we find the authorities agreeing that if any one confessed that Jesus was the Christ he was to be cut off; and they excommunicated the man that had been born blind because he said that Jesus must be of God. John 9:34.

In the church we have a case of 'putting away' at Corinth. The assembly were admonished to put away from themselves the wicked person that was among them. 1 Cor. 5:13. The person was cast out. He was afterwards repentant, and then the Corinthian saints were instructed to forgive him and to receive him again into communion. 2 Cor. 2:6-11. The necessity of putting away an evil person is apparent; the presence of God, who is holy, demands it, and believers are called to holiness: "the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are." 1 Cor. 3:17. As to discipline on earth there is a dispensational binding and loosing (cf. Matt. 18:18), to which the saints are called where it is needful to put away evil from the assembly, but always with the hope that restoration may follow. See DISCIPLINE.

Connected with the case at Corinth there was also mentioned the delivering unto Satan of the guilty person for the destruction of the flesh, but this was the determination of Paul as being there in spirit with them (1 Cor. 5:4-5), which seems to stamp it as an apostolic act. Paul individually did the same with Hymenaeus and Alexander. 1 Tim. 1:20. The positive injunction to the church at Corinth was to put away from among themselves the wicked person. In 3 John we read of Diotrephes who took upon himself to cast some out of the church, which John would not forget when he visited them. As is seen at Corinth, 'putting away' should be an act of the assembly, not of an individual.


This word does not occur in the O.T. except in the margin. In three places persons are pointed out as 'captain of the guard,' who in the margin are called 'chief of the executioners or slaughtermen.' Gen. 37:36; Jer. 39:9; Dan. 2:14. In Solomon's day Benaiah the chief of the army was called to fulfil this office, 1 Kings 2:25, 34, 46, though doubtless the 'chief ' had others under him that actually carried the king's word into execution, unless the persons were of high rank. In Mark 6:27 Herod Antipas called to an executioner, or one of his guard to behead John the Baptist.

Exodus, The.

This is the term commonly used to express the bringing out of the children of Israel from the slavery of Egypt. Under PLAGUES OF EGYPT are considered the preliminary dealings with Pharaoh which were intended to show him the power of that God whose people he was holding in slavery. The death of the first-born all over Egypt made the Egyptians beg them to depart, and made them willing to give them many things for which the Israelites 'asked' (not 'borrowed'). There being 600,000 men, it is calculated that including the women and children the number of the Israelites would not have been less than two millions. There was also a mixed multitude which went with them, and very much cattle. It must have been a wonderful sight to have seen such a number moving away from the scene of their slavery, and it is often referred to as the work of the mighty God. "He brought them forth also with silver and gold: and there was not one feeble person among their tribes. Egypt was glad when they departed: for the fear of them fell upon them." Ps. 105:37-38.

We read that the Israelites went out 'harnessed,' or 'by five in a rank' as it reads in the margin. Ex. 13:18. The same word, chamushim, is translated 'armed,' in reference to the way in which the Israelites crossed the Jordan, when they had plenty of time to arrange themselves in due order. Joshua 1:14; Joshua 4:12. It is also translated 'armed' when it refers to the army of the Midianites and the Amalekites as they were arrayed in the camp previous to action. Judges 7:11. From this we gather that the Israelites did not travel in disorder: the heads of each tribe would have control over it, and could arrange its march. It may be they were ranked in fives, as we afterwards read of 'captains over fifties,' but it is clear that they marched in order: it was God who was bringing them out, and it would have been unworthy of Him to have had them moving as a disorderly rabble. Another expression is that Jehovah brought them out 'by their armies.' Ex. 12:51.

The people were led from Rameses to Succoth, thence to Etham, and to Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal-zephon. The position of these places is not known, and there is no means of telling where they crossed the Red Sea. Attempts have been made to fix upon a part of the Red Sea where the water is shallow, so that the east wind spoken of could have driven back the waters; but these are only efforts to get rid of the miracle, and of the God who wrought it for His people. The word is very plain that the waters stood 'a wall' on their right hand and on their left; and when the waters returned they were enough to drown all Pharaoh's army: it must therefore have been at a deep part of the river that they crossed. It also typified the death of the Lord Jesus for His people, when all the billows of God's wrath against sin flowed over His soul. Ps. 42:7. The Red Sea may have extended farther north than at present, but this does not affect the question.

The deliverance was complete: they passed the Red Sea on dry land, and they saw their enemies dead upon the sea shore. God had brought them out: His pillar of fire had protected them. God had made them willing to come; for some at least had said, "Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians." Ex. 14:12. That might have satisfied their poor craven hearts, but it would not satisfy God, nor be according to His promise to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. They must be delivered and they were; and then they could sing praises to God who had 'redeemed' them and had guided them in His strength unto His holy habitation. Ex. 15:13. The manner of their deliverance thus became a type of the Christian being delivered from the thraldom of him who had the power of death, by the death and resurrection of the Lord Jesus.

Exodus, Book of.

This book occupies the period from the death of Joseph to the setting up of the Tabernacle. Under the headings of ISRAEL IN EGYPT, the PLAGUES OF EGYPT, and the EXODUS these subjects are considered, which embrace the first fifteen chapters.

Ex. 16. After the song at the Red Sea the Israelites were led into the wilderness of Shur, and their faith was put to the test by the bitter waters of Marah; but they were afterwards refreshed by the living waters and shelter at Elim: both are types of wilderness experience. Marah answers in the first place to the experience of 1 Peter 4:1; then, the cross being accepted, Rom. 5:3-8 becomes the happy experience of the soul. This is followed by Elim — the ministry of grace. God gave them bread from heaven, typical of the heavenly grace in Christ, the bread of life, to sustain the believer in life to God, during the wilderness. The manna was to be gathered daily. He sent them also quails to eat.

Ex. 17. Moses smote the rock and there came water out of the rock — type of the Holy Spirit — and this was followed by conflict: they fought with Amalek (type of Satan seeking to act upon the weak flesh of the believer: comp. Deut. 25:18. Power is not in the flesh, but in the Spirit): with Amalek there was to be continued conflict, because they touched the rights of God in His people.

Ex. 18. Jethro brought to Moses his wife and his two sons: sacrifices were offered by Jethro, a Gentile, who ate with Israel. Judges were appointed that there might be order and righteous judgement among the people: type of the millennium.

Ex. 19 — Ex. 24. Here there was a change: up to this all had been grace, but now the people were put under law, and not knowing themselves they said, "All that the Lord hath spoken we will do." The ten commandments and various laws followed until Ex. 24 when the covenant was ratified by blood and inaugurated. On it being read the people again said, "All that the Lord hath said will we do, and be obedient." The people were sprinkled with blood, then Moses, Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders ascended the mount; "they saw God, and did eat and drink." They thus entered into relationship with God. The glory of Jehovah was like devouring fire.

Ex. 25 — Ex. 31. During these chapters Moses was in the mount: he remained there forty days, and received from God the pattern of the tabernacle, and all its accompaniments. See TABERNACLE.

Ex. 32. While Moses was in the mount the people, under the plea of not knowing what had become of Moses, requested Aaron to make them 'gods to go before' them, and the golden calf was made. God threatened to destroy the people, but Moses pleaded for them, and asked God to remember Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. When Moses saw the calf he broke the two tables of the law: the people had already broken the law. The calf was destroyed and the idolaters slain.

Ex. 33. God said He would send an angel, and not go Himself with Israel, for they were a stiff-necked people. Moses took the tabernacle and pitched it outside the camp, and those that sought the Lord went there to it: cf. Heb. 13:12-13. (This 'tent of meeting' was probably a provisional one, for the tabernacle had not been made.) Moses continued to plead for Israel, and became their mediator. All being ruined, God would now act in His sovereignty, and show mercy to whom He would — a sovereignty which extends mercy to Gentiles as well as Jews: cf. Rom. 9:14-15. God promised to be gracious, so that now mercy was added to law.

Ex. 34. The two tables were renewed, but were to be placed in an ark (comp. Deut. 10:1-3), and God proclaimed Himself as 'Jehovah, Jehovah God' — His name with Israel, but adding the characteristics of mercy and holy government. Moses was again in the mount for forty days, and when he came down his face shone. The sabbath was again rehearsed before them, as the token of this fresh covenant of mercy and holy government; but mercy will in the end rejoice over judgement. Ps. 135:13-14 and Ps. 136.

Ex. 35 — Ex. 40. The freewill offerings of the people were accepted for the tabernacle, and God gave skill to some for the work. The tabernacle was made and reared: the priests were sanctified and clothed, and all was finished. "Then the cloud covered the tent of the congregation, and the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle." Moses was unable to enter the tent of the congregation because of the cloud. The cloud became their signal for movement: when that moved, they journeyed; and when that rested they abode in their tents. Thus the Israelites had God with them as Jehovah. How blessed would they have been, had they been able to keep the covenant under which God had put them, and which on their part they had promised to do, not, alas, knowing what their fallen nature really was: it was a trial of man under law.

In short, the Book of Exodus shows the redemption of the Israelites from slavery; their being brought into relationship with God, with a priesthood to maintain that relationship; and God leading and dwelling among them.


The incident recorded in Acts 19:13-16, raises the question as to what was an 'exorcist'? The disciples of the Lord who were able to cast out demons were never so called. Were these vagabond or wandering Jews able to cast out demons irrespective of the name of the Lord Jesus? or did they only pretend to do so? Matt. 12:27 is often quoted to show that the Lord admitted that such persons were able to cast out demons. Is it not more probable that the Lord was in that passage alluding to His disciples? The Lord was a mysterious person whom they could not comprehend; and He was charged with casting out demons by the prince of demons; but the Lord said, By whom do your children (the origin of whom you do know) cast them out? On the other hand, the Lord describes some of the lost as pleading that they had cast out demons in His name, Matt. 7:22; but these also speak of having prophesied in His name; so that they would be persons who had made a profession, as Judas who was sent out with the other apostles.

On one occasion the disciples met with a man who was casting out demons in the name of the Lord, whom they forbade because he followed not with them; but the Lord said that no one who did a miracle in His name could lightly speak evil of Him. Mark 9:38; Luke 9:49. On the whole it seems plain from scripture that the casting out demons could only be by the power of God. As explained by the Lord, Satan would not destroy his own kingdom. What power the exorcists really had we know not, but in the case under consideration God did not allow them to use the name of the Lord Jesus, and the demon overpowered and wounded them.


δοκιμή. Simply 'proof.' 2 Cor. 9:13.




Used symbolically for the omnipresence of God. "The eyes of the Lord are in every place," Prov. 15:3; "the eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous." Ps. 34:15; 1 Peter 3:12: cf. 2 Chr. 16:9; Zech. 4:10. His eyes are also upon the wicked, and His eyes will not spare, neither will He have compassion in the day of judgement. Ezek. 5:11. The eye is also used symbolically for the organ that transmits the light to the soul. If the eye is single — there being but one object (the glory of God) before the soul — the whole body is full of light; but if the eye be evil, having divers objects (as when an eye sees double), the whole body is full of darkness. And if the light (true light it may be) be darkness, how great is that darkness! A Christian in this condition may do the very things he had strongly condemned in others. Matt. 6:22-23; Luke 11:34-36.

Eyes, Painting the.




Ezbai. [Ez'bai]

Father of Naarai, one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:37.

Ezbon. [Ez'bon]

1. Son of Gad and head of a Gadite family. Gen. 46:16. Called OZNI in Num. 26:16.

2. Son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 7:7.

Ezekias. [Ezeki'as]

The Greek form of Hezekiah, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Matt. 1:9-10.

Ezekiel. [Eze'kiel]

Son of Buzi; a priest and one of the four great prophets. He was carried into captivity with Jehoiachin, about B.C. 600, eleven years before the destruction of Jerusalem, and laboured among the captives about two years. He faithfully fulfilled his duties, sternly rebuking at times, and yet holding out gracious encouragements. His prophecy is full of symbo and imagery: he not only stated some of his parables, but acted them, that they might be seen as well as heard. His style is vigorous and rapid. Ezekiel's personal history is further referred to under his prophecy.

Ezekiel, [Eze'kiel] Book of.

This prophecy comprehends all Israel. In it are given the governmental ways of God upon earth, of which Israel was the centre. Deut. 32:8. Hence it does not mention the times of the Gentiles or the four monarchies, but passes on to the end, when the throne of government will again return to Jerusalem, instead of judging it. The book divides itself into distinct portions: the first extends to the end of Ezek. 24. After the first chapter the testimony is against Israel in general and Jerusalem in particular. This part of the prophecy being given before the destruction of Jerusalem, that melancholy event naturally occupies a large place. The second portion is respecting God's judgements on the nations that surrounded the promised land, and which had been more or less connected with Israel: Ezek. 25 to end of Ezek. 32. The third portion is the judgement on Israel, and upon Gog and its allies in the future; and then the blessing of all Israel. Ezek. 33: to end of Ezek 39. The fourth portion is the future temple, its service, and the division of the land, ending with the joyful tidings that the name of the city will then be "The Lord is there." Ezek. 40: to the end.

Ezek. 1.* We have here a wonderful vision of the government and providence of God on earth, but united with the throne in heaven. Compare the four living creatures with those described in Rev. 4:6-8.

* The thirtieth year of Ezek. 1:1 is doubtless the year of the Babylonian kingdom which was founded by Nabo-polassar in B.C. 625: the thirtieth year would be 595, which agrees with the fifth year of Jehoiachin's captivity.

Ezek. 2, Ezek. 3 are preliminary. Ezekiel must speak, whether Israel will hear or not: he must eat (that is, accept in his own soul) the book of prophecy, and be faithful in warning the wicked.

Ezek. 4 — Ezek. 7. The destruction of Jerusalem. It was portrayed on a tile, and the prophet had to lie on his left side 390 days for Israel, and 40 days on his right side for Judah, to bear their iniquities — a day for a year. The 390 days were probably from the division of the kingdom in B.C. 975 till 588, the destruction of Jerusalem — 388 entire years or nominally 390 — 'Israel,' as often, representing the ten tribes. It is not so manifest to what the 40 years for Judah refer: it was for the iniquity of Judah, and may refer to the reign of Manasseh before his captivity and reformation, for that is pointed out as the crowning sin of Judah, and for which they were sent into captivity. 2 Kings 21:11-13.

Ezek. 8 speaks of the idolatry that was in connection with the temple though much of it was in secret and had to be dug out.

Ezek. 9. The remnant who lament over the abominations are marked in their foreheads. It is well pleasing to God that any should mourn over the evil in connection with His name, even though they cannot rectify it.

Ezek. 10, Ezek. 11. The cherubim act against Jerusalem. The rulers are condemned, but there is mercy and restoration for the pious remnant.

Ezek. 12. The flight and captivity of Zedekiah are foretold.

Ezek. 13. The false prophets in Jerusalem are judged. In all ages one must have the mind of God in order to escape the teaching of such.

Ezek. 14, Ezek. 15. God's judgements of Jerusalem and its people.

Ezek. 16. The original state of Jerusalem as a cast-out infant, but loved and cherished by God. Her great sin is related, but there is mercy in the end.

Ezek. 17 — Ezek. 20. Instruction under various parables.

Ezek. 21 — Ezek. 24. The invasion and destruction of Jerusalem; during the relation of which the wife of Ezekiel, the desire of his eyes, died. He was not to mourn for the loss, and when the captives inquired of him what they were to learn from this, they were told that when God's judgements fell upon the temple and upon their sons and daughters, they were not to mourn; but to pine away for their iniquities and in groaning one to another.

Ezek. 25 — Ezek. 32 are the prophecies against the Gentile nations which surrounded Palestine, and which had at one time or another intercourse with Israel. The prophecies are against Ammon, Moab, Edom, and Philistia. Against Tyre literally and as a type of its arts, in contrast to Israel as the people of God — a prophecy that stretches beyond history. In it is the remarkable description of an 'anointed cherub,' giving the features of one who was at one time in a very exalted position; but who fell from his integrity and became the enemy of God; which is doubtless a description of Satan. Ezek. 28:11-19. Ezek. 28:20-26 are against Zidon. Ezek. 29 to end of Ezek. 32 are against Egypt, which is typical of the pride of nature, or the world of nature.

Ezek. 33-36 are prophecies against Israel, to be followed by future restoration and blessing, and judgement on those who will oppress them. In Ezek. 33 - 35. God reasons with His people. In Ezek. 36 there is blessing for them.

Ezek. 37 is restoration, under the vision of the valley of dry bones and the two sticks. It has been thought by many, because of the graves being opened, and the people being brought out of their graves, that this passage refers to the resurrection of the body; but the people are saying, before the graves are opened, "Our bones are dried and our hope is lost," the exact feeling of many to this day. The resurrection is used as a figure of life being given to Israel, and also to Judah. The two nations are to be one, an exceeding great army, and they will be gathered into their own land. It need hardly be said that this cannot apply to those of Judah who returned under Zerubbabel, Ezra, and Nehemiah. It is still future, and will surely be accomplished.

Ezek. 38, Ezek. 39. The restoration of Israel will be opposed. Gog and Magog will be the chief opponents. In Ezek. 38:2, instead of "O Gog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal," the LXX reads, "O Gog, . . . . Rosh, prince of Mesoch and Thobal," and so again in Ezek. 39:1. This is held to be the true meaning and that Rosh refers to Russia, and that it will be the head of that nation that will be the chief enemy of Israel when they are brought back to their own land. The enemies will be destroyed, and Israel will be blessed.

Ezek. 40 — Ezek. 48 refer to the future temple and the sacrifices, with the division of the land among the twelve tribes. As this prophecy was delivered many years before Zerubbabel and the exiles returned, it has been thought by some that the temple here spoken of refers to the temple which they built, though they might not have attempted to build according to the plan here laid down. But in Ezekiel the instructions for the temple follow the restoration of the twelve tribes, and the destruction of their opposing enemies. There was nothing approaching that in the return under Zerubbabel. Here too it is linked with dividing the whole land among the twelve tribes: it must therefore certainly be still future.

A difficulty has arisen in the minds of some with regard to the resumption of animal sacrifices. Whilst the efficacy of the blood of Christ must over remain unimpaired before God, there are certainly differences in its application. Christians have boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus: Jews, as such, have no such privilege. The most holy place will be again found in the temple, a comparative distance from God being maintained for man on earth, and the renewed sacrifices are consistent with this state of things. They must however have a commemorative character.

Besides the temple, for which full details are given; and besides the sacrifices and feasts (remarkable for the absence of the Day of Atonement and the Feast of Weeks), there is A PRINCE mentioned, and a portion of land allotted to him, together with the sacrifices he will offer. If these things are taken literally, all is plain and easy to be understood. Doubtless the prince will be a representative of the royal house of David. That there is deep moral import in the details is evident from Ezek. 43:10-11, though there may be many physical changes in the land. A river is to flow from the sanctuary, and will have trees growing on its banks and will transform the Dead Sea into one full of life, with all manner of fish: cf. Joel 3:18; Zech. 14:8. The whole of the land will be possessed and be divided into twelve portions (besides a holy portion for the sanctuary, the priests, the Levites, and the city, the temple not being built in the future Jerusalem: see TEMPLE, EZEKIEL'S). The position of each tribe is duly stated. The condition of the city will be entirely changed from the ruin and wretchedness that characterised it for 2000 years under the judgement of God and even from the recent material prosperity; the name of it from that day shall be "The Lord is there."

The Land

The Book of Ezekiel is thus full of interest to the Christian as showing the great care God had for His people during their captivity, and the bright scene of future earthly blessing that is spread out before them. Some of the prophecies were literally fulfilled in times past: surely then the rest of the events foretold, which have not yet been fulfilled, are as certain as those which have. It is God who has spoken, and He it is who will bring it all to pass.

Ezel. [E'zel]

Some stone, or cairn, near Saul's residence, the scene of the interview of David and Jonathan. 1 Sam. 20:19.

Ezem. [E'zem]

City of the tribe of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:29. It is supposed to be the same as AZEM in Joshua 15:29; Joshua 19:3.

Ezer. [E'zer]

1. Son of Seir the Horite. Gen. 36:21, 27, 30; 1 Chr. 1. 38 (EZAR), 42.

2. Father of Hushah, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:4.

3. Son of Zabad, a descendant of Ephraim. 1 Chr. 7:21.

4. A valiant Gadite who resorted to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:9.

5. Levite who assisted in repairing the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:19.

6. Priest who assisted at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:42.

Eziongaber or Eziongeber. [E'zion-ga'ber or -ge'ber]

One of the encampments of the children of Israel, near the head of the gulf of Akaba. It was where Solomon had a navy of ships and where the ships of Jehoshaphat were broken. Num. 33:35-36; Deut. 2:8; 1 Kings 9:26; 1 Kings 22:48; 2 Chr. 8:17; 2 Chr. 20:36. Probably the same as Ain el Ghudyan, now ten miles up the dry bed of the Arabah, the sea having receded.

Eznite. [Ez'nite]

Designation of Adino, the Tachmonite, chief of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:8: compare 1 Chr. 11:11.

Ezra. [Ez'ra]

1. Son of Seraiah, and descendant of Aaron, priest and scribe. He "had prepared his heart to seek the law of the Lord, and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgements." He was among the captives in Babylon, and by his own request was permitted to return to Palestine. Rich presents of gold and silver were given to him for the service of the house of the Lord. He showed his faith in God in not asking for an escort for himself and his companions: he had declared that the hand of God would protect them. His piety was manifested also in his distress at hearing that the priests and princes had married heathen wives, and he called to God for relief. After this we do not again read of him until about twelve years later, when he stood upon a pulpit of wood and read to the people the book of the law, and the Levites sought to explain it. This at first caused weeping; but they were encouraged, and afterwards rejoiced, and kept the Feast of Tabernacles with such joy as had not been known since the days of Joshua the son of Nun. Nothing more is recorded of Ezra in scripture. Josephus says he died at an advanced age at Jerusalem: but an early writer said there was a tomb near the junction of the Tigris and the Euphrates which was reported to be the tomb of Ezra. Ezra 7-10; Neh. 8:1-18; Neh. 12:26, 36.

2. A priest who went up with Zerubbabel. Neh. 12:1. (An Ezra is also mentioned in Neh. 12:13, 33.)

3. Descendant of Judah through Caleb. 1 Chr. 4:17.

Ezra, [Ez'ra] Book of.

This is an historical book which follows the second book of Chronicles. The last two verses of Chronicles are almost word for word like the opening of Ezra. God had charged Cyrus to build Him a house at Jerusalem. A proclamation was made by the king, and the Spirit of God stirred up the people to go, resulting in nearly 50,000 returning to Jerusalem. The king gave up the sacred vessels, of which there were 5,400. Zerubbabel was leader in the undertaking: his Persian or Chaldean name was Sheshbazzar.

Ezra 3. The altar was erected and sacrifices offered; but the foundation of the temple was not laid till the next year. On that occasion some of the aged men who had seen the magnificence of the former house wept, and others shouted for joy that the temple was being built.

Ezra 4. Some asked to have fellowship in the building: they called themselves 'worshippers,' but God called them 'adversaries.' The refusal of the leaders to accept their help stirred up their hatred and antagonism. Apparently the Jews, losing faith in God, and being harassed by their enemies, neglected the building of the temple before they were stopped by authority. The opposition extended from the days of Cyrus until the reign of Darius, Ezra 4:5. Two kings intervened between Cyrus and Darius. Ahasuerus (Cambyses) succeeded Cyrus. A letter was written to him (Ezra 4:6), but no answer is recorded. Another was sent to Artaxerxes (Pseudo- Smerdis), and both the letter and the reply are recorded. A difficulty is presented in these, that the city only is mentioned, and nothing said of the temple. Apparently this was a ruse of the enemy (though Haggai 1 shows that the Jews were building their houses), for immediately the answer was obtained, the building of the temple was stopped, now by authority: Ezra 4:23-24. Ezra 4:6-23 are a parenthesis.

Ezra 5, Ezra 6. The prophecies of Haggai and Zechariah come in here. The Jews were charged with saying "The time is not come for the house of the Lord to be built," whereas they were building their own houses. Their faith had failed; but it now revived and they re-commenced to build without permission; and when asked who commanded them to build the house of the Lord, they courageously answered, "We are the servants of the God of heaven." Their trust was now in God, and He blessed them. Darius being appealed to, the records were searched and the decree of Cyrus was found. Darius commanded his rulers in Palestine not only to let the work of the house alone, but to aid it by contributing to the expenses out of the king's revenues. He even asked prayer for himself and his sons. Thus through the prophets Haggai and Zechariah, under God, the house was built and dedicated; the Passover and the feast of unleavened bread were kept with joy; for "the Lord had made them joyful."

Ezra 7, Ezra 8. There is a long break, historically, of about sixty years, between Ezra 6 and Ezra 7, to which period the Book of Esther belongs if the general opinion is correct that the Ahasuerus of Esther was the king Xerxes. Ezra 7 records what occurred in the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus, and here Ezra, 'a ready scribe in the law of Moses' appears for the first time, and is God's agent for blessing: he is elsewhere spoken of as priest and scribe. Ezra made a request unto the king, and God so wrought upon his heart that he granted all that was asked, and was himself liberal in giving gold and silver for the service of the temple. The king also wrote a letter, stating what his will was, and that his treasurers in the land should help Ezra. Then follows a list of the chief men who went up from Babylon with Ezra, and the weights of the gold and silver that they carried with them. They had to cross the desert, and having spoken to the king of the power and goodness of God they would not ask of the king an escort. The good hand of God was upon them and all arrived safely.

Ezra 9, Ezra 10. Ezra suffered deeply on finding that many even of the priests and princes had married 'strange' wives. A list of many of those who had thus transgressed is given. They agreed to confess their sin, and to separate themselves from their heathen wives and the children born of them.

The Book of Ezra is occupied with the house of God, whereas Nehemiah is concerning the city of God, Jerusalem. Both books may be considered as one, as they are regarded by the Jews, and stand as the last of the historical books. They foreshadow how God will in the future cause Gentile kings to favour Israel, and give of their wealth to them. For a list of the kings mentioned see PERSIA.

Ezrahite. [Ez'rahite]

Designation of Ethan and Heman. 1 Kings 4:31; Ps. 88 and 89, titles. Apparently another form of ZARHITE.

Ezri. [Ez'ri]

Son of Chelub, and agricultural chief of David. 1 Chr. 27:26.


μῦθος, lit. 'a word, a speech.' The English word is not used in the N.T. in the sense in which it is now often employed, signifying a supposed incident to teach some moral truth; but has the sense rather of myths, false stories (as the Greek word was used by later writers), which in one passage are called "profane and old wives' fables." 1 Tim. 1:4; 1 Tim. 4:7; 2 Tim. 4:4; Titus 1:14; 2 Peter 1:16.

Fair Havens.

Harbour on the south of the island of Crete, near the city of Lasea, about five miles to the east of Cape Matala. Acts 27:8.


πίστις. This is a kindred word to 'believe,' and indeed the two cannot be separated. In the O.T. the word 'faith' occurs but twice. Deut. 32:20; Hab. 2:4. The words are emun, emunah; but aman is often translated 'to believe.' The first time this occurs in the O.T. is when it is said of Abraham that "he believed in the Lord, and he counted it to him for righteousness." Gen. 15:6. This is referred to in Rom. 6 where the faith of the believer is counted for righteousness, and the conclusion is drawn that if any believe on Him that raised up Jesus the Lord from the dead, righteousness will be reckoned to them.

This may be called saving faith. It is confidence in God founded on His word; it is believing in a person, as Abraham believed God. "He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life." John 3:36. There is no virtue or merit in the faith itself; but it links the soul with the infinite God. Faith is indeed the gift of God. Eph. 2:8. Salvation is on the principle of faith in contrast to works under the law. Rom. 10:9. But true faith is manifested by good works. If a man says he has faith, it is reasonable to say to him, "Show me thy faith" by thy works. James 2:14-26. Otherwise, if the faith does not manifest itself, it is described as 'dead,' and is altogether different from real, active belief. A mental assent to what is stated, as a mere matter of history, is not faith. A natural man can believe such things: "the devils also believe and tremble," but true faith gives joy and peace.

There is also the power and action of faith in the Christian's walk: "we walk by faith; not by sight." 2 Cor. 5:7. We see such faith exemplified in the lives of the Old Testament saints, as given in Heb. 11. The Lord had often to rebuke His disciples for their want of faith in their daily walk. The believer should have faith in the living God concerning all the details of his daily life.

THE FAITH is at times referred to in the sense of 'the truth;' that which has been recorded, and which the Christian has believed, to the saving of his soul. For this the Christian should contend earnestly; for it is fundamental; and many false prophets are gone into the world, and have even crept into association with the saints unawares. Jude 3.


aman, πιστός. This word in both the O.T. and the N.T. is from the same root as 'faith.' It is being true to oneself, to one's nature, to any promise given, and to any trust committed. It is in various connections often applied to God Himself. Deut. 7:9; Isa. 49:7; 1 Cor. 1:9 1 Cor. 10:13; 1 Thess. 5:24; 2 Tim. 2:13; Heb. 10:23; 1 Peter 4:19; 1 John 1:9. The Lord Jesus also is faithful. He is 'a faithful high priest' and 'a faithful and true witness.' 2 Thess. 3:3; Heb. 2:17; Rev. 1:5; Rev. 3:14; Rev. 19:11. The commandments and testimonies of God are called faithful. Ps. 119:86, 138. The words of the gospel are also faithful: the promises attached thereto will unquestionably be fulfilled. 1 Tim. 1:15; 1 Tim. 4:9; 2 Tim. 2:11; Titus 3:8; Rev. 21:5. Christians are exhorted to be faithful as stewards to any trust committed to them, and faithful as witnesses to an absent Lord. "Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life." Rev. 2:10.

Fallow Deer,

 yachmur. What species of deer is referred to under this name is not known. The only description of it in scripture is that it was a clean animal that the Israelites might eat, and that it was supplied to the table of Solomon. Deut. 14:5; 1 Kings 4:23. The Hebrew name seems to imply that it was some deer of a 'red' colour.

Familiar Spirits, Consulters of.



One of God's 'four sore judgements' which He in past times brought upon the earth, and which He has foretold will again be sent as a punishment. The most severe famines recorded in scripture are the two of seven years' duration, one in the time of Joseph, and the other in the days of Elisha. Gen. 41:27-57; 2 Kings 8:1-2: cf. Ezek. 14:21; Matt. 24:7; Luke 21:11; Rev. 18:8. In speaking of the tribulations that will come upon Israel before the remnant of them are brought into blessing, Amos prophesies that there will be a famine of the 'words of Jehovah.' When judgements are falling on them, they will seek for some word from God for guidance and comfort; but will not find it: God will for a time leave them in darkness and perplexity. Amos 8:11-12.

Fan, Fanner.

The fan was a small shovel, by which a portion of wheat was thrown up into the air, that the wind might carry away the chaff. Isa. 30:24; Jer. 4:11. It is also used symbolically for the judgements of God, Isa. 41:16; Jer. 15:7; Jer. 51:2; and for the discriminating power of the testimony of the Lord Jesus. Matt. 3:12; Luke 3:17.



Fast, Fasting.

The first fasting we read of is when Moses went up into the mount to receive the tables of the covenant, and was there apart from nature with the Lord for forty days and nights. Deut. 10:10. The first national fasting was when Israel was smitten before Benjamin: they "came unto the house of God, and wept, and sat there before the Lord, and fasted that day until even, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before the Lord." Judges 20:26. Here, as in other places, it is connected with humbling; but in the case of Elijah, as with Moses, it signifies being apart from the ordinary life of flesh, to be with the Lord. 1 Kings 19:8. Jehoshaphat, when the children of Moab and of Ammon came against him, proclaimed a fast throughout all Judah, and asked help of the Lord. 2 Chr. 20:3. When Nineveh was threatened with destruction the king humbled himself, proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloth: every one was to cry mightily to God, and put away his evil. Jonah 3:5. The only fast enjoined by the law was the one connected with the Day of Atonement. The word 'fasting' does not occur there, but it is held to be included in the injunction 'afflict your souls.' This seems to be confirmed by 'the fast' mentioned in Acts 27:9, for the tenth of Tisri would answer to the time of the equinoctial gales, when it was dangerous to sail in the Mediterranean.

Later on we read of four fasts being kept, Zech. 7:5; Zech. 8:19, though we have no record of their having been instituted by God.

1. In the fourth month, corresponding to the 'breaking up' of Jerusalem, when there was no bread for the people. Jer 52:6.

2. In the fifth month, in memory of the destruction of the Temple. 2 Kings 25:8-9.

3. In the seventh month, in memory of the murder of Gedaliah. Jer. 41:1-2.

4. In the tenth month, in memory of the beginning of the siege of Jerusalem. Jer. 52:4. The prophet could say that these fasts should be turned into joy and gladness.

In the N.T. we find in John the Baptist the spirit of fasting, a Nazarite spirit of separation. Matt. 3:4. He also taught his disciples to fast. The Lord said of His disciples that when He was taken away, then they would fast; and while He was here He spoke of a certain power over unclean spirits that could only be exercised with prayer and fasting. Matt. 17:21. He Himself when led up of the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil, fasted forty days and forty nights. It is a contrast to Moses and Elijah, they were apart from man's natural condition to be with God; and He who as man was ever with God was so apart to be in conflict with the devil.

Paul and Barnabas were sent on their first missionary journey after prayer and fasting. Acts 13:2-3. It is to be feared that because many have made fasting compulsory, and attached a superstitious merit to it, other Christians have altogether neglected the uniting of fasting with prayer. An habitual self-denial is doubtless the spirit of fasting rather than mere occasional abstinence from food.


This portion of the sacrifices was to be burned on the altar. "All the fat is the Lord's. It shall be a perpetual statute for your generations throughout all your dwellings, that ye eat neither fat nor blood." Lev. 3:16-17. Apparently, as to the fat, this refers to that "of ox, or of sheep, or of goat," the animals of sacrifice, and to the fat of any animal that died of itself, or was torn of beasts. Lev. 7:23-24. In Neh. 8:10 it was proclaimed, "eat the fat," without any restriction; but here the Hebrew word is different, and refers more to 'dainties.' In Isa. 25:6 is another Hebrew word, and is 'fat or rich things.' The 'fat' signifies the best part, the inward energy and will: cf. Num. 18:29 margin; Ps. 73:4 margin. It is typical of the inward energy of the Lord Jesus in the offering of Himself to God.


Except as creator and preserver of all, God is not revealed as Father in the O.T. "Have we not all one father? hath not one God created us?" Mal. 2:10. The Lord Jesus is also prophesied of as 'the everlasting Father' or 'Father of the everlasting age.' Isa. 9:6. It was reserved for the N.T. times that God should be made known as Father; and this was done only by the Lord Jesus while upon earth, who constantly spoke to His disciples of God as their Father in heaven. Matt. 5:16, 45, 48; Matt. 6:1, 8, 14, 15, etc. He could, as the Son, while on earth thus make Him known to them. After the resurrection the Lord was able to send this message to His disciples, whom He now calls His 'brethren:' "I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God." John 20:17. The will of the Father and the work of His Son, the source of eternal life to them, had brought the disciples in this respect into the same heavenly position as the risen Christ Himself before the Father. The term 'father' is used symbolically when there is a moral likeness between a leader and his followers. John 8:38-44.

In the O.T. the word ab is at times used as 'founder:' thus in 1 Chr. 4:4 one is mentioned as the 'father' of Bethlehem.


A term constantly applied both in the O.T. and in the N.T. to the patriarchs and chief men of Israel. 2 Kings 15:9; Dan. 11:37; Rom. 9:5; Heb. 1:1; etc.






The feasts of Jehovah, as instituted under the law as given by Moses, partake more of the character of commemorations, or assemblies of the congregation to celebrate special dealings of the Lord, and consequently special seasons in the history of His people, being called 'holy convocations.' A list of the yearly feasts is given in Lev. 23. The first mentioned is the Sabbath, and if this is counted as one, by considering the Passover and the feast of unleavened bread as one there are seven in all — the perfect number. If the Sabbath is not included, as that was a weekly festival, being the rest of God, and on which the others were founded, then the Passover and the feast of unleavened bread may be counted as two, and still there are seven. There can be no doubt that these seven feasts were typical of the ways of blessing from the cross to the millennium. They stand thus:

Abib 14th.
Abib 15th.
Tisri 1st.
Tisri 10th.
Tisri 15th.
The Sabbath. vv. 1-3.
Passover Feast. vv. 5-8.
Feast of Unleavened Bread.
First Fruits (barley), 'day after the Sabbath.' vv. 9-14.
[Seven Sabbaths intervene.]
Pentecost: Feast of Weeks: First Fruits (wheat). vv. 15-22.
Feast of Trumpets. vv. 23-25.
Day of Atonement. vv. 26-32.
Feast of Tabernacles: ingathering of the vintage. vv. 33-44.

Christ our Passover is slain: "let us keep the feast," that is, of unleavened bread.
The Resurrection.
Descent of the Holy Spirit and the Church formed.
[The present interval.]
Israel awakened: they afflict their souls, receive their Messiah, and are brought into blessing in the millennium.

These seven are called 'the set feasts.' Num. 29:39; 1 Chr. 23:31; 2 Chr. 31:3; Neh. 10:33. Also 'holy convocations,' when the people assembled together to offer the various offerings, and thus be reminded of their association with the living God, to whom they owed all their blessings. To ensure this at least thrice in the year, it was enjoined that all the males should appear before the Lord three times in the year, and they must not appear empty. These times were at the Feast of Unleavened Bread (no doubt including the Passover); the Feast of Weeks, or of Harvest; and the Feast of Tabernacles, or 'of Ingathering.' Ex. 23:14-17; Deut. 16:16. See PASSOVER, etc.

There are two other Feasts mentioned as yearly which were not apparently ordered of God. The 25th of Chisleu, the Feast of Dedication, instituted by Judas Maccabeus when the temple was re-dedicated after being defiled by Antiochus Epiphanes, B.C. 165. John 10:22. The other, the Feast of Purim, on the 14th and 15th of Adar, when the Jews were delivered from the threatened destruction plotted by Haman. Esther 9:21, 26.

Feasts of Charity.

According to the early Christian writers these feasts were simple meals, taken on the same occasion as the Lord's supper, and were instituted for the sake of the poor. Chrysostom speaks of such feasts as derived from apostolic practice. "When all the faithful met together, and had heard the sermon and prayers, and received the communion, they did not immediately return home upon the conclusion of the service; but the rich and wealthy brought meat and food from their own houses, and called the poor and made a common table, a common dinner, a common banquet in the church." By others it is judged that the meal was taken before the Lord's supper, prior to the rule of taking the supper fasting. It is generally supposed that the disorder spoken of in 1 Cor. 11 refers to some such meal being taken in connection with the Lord's supper. Whether such feasts were held at other times, apart from the Lord's supper, is not known; it is difficult to conceive the persons described in Jude 10-12 being allowed to come to the Lord's supper; or those mentioned in 2 Peter 2:13, if that also refers to the love-feasts.

Felix. [Fe'lix]

One of the freedmen of the Emperor Claudius, and by him appointed to be procurator or governor of Judaea, A.D. 51. Paul, when sent a prisoner to Caesarea, appeared before Felix; and again before him and his wife Drusilla; and as Paul reasoned of righteousness, temperance and judgement to come, Felix trembled, and said when he had a convenient season he would send for him. He showed his mercenary and unrighteous character in keeping Paul a prisoner two years in the hope of being bribed; and then leaving him a prisoner to please the Jews. Acts 23:24, 26; Acts 24:3-27; Acts 25:14.

Tacitus says Felix ruled the province in a mean, cruel, and profligate manner. The country was full of sedition, among which Josephus speaks of 'false messiahs' being put down. Eventually he was accused before Nero by the Jews, and only escaped punishment by the intercession of his brother Pallas. He was superseded by Porcius Festus, A.D. 60.


κοινωνία. This in scripture is association, and having things in common. The Lord's table is where the fellowship of Christians is expressed — all there being associated in the fellowship of Christ's death. Being thus associated, proper Christian fellowship is in the light of God fully revealed — the Father and the Son. The apostles specially made known the truth of this fellowship as specially given to know it. 1 John 1:3. Being brought into such association, it follows that as regards the gospel for the world, the welfare of the saints, and the maintenance of the truth, the believer has the same aims and objects before his soul as the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ have. Out of this flows the fellowship of the saints one with another. Acts 2:42; 2 Cor. 8:4: Gal. 2:9; 1 John 1:3-7. It is also called the fellowship of the Spirit. 2 Cor. 13:14; Phil. 2:1. The converse of this is also true: Christians cannot consistently have any fellowship with that which is evil or which brings dishonour upon the Lord Jesus. Ps. 94:20; 1 Cor. 10:20; 2 Cor. 6:14; Eph. 5:11.

In some passages the A.V. has the word 'COMMUNION' for the same Greek word , with the same meaning. Thus in 1 Cor. 10:16, "The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?" There is an allusion to the peace offering in 1 Cor. 10:18 to show that those who ate the sacrifice were partakers of, had communion with, the altar; hence to eat things offered to idols would be to have fellowship with demons.


anaqah. One of the creeping things forbidden to be eaten. It is not at all certain what animal is referred to, but it is judged not to have been what is now known as the ferret. The Jews' Bible (by Leeser) has 'hedgehog;' others think the 'shrew-mouse;' and others the 'gecko,' a wall-lizard. Lev. 11:30. The R.V. has 'gecko,' and in the margin to this and the three following names has "probably denoting four kinds of lizards."


This was most probably a raft constructed for the occasion. 2 Sam. 19:18.

Festus, Porcius. [Fes'tus, Por'cius]

Procurator of Judaea, appointed by Nero to succeed Felix, A.D. 60. The Jews at once informed Festus against Paul, but he did not consent to their request that Paul should be fetched to Jerusalem; he said he should be tried at Caesarea. When Festus had come thither and the Jews from Jerusalem also, he, wishing to please the Jews, asked Paul if he would go to Jerusalem and be judged there. Paul, knowing the plots of the Jews to kill him, appealed to Caesar. Festus gave Paul a hearing before Agrippa, during which Festus called out, "Paul, thou art beside thyself: much learning doth make thee mad." Paul said no, he spoke the words of truth and soberness. Acts 15, Acts 16.

Festus had a dispute with the Jews: they had built up a high wall, that the courts of the temple should not be seen from the palace. The emperor was appealed to, who decided in favour of the Jews. Josephus implies that Festus was a just ruler.


Shackles for the feet. It is said of Joseph that his feet were hurt with fetters. Ps. 105:18. They are spoken of as being made of brass and of iron. Judges 16:21; 2 Sam. 3:34; 2 Kings 25:7; Job 36:8; Ps. 149:8; Mark 5:4; Luke 8:29.


The words in the originals imply 'a burning heat,' so that there is no doubt that what is commonly known as 'fever' is intended. Deut. 28:22; Matt. 8:14-15; Luke 4:38-39; John 4:52; Acts 28:8. The same Hebrew word is translated BURNING AGUE in Lev. 26:16.

Fig, Fig-tree.

There are several kinds of fig-trees, but the well-known tree called the Ficus Carica is common in Palestine and very productive. It also agrees with the description of "sitting under the fig-tree" for repose, its branches and leaves giving protection from the heat of the sun. It was one of the trees in the garden of Eden, of the leaves of which Adam and Eve made aprons. Gen. 3:7; 1 Kings 4:25; John 1:48. The figs were made into cakes by being pressed together. 1 Sam. 25:18; 1 Sam. 30:12. The trees bear figs at different times, hence the expressions 'first-ripe figs,' and also 'untimely figs.' Nahum 3:12; Rev. 6:13. The fruit is produced before the leaves; so that leaves being found, there should have been fruit on the fig-tree cursed by the Lord, although the ordinary fig-season had not arrived. Matt. 21:19 20; Mark 11:13, 20, 21. This was typical of Israel which had been compared to a fig-tree, bringing forth its first-ripe figs, Hosea 9:10; but in the days of the Lord, Israel had plenty of leaves, professing to be God's favoured people, but producing no real fruit to Him. Luke 13:6-7. As a nation in the flesh no fruit will ever be found on it.




Ornamental bands or borders of gold and silver round the pillars of the Tabernacle and Temple. Ex. 27:10-11; Ex. 36:38; Ex. 38:10, 19; Jer. 52:21.



Fir, Fir-tree,

berosh. This is supposed to be one of the conifers, but the species alluded to is not known. It came from Lebanon, and was used in the construction of houses, and for musical instruments. 2 Sam. 6:5; 1 Kings 5:8, 10; 1 Kings 6:15, 34; 2 Chr. 2:8; 2 Chr. 3:5. It will be produced instead of the thorn in the millennium, and Israel, when she returns in blessing, will say, "I am like a green fir-tree." Isa. 55:13; Hosea 14:8.


God was early revealed in fire. The searching character of His righteous judgement was thus set forth, whether in the acceptance of good or the condemnation of evil. When Moses at Horeb approached the burning bush he was cautioned not to draw near, but to remove his shoes, for the ground was holy. God spake to him out of the burning bush. Ex. 3:1-6. On Mount Sinai "the sight of the glory of the Lord was like devouring fire." Ex. 24:17. Moses declared to Israel, "The Lord thy God is a consuming fire." Deut. 4:24. When Aaron began his ministrations in the tabernacle fire came out "from before the Lord, and consumed upon the altar the burnt offering and the fat." Lev. 9:24: cf. 1 Kings 18:38; 1 Chr. 21:26; 2 Chr. 7:1-3. Nadab and Abihu offered 'strange fire,' and fire went out from the Lord and consumed them. Lev. 10:1-2. Thus God manifested Himself in fire to Moses. He showed His acceptance of the sacrifices by fire from heaven; He vindicated His servant Elijah, when he stood alone against the prophets of Baal, by consuming the sacrifice, the wood and the stone, by fire from heaven (1 Kings 18:38); and He vindicated His own honour by fire, by destroying those who were disobedient in approaching to Him. The general idea in 'fire' is that of judgement.

In the N.T. it is repeated, "Our God is a consuming fire" (Heb. 12:29), to consume the dross in the Christian, as gold is tried and purified in the fire; and to judge and punish the wicked with unquenchable fire; who are also described as being BAPTISED WITH FIRE. Matt. 3:11-12. One of the most awful things connected with this word is the description of the place of eternal punishment as THE LAKE OF FIRE. Rev. 19:20; Rev.20:10, 14, 15. What mercy to be delivered therefrom!




The Hebrew word is raqia, signifying 'expanse.' It is used for the celestial sphere that may be seen by looking upward, and also simply for the atmosphere in which the birds fly. We read that God called the firmament 'heaven:' this is 'heaven' in a broad sense as we read elsewhere of 'the stars of heaven,' but also of 'the birds of heaven.' Gen. 1:6-20. The Psalmist speaks of them as distinct: "The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament showeth his handywork." Ps. 19:1; Ps. 150:1. The living creatures in Ezek. 1 move amidst the firmament: "and the likeness of the firmament upon the heads of the living creature was as the colour of the terrible crystal, stretched forth over their heads above" (Ezek. 1:22), showing them to be executors of God's judicial government: cf. Ezek. 10:1.

First-begotten, First-born,

bekor, πρωτότοκος.

1. Moses was to say to Pharaoh, "Thus saith the Lord, Israel is my son, even my first-born." Ex. 4:22. God called him out of Egypt, which is applied also to the Lord Jesus. Hosea 11:1; Matt. 2:15.

2. Because Pharaoh refused to let God's first-born go, all the first-born of Egypt were slain. Ex. 12:29.

3. God claimed for Himself all the first-born of the children of Israel, and of their cattle. The first-born of Israel were redeemed by the sons of Levi, as far as they went, and the remainder were redeemed with money. Num. 3:12-51.

4. To the first-born son in a family pertained the birthright. Esau was called a profane person for selling his birthright: it was despising the gift of God. The first-born son was to inherit a double portion of his father's property. Deut. 21:15-17.

5. In the N.T. the term is applied to the Lord: He was Mary's first-born. Matt. 1:25. He is also called, in pre-eminence, 'the first-born of every creature,' Col. 1:15; 'the first-born among many brethren,' Rom. 8:29; and 'the first-born from the dead.' Col. 1:18; Rev. 1:5. In bringing 'the first-begotten' into the world, God says, "Let all the angels of God worship him." Heb. 1:6.

In the O.T. also the title had the force of pre-eminence, irrespective of the time of birth. David, though the youngest, was made the firstborn: of. Ps. 89:27. Christ also in every relationship must have the first place, as is manifest in the above passages.


1. As God had claimed the first-born of man and beast, so also he claimed the first of the first-fruits, that they might be presented as an acknowledgement that God was the giver of them, and thanks be rendered for His gifts. All the males were to present themselves three times in the year before God, and these occasions were arranged at the times of ingathering of the barley (at the Feast of Unleavened Bread); of wheat (at the Feast of Weeks); and of the vintage (at the Feast of Tabernacles). Ex. 23:16, 19; Ex. 34:22, 26; Deut. 18:4; Deut. 26:10; Ezek. 48:14.

2. Christians are said to have the first-fruits of the Spirit: they have the earnest or pledge of still future and larger blessing. Rom. 8:23; 2 Cor. 5:5; Eph. 1:14.

3. Those first gathered to God in any economy are called the first-fruits. Rom. 11:16; Rom. 16:5; 1 Cor. 16:15; James 1:18; Rev. 14:4.

4. Christ, being raised from among the dead, is the first-fruits of them that sleep. 1 Cor. 15:20, 23. 'First-fruits' necessarily imply that there are more like them to follow.

Fish, Fishers, Fishing.

On the fifth day of the creation God said, "Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life . . . . and God created great whales," or sea monsters. To man was given dominion over the fish of the sea. Gen. 1:20-21, 26, 28. Fish has been called God's especial gift to man. Any one may catch it in the sea and appropriate it to his own use. It increases abundantly without any care of man.

Fish was eaten freely in Egypt, Num. 11:5; but under the law the fish without fins and scales were declared to be unclean. Lev. 11:9-12. The fish in the sea of Galilee was very plentiful, and there was much fishing. In the O.T. we read of the 'fish gate' at Jerusalem, which doubtless led to a fish market. Neh. 3:3; Neh. 12:39.

In the river that in a future day will flow from the threshold of the house and run into and heal the Dead Sea, there will be a "very great multitude of fish . . . . their fish shall be according to their kinds, as the fish of the great sea, exceeding many." Ezek. 47:9-10.

The Lord said to Peter and Andrew, "Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men." In accordance with this the kingdom of heaven is compared to a net being cast into the sea, which gathered of every kind: the good fish were put into vessels by the fishermen, but the bad were cast away. So will it be at the end of the age: the wicked will be separated from the just by the angels. Matt. 4:19; Matt. 13:47-50.


1. kussemeth, 'spelt,' a species of grain resembling wheat with shorn ears. Ezek. 4:9. The same word is in Ex. 9:32; Isa. 28:25, translated RYE.

2. qetsach, 'black cummin,' R.V. margin. This is doubtless the nigella sativa. Its small black seeds are aromatic, and are used as a condiment and a medicine. The prophet says they are beaten out with a rod. Isa. 28:25-27.


1. achu, a soft reed that can only grow in moist ground: it is eaten by cattle. Job 8:11.

2. suph, a weed that grows on the banks of the Nile, among which Moses in the ark was laid. Ex. 2:3, 5; Isa. 19:6.


1. ashishah, treated in the A.V. as a measure, but now generally understood to signify a 'cake of raisins,' the raisins being pressed into a cake, in the same way that figs are. In 2 Sam. 6:19; 1 Chr. 16:3, the words 'of wine' have been added. In Cant. 2:5 it is simply 'flagons.' In Hosea 3:1 the words 'of wine' are not added, but should be translated, as in the margin, 'of grapes,' signifying as before 'cakes of raisins.'

2. nebel, a bottle, irrespective of its measure. Isa. 22:24. The word is several times translated 'bottle.'


The parts of an animal's skin that hang down, or hang in folds, or that join close together, as the outside of a crocodile. Job 41:23.


pishtah, λίνον. The common plant from which linen is made. Ex. 9:31; Joshua 2:6; Prov. 31:13; Isa. 42:3; Ezek. 40:3; Hosea 2:5, 9; Matt. 12:20.

Flay, To.

'To strip off, to skin.' Applied to skinning the animals for the sacrifices. Lev. 1:6; 2 Chr. 29:34; 2 Chr. 35:11. Also used metaphorically for the ill-treatment of the Israelites by their rulers. Micah 3:3.


The well-known small insect, to which David compared himself when being hunted by Saul.1 Sam. 24:14; 1 Sam. 26:20.


σάρξ. This term is used in various senses in scripture. The principal are

1. The estate of man: "all flesh shall see the salvation of God," Luke 3:6; "the Word became flesh." John 1:14.

2. The material part of man and of animals: "all flesh is not the same flesh: but there is one kind of flesh of men, another flesh of beasts." 1 Cor. 15:39.

3. The same kindred: "thou art my bone and my flesh," Gen. 29:14; "he is our brother, and our flesh." Gen. 37:27.

4. Union: "they shall be one flesh," Gen. 2:24; Eph. 5:29-31.

5. Man's nature, but corrupted by sin: "that which is born of the flesh is flesh," John 3:6; "sinful flesh," Rom. 8:3.

6. The state which characterises man before knowing deliverance: Rom. 7, Rom. 8:8-9.

7. Though no longer the state of the Christian, yet the flesh is in him, and is antagonistic to the Spirit, "the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye should not do the things that ye would." Gal. 5:17. Thus the Spirit resists in the Christian the accomplishment of the lusts of the flesh.


1. σαρκικός, 'belonging to the flesh:' applied to the fallen condition of man: to his wisdom,

2 Cor. 1:12; and to his lusts. 1 Peter 2:11. The same word is translated CARNAL. In Rom. 7:14 it is 'fleshly,' morally (the state of a new-born soul under bondage, doing the things he hates); in Rom. 15:27 it is 'fleshly' physically; and in some passages it is the fleshly or carnal condition of the Christian as led of the flesh. The word occurs in 1 Cor. 3:1, 3, 4; 1 Cor. 9:11; 2 Cor. 10:4; Heb. 7:16. In most of these passages some MSS read σάρκινος, 'fleshy.'

2. σάρξ, 'flesh:' in Rom. 8:7; Col. 2:18 it is 'mind of the flesh;' and in Heb. 9:10 it is 'ordinances of flesh.' This Greek word is commonly translated 'flesh,' q. v.


σάρκινος. 'Pertaining to the flesh,' as the body of man. In the common Greek Text this occurs only in 2 Cor. 3:3: "fleshy tables of the heart." See FLESHLY.


1. challamish, 'hard rock,' out of which water was brought. Deut. 8:15; Ps. 114:8. Christ, because of His opposers, set His face like a flint, and He knew He should not be ashamed. Isa. 50:7. God made Jacob to suck oil out of the flinty rock. Deut. 32:13.

2. tsor, 'rock.' God made Ezekiel's forehead as an adamant, harder than flint, because of the obduracy of Israel. Ezek. 3:9. The horses' hoofs of God's executors of judgement shall be like flint. Isa. 5:28.


A term used in the O.T. for Israel as sheep gathered by God as their Shepherd, and called Jehovah's flock. Ps. 77:20; Ps. 107:41; Jer. 13:17. It is also applied to those of Israel that were gathered to Christ when on earth. To these He added the Gentile believers; and all were united into one flock (not 'one fold'), with Christ as the one Shepherd. John 10:16. When the leaders of Israel were to be judged as not caring for the Lord's flock, the prophet speaks of the remnant as the poor o f the flock. Zech. 11:7, 11: cf. Luke 6:20. The Lord also spoke to His disciples as a little flock, bidding them not to fear: it was their Father's good pleasure to give them the kingdom. Luke 12:32. In Paul's address to the elders of Ephesus he exhorts them to take heed unto all the flock: the wolves would not spare them. Paul commended the shepherds to God and to the word of His grace. Acts 20:28-29: cf. 1 Peter 5:2-3.

Flock, Tower of the.


Flood, The.

This judgement of God upon the earth, when the whole world had become corrupt before Him, has often been thought to be a subject full of difficulties, the principal of which it may be well to consider. First, as to its extent, was the flood universal? Language can scarcely be more explicit than is the scripture on this point. We read that "all the high hills, that were under the whole heaven, were covered. Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered. And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man: all in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died. And every living substance was destroyed . . . . and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark." Gen. 7:19-23. After the flood God said He would not any more smite 'every thing living,' as He had done, Gen. 8:21; "neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth." Gen. 9:11: cf. also 2 Peter 2:5; 2 Peter 3:6-7. Words cannot be plainer than the above to signify a universal deluge: the world that then was is distinguished from the earth that now is, and it is easy for faith to accept God's statement. It was a miracle, and it would require as great a miracle to cover all the high hills in one district only, without the water flowing to other parts, as to submerge the whole earth. The quantity of water required to cover the whole earth could easily be formed by God the Creator of all things, and be dispersed into its elements afterwards.

It has often been contended that as man only was the guilty creature, the destruction of all mankind would have entirely met the case. It might have been thus if God had so pleased, but He has taken pains to tell us that all cattle, beasts, and creeping things were destroyed; and we must believe Him. Man was the head of creation, and all was involved in the consequences of his sin, and there must be a new start under the figure of the death and resurrection of Noah in the ark. God commenced a new economy as to the earth, in connection with the sweet savour of Noah's sacrifice. The flood was about 1700 years after the creation of Adam, and it is impossible to say how many millions of people there were on the earth at the time, or how far they had been dispersed.

Another difficulty felt is as to the great number of species being all preserved in the ark, such, it is said, as 1500 mammalia, 6000 species of birds, and some hundreds of thousands of reptiles and insects! It is very probable that at that time a great many of these did not exist. God fore-knew that the flood would sweep away the great bulk of them, and He could have restrained the forming of species, and have kept them to a comparatively few genera. Compare the statement that 'every living creature' was brought to Adam to be named. All the original generic types then existing were gathered into the ark, from which the species, under many varying circumstances, may have greatly increased. This would be from natural causes, as has been known to have been the case, without in anyway agreeing with or falling under the modern theory of evolution. The clean animals were doubtless only four in number: the ox, the sheep, the goat, and the pigeon — those offered in sacrifice; the distinction between clean and unclean animals for food was made long after.

Again it has been asked, How could the animals have been fed for a full year? and what could have prevented the wild animals devouring one another? Scripture does not say how the animals were fed. God may have caused many of them to have slept the greater part of the time, as some do now constantly in the winter. In Paradise the green herb was the food for every beast, every fowl, and every creeping thing, as well as for man, Gen. 1:29-30; and they may not have become carnivorous until after the flood, when flesh was given to man to eat. Gen. 9:3. If, on the other hand, because sin had come in, they had been previously living on one another, God could have altered this while in the ark, as He certainly will do in the millennium. Isa. 11:6-9; Isa. 65:25; Ezek. 34:25. Men, and even professing Christians, scoff at this, because of their knowledge of physiology; but even history proves that carnivorous animals will feed upon vegetation when they cannot get animal food, and vice versa.

By faith Noah prepared the ark. Heb. 11:7. Everything concerning the flood was arranged by God; Noah had simply to follow out the instructions given. The same faith believes that it was fully carried out as described; and there is no real difficulty in the matter, except by shutting out God, which must not be, for it was His flood, The old world was then destroyed except those in the ark, and they were perfectly safe, for God shut them in. The promise was afterwards given that God would not again destroy the world with a flood; but it is, alas, reserved to be destroyed by fire. 2 Peter 3:7, 10. This is a prophecy as little believed by many, as was the deluge that was proclaimed by Noah; but which will as certainly come to pass. The details of the deluge are given in full in Gen. 6 - 8. In almost all heathen countries there exist ancient traditions of the flood, though with many variations. The descendants of Noah would carry the record of the solemn judgement wherever they roamed. See ARK.



Flower of Age.

Full manhood and womanhood. 1 Sam. 2:33. 1 Cor. 7:36 should read "if he pass the flower of his age."


Reed or pipe blown with the mouth, but its construction is not definitely known. Dan. 3:5, 7, 10, 15.

Flux, Bloody.

Dysentery, one of the worst diseases in the East, always attended with fever. Acts 28:8.


1. arob, the dog-fly. In Ps. 78:45, and Ps. 105:31, this word is rendered in the A.V. 'divers sorts of flies,' referring to one of the plagues in Egypt, and is translated 'swarms [of flies]' in Ex. 8:21-31: so that more than one kind may have been meant.

2. zebub, supposed to be the gad-fly. They fell into the ointment and spoilt it. Ecc. 10:1. In the judgements of God in the days of Ahaz He hissed for the fly from the rivers of Egypt. Isa. 7:18. The stings of the flies in the East are very painful, and torment the animals almost to madness. The word zebub is considered to be a part of the word BAAL-ZEBUB, the idol-god of Ekron, 'the lord of the fly,' who it was thought could protect persons from its bite.


The divinely appointed system of Jewish ordinances which formed the enclosure into which the Lord entered by the door, in order to find His own sheep and lead them out. Gentile believers were added to them, and they became one flock (not 'one fold') with one Shepherd, the Lord Himself. John 10:1, 3, 16. There is no longer a fold on earth for those that are Christ's. They are formed into the church, namely, the one flock.

Food, Angels'.

These words are figurative. Ps. 78:24 speaks of 'the corn of heaven,' and Ps. 78:25 is better translated "man did eat the bread of 'the mighty:' he sent them food to the full." It doubtless refers to the manna.


1. ragli, 'on foot:' often used for the foot soldiers in distinction from those in chariots or on horseback. Num. 11:21; Judges 20:2; 1 Chr. 18:4; etc. In Jer. 12:5 it is applied to those that ran.

2. ruts, 'runner.' 1 Sam. 22:17. Samuel said that their king would make some of them to run before his chariot. 1 Sam. 8:11. Such are commonly employed in the East to run before the great, to clear the way for them.


The usual accompaniment of a throne. 2 Chr. 9:18. The earth is the footstool of God's throne in the heavens. Isa. 66:1; Matt. 5:35. It is symbolical of 'the place of rest:' David had it on his heart to build a house of rest for the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and for the 'footstool' of God, wherein God could find rest among His people, and where He was to be worshipped. 1 Chr. 28:2; Ps. 99:5. It is also symbolical of 'subjection to power:' the Lord Jesus must reign until all His enemies are made His footstool. Ps. 110:1; Matt. 22:44; Acts 2:35; Heb. 1:13

For Ever.



Places where any brook or river could be crossed on foot or by mules, and which are sometimes called PASSAGES. Jacob passed over the ford of Jabbok when he came to meet Esau. Gen. 32:22. As far as is known there were no bridges across the Jordan until the time of the Romans. There was and is still a ford constantly used near Jericho. Joshua 2:7; Judges 3:28. Another is near Beisan (Beth-shean), and another near the confluence of the Jabbok. When the water is low the Jordan may be forded in some fifty places. Mention is also made of the fords of Arnon. Isa. 16:2.


1. aph, 'nose.' Ezek. 16:12 is better translated 'ring upon thy nose.'

2. metsach, μέτωπον, used as a symbol of manifest character. Israel in apostasy is described as having a harlot's forehead, and refusing to be ashamed. Jer. 3:3. Ezekiel's forehead was made as hard as adamant, because of the hardness of Israel's forehead, with whom he had to contend. Ezek. 3:8-9. Aaron wore a plate of gold on his forehead, with 'Holiness to the Lord' engraved thereon, that he might bear the iniquity of the holy things which the children of Israel should offer. Ex. 28:36-38. God set a mark upon the foreheads of those that sighed and cried for the abominations that were done in Jerusalem, and the rest of the inhabitants were to be slain. Ezek. 9:4, 6. So, in a future day the servants of God will have His mark in their foreheads; Satan will also cause his followers to have a mark on their right hands or on their foreheads. All will then have to be manifest as to whom they belong. Rev. 7:3; Rev. 9:4; Rev. 13:16; Rev.14:1, 9; Rev.17:5; Rev.20:4.


Those who were not of the lineage of Israel. Ex. 12:45; Deut. 15:3; Oba. 11. Also unconverted Gentiles. Eph. 2:19.


πρόγνωσις. A knowledge of persons and events before they exist. It is one of the divine attributes of God, by which persons were foreknown of Him and events determined. It is a capacity altogether beyond the mind of man to grasp. Acts 2:23; Rom. 8:29; Rom. 11:2; 1 Peter 1:2. The verb is also translated 'know before,' 2 Peter 3:17; and 'foreordain.' 1 Peter 1:20.




Used symbolically of Christ, who has entered within the veil as the forerunner of the saints. Heb. 6:20. It is an allusion to those in high position in the East, who have men to run before them to clear the way, and to announce who is coming. In the case of Christ the reverse is the fact: the Lord has run before His servants; but the term necessarily implies that there are others who are following after.


1. choresh, 'thick intricate wood,' 2 Chr. 27:4; also translated 'wood' in 1 Sam. 23:15-16, 18, 19.

2. yaar, a 'forest.' This is the word commonly used for both 'wood' and 'forest;' to be distinguished from a third word, pardes, Neh. 2:8, which signifies 'a park,' with cultivated trees, whereas the other is wild.

Several forests are specified under the word yaar.

1. The forest in ARABIA, Isa. 21:13; its situation is unknown.

2. The 'forest of his CARMEL.' 2 Kings 19:23; Isa. 37:24.This reads in the margin, and in the R.V., 'forest of his fruitful field,' and does not refer to any forest connected with Carmel.

3. The forest of HARETH, 1 Sam. 22:5: situated in Judah, but not known.

4. The forest of LEBANON. 1 Kings 7:2; 1 Kings 10:17, 21; 2 Chr. 9:16, 20.

 The context shows that these passages do not refer to the forest at Lebanon; but that Solomon had a house at Jerusalem built of the trees from Lebanon, and called it 'the house of the forest of Lebanon.' The actual forest at Lebanon is often referred to for its noble trees.

5. The wood of EPHRAIM in which Absalom was slain, on the east of the Jordan. 2 Sam. 18:6, 8, 17. This has not been identified. It has been suggested that the pride and defeat of Ephraim mentioned in Judges 12:1-6 caused some forest to be called after the name of that tribe. This place, by its swamps, morasses and pits, 'devoured' the Israelites by preventing their escape.




There are three Hebrew words translated to forgive.

1. kaphar, 'to cover,' Deut. 21:8; Ps. 78:38; Jer. 18:23. It is also translated 'atonement.'

2. nasa, 'to bear,' take away [guilt]: used by Joseph's brethren when they asked him to forgive them, Gen. 50:17; and used of God as "forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin." Ex. 34:7; Num. 14:18; and in describing the blessedness of the man "whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is covered." Ps. 32:1.

3. salach, 'to pardon,' used only of the forgiveness that God gives. It is employed for the forgiveness attached to the sacrifices: "it shall be forgiven him." Lev. 4:20, 26, 31, 35; Lev. 5:10, 13, 16, 18; etc. It occurs in the prayer of Solomon at the dedication of the temple. 1 Kings 8:30, 34, 36, 39, 50. Also in Ps. 103:3; Jer. 31:34; Jer. 36:3; Dan. 9:19.

In the N.T. two words are used: ἄφεσις, from ἀφίημι, 'to send from, release, remit,' several times translated REMISSION; and χαρίζομαι, 'to be gracious, bestow freely, forgive.' Both words are applied to the forgiveness granted by God, as well as that between man and his fellow.

There are two aspects in which forgiveness is brought before us in scripture.

1. The mind and thought of God Himself towards the sinner whom He forgives. On the ground of the sacrifice of Christ, God not only ceases to hold those who have faith in Christ's blood as guilty before Him, but His favour is towards them. "Their sins and iniquities will I remember no more." Heb. 10:17. Thus all sense of imputation of guilt is gone from the mind of God. "God for Christ's sake hath forgiven you" (ἐχαρίσατο, graciously forgiven). Eph. 4:32. So in the O.T., "I will heal their backsliding, I will love them freely." Hosea 14:4.

2. The guilty one is released, forgiven. "That they may receive forgiveness of sins." Acts 26:18. "As far as the east is from the west, so far hath he removed our transgressions from us." Ps. 103:12. "Your sins are forgiven you for his name's sake." 1 John 2:12. Hence it is true of all Christians, that their sins are forgiven. Another thought is included in the forgiveness of sins, namely, that having redemption by Christ, which brings into a new state, the whole guilty past is forgiven, removed from us, so that there is no hindrance to the enjoyment of that into which redemption brings.

The general principle as to forgiveness is stated in 1 John 1:9; "If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins;" and to this is added, "and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness." This involves honesty of heart, whether in a sinner first coming to God, or in a child who has grieved the heart of the Father by sinning. The two aspects above referred to are here also. The faithfulness and righteousness of God in forgiving, and the cleansing us from all unrighteousness. God is faithful to His own blessed character of grace revealed in His Son, and righteous through the propitiation which He has made.

3. If a Christian is 'put away' from the assembly and is repentant, he is forgiven and restored. 2 Cor. 2:7, 10. This of course is different from the act of God in forgiving sins, and may be called administrative forgiveness in the church; and if the act of discipline is led of the Spirit, it is ratified in heaven: cf. John 20:22-23. This is entirely different from any pretended absolution that may be pronounced over poor deluded unconverted persons.

4. There is also a governmental forgiveness in connection with the government of God here below in time, both on God's part, and toward one another. Isa. 40:1-2; Luke 17:3; James 5:15-16; 1 John 5:16. We are called upon to forgive one another; and if we indulge in a harsh unforgiving spirit, we must not expect our Father to forgive us in His governmental dealings. Matt. 6:14-15.


This was very common among the Gentiles, which accounts for its being mentioned in the message sent from the conference at Jerusalem to the Gentiles, Acts 15:20, 29; and its being so often prohibited in the epistles. The word is sometimes used where 'adultery' is the sense. Matt. 5:32; Matt. 19:9. It often has in the O.T. a symbolical reference to the turning from God to idols. 2 Chr. 21:11, 13; Isa. 23:17; Ezek. 16:15, 26, 29; and in the N.T. to unfaithful intercourse with Babylon, the mother of harlots. Rev. 14:8; Rev. 17:2, 4; Rev. 18:3, 9.


'To swear falsely.' Matt. 5:33.


The terms 'fortress,' 'stronghold,' and 'castle' mostly refer to a part of a city that was more strongly fortified than by the mere walls. Prov. 18:19 speaks of the 'bars of a castle.' There was such a place in Jerusalem when the city was taken by David, which was held by the Jebusites. 2 Sam. 5:6-7. The Romans had a 'castle' in Jerusalem, to which Paul was carried when he was seized by the Jews. Acts 21:34, 37. This may have been the same that was called ANTONIA, a fortress built by Herod the Great, adjoining the temple, as described by Josephus: Wars, 5:5. 8. The Psalmist often calls Jehovah his rock and fortress. Ps. 18:2; Ps. 31:3; Ps. 71:3; Ps. 91:2.

Fortunatus. [Fortuna'tus]

A Christian of Corinth mentioned by Paul. 1 Cor. 16:17. Apparently the same that is alluded to by Clement the apostolic father in his first Epistle.


1. bor, 'pit, well:' translated 'fountain' only in Jer. 6:7.

2. mabbua, 'spring of water,' Ecc. 12:6: translated 'spring' in Isa. 35:7; Isa. 49:10.

3. ayin, lit. 'eye,' and hence orifice through which water flows. Gen. 16:7; 2 Chr. 32:3; Neh. 2:14; Neh. 3:15; Neh. 12:37; Prov. 8:28.

4. mayan (from ayin); translated 'spring.' Ps. 87:7; Ps. 104:10; 'well,' Joshua 18:15; 2 Kings 3:19, 25; Ps. 84:6; Isa. 12:3; and 'fountain' often, as at the flood. Gen. 7:11; Gen. 8:2; 2 Chr. 32:4; Ps. 74:15; Ps. 114:8; Cant. 4:12, 15; Joel 3:18.

5. maqor, πηγή, 'source, perpetual spring.' This is rendered 'spring' in Prov. 25:26; Jer. 51:36; Hosea 13:15. It is used for the 'fountain of blood,' Mark 5:29; the 'fountain of life,' as applied to Jehovah for Israel, Ps. 36:9; the 'fountain of tears,' Jer. 9:1; the 'fountain of living waters.' Jer. 2:13; Jer. 17:13; Rev. 7:17; Rev. 21:6.

The fountains form a striking feature in Palestine, which is described as "a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills." Deut. 8:7.

In the modern names of localities in Palestine the prefix ain or en signifies a 'well;' and bir or beer signifies a fountain or spring, often artificially enclosed. The water from such is called 'living water' in distinction from the water in wells or cisterns.


This may perhaps be said to be the most perfect earthly shape of a plane (the 'cube' being perfection for a solid). See 'four' under NUMBFRS. It was the shape of the brazen altar, Ex. 27:1; Ex. 38:1; the breastplate, Ex. 28:16; Ex. 39:9; and the altar of incense, Ex. 30:2; Ex. 37:25. Apparently it was the shape of the 'panels' of the base of the molten sea in Solomon's temple, 1 Kings 7:31; also of the court of the future temple, Ezek. 40:47; the altar of the same, Ezek. 43:16; the portion of the land offered as a holy oblation, Ezek. 48:20; for the sanctuary, Ezek. 45:2; and for the city, Ezek. 48:16.


This term is used for every description of bird described as of the heaven and of the air, including those that feed on carrion, as in Gen. 15:11; Rev. 19:17, 21; and those for the table. 1 Kings 4:23; Neh. 5:18.


Used symbolically for Satan, from whose snares God delivers His saints. Ps. 91:3; Ps. 124:7; Prov. 6:5. In the punishment of Israel their prophets became as the snare of the fowler. Hosea 9:8.


The well-known animal, that burrows in the ground. Matt. 8:20. They will eat anything, and are especially fond of grapes. Cant. 2:15. They are very sly, and cunning in catching their prey; which accounts for Herod Antipas being called a fox by the Lord. Luke 13:32. It is supposed that the same Hebrew word, shual, includes the JACKAL, which may be intended in Ps. 63:10, and indeed in other passages. The canis aureus is the common Jackal of Palestine.


lebonah, λίβανος. A fragrant resin. It was an ingredient in the holy anointing oil, and was used in the temple service. Ex. 30:34; Lev. 2:1, 15, 16; Lev. 5:11; Lev. 24:7; Cant. 3:6; Cant. 4:6, 14. It formed part of the gifts presented to the Lord by the Magi, Matt. 2:11; and was among the things carried to Babylon the Great. Rev. 18:13. It is traced to the Boswellia serrata of the botanists, which grows in India. By cutting slits in the bark the gum exudes. The best is white and bitter to the taste, though the yellowish in colour is extensively used. The Muslims choose the white, but the Greek and Roman churches use much of the coloured.


This well-known reptile is very numerous in Palestine. It is only referred to in the O.T. in connection with the second of the plagues in Egypt. Ex. 8:2-14; Ps. 78:45; Ps. 105:30. In the N.T. three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouths of the dragon, the beast, and the false prophet. Rev. 16:13. Frogs are remarkable for grovelling in the mire, with great noise and activity in the night.


Strictly speaking something to be worn on the forehead and, as the passages say, between the eyes. The deliverance of Israel from Egypt and the law were to be constantly before them as a token upon their hand and frontlets between their eyes. Ex. 13:16; Deut. 6:8; Deut. 11:18. It is also said they were to lay the words up in their hearts, so it seems evident that being worn as frontlets was meant in a figurative sense. It was to be ever before them that they were a redeemed people. In the N.T. we find that it was taken literally, and the articles worn were called PHYLACTERIES, q, v.


The word kabas simply implies 'to wash,' as it is often translated, and would include 'bleaching.' The coming of the Lord is compared to a 'refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap,' when the dross and dirt will be cleared away. Mal. 3:2. At the transfiguration the clothing of the Lord became so white that it exceeded the whiteness produced by any fuller on earth. Mark 9:3. It was a reflection of heavenly glory.

Fuller's Field.

A place near Jerusalem where there was water, and doubtless where the fullers carried on some of their work outside the city: its locality is not known. 2 Kings 18:17; Isa. 7:3; Isa. 36:2.


'To polish, make smooth,' applied to weapons as a preparation for war. Jer. 46:4; Ezek. 21:9, 11, 28.




Furnaces were used for various purposes, as smelting the crude metal, and for crucibles to refine the metal; for lime and bricks; and as an oven. Gen. 19:28; Ex. 9:8, 10; Prov. 17:3. The fiery furnace in Babylon must have been very large for four persons to have walked therein. It may have been the furnace they used for their bricks. Dan. 3:6-26. The furnace is used figuratively for the oppression of Egypt, out of which God delivered the Israelites, Deut. 4:20; and for the afflictions God afterwards brought them into to purify them from their idolatry and sin. Ezek. 22:18, 22. In the N.T. the furnace of fire refers to the place of eternal punishment. Matt. 13:42, 50.

Furnaces, Tower of the.

Built on some unknown part of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:11; Neh. 12:38.