Bible Dictionary G 2


The names by which God makes Himself known are various.

1.  El, 'the strong or mighty one.' It is often used of God, especially in Job and the Psalms. Job 5:8; Ps. 22:1, etc.; and of the Lord Jesus in Isa. 9:6. It is also used for the false gods, Ps. 81:9; Dan. 11:36; and is translated 'mighty' in Ps. 29:1; Ps. 82:1.

2.  Eloah (Elah Chaldee), Elohim. The names most commonly used for God the Creator, the One with whom man has to do, the supreme Deity. Gen. 1:1-31. (Running all through the O.T. to Mal. 3:18.) These words are also applied to God's representatives, such as angels and judges. Ex. 22:28; Ps. 82:6; and also to false gods. Lev. 19:4. Elohim (which is plural, called the plural of majesty or excellency) is the word of most frequent occurrence. When it is distinctly used for the one true God the article is often added.

3.  Jehovah. This is a name of relationship with men, especially with Israel, taken by God in time. It is derived from havah, 'to exist,' and may be expanded into 'who is, who was, and is to come.' God thus reveals Himself in time as the ever-existing One: that is, in Himself eternally, He is always the same: cf. Heb. 1:12. The above 'relationship' may be seen in the change from Elohim, the Creator, in Gen. 1, to Jehovah Elohim in Gen. 2, when man was brought into relationship with God. Again in Gen. 7:16 Elohim ordered Noah to make the ark but Jehovah shut him in. Unfortunately the name Jehovah is seldom employed in the A.V. It is generally represented by LORD (sometimes GOD) printed in small capitals.* There is a contraction of Jehovah into Jah, also translated in the A.V. by LORD, except in Ps. 68:4, where Israel is exhorted to sing unto God, and "extol him by his name JAH." Jah signifies the absolute supremacy of the self-existing One; whereas Jehovah was the name made known to Israel, and on which they could count. "God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM," Ex. 3:14, where the word is Ehyeh, which is from the same root as Jehovah, the Eternal existing One; He that was, and is, and the coming One.

 * In four places the A.V. has preserved the name Jehovah, namely, Ex. 6:8; Ps. 83:18; Isa. 12:2; Isa. 26:4.

4.  Shaddai, 'the Almighty,' is another name of God, and is often so translated, especially in Job, without any other name attached. Job 6:4, 14; Ps. 68:14, etc.  At times it is associated with one of the above words, and was the name by which He was especially known to the Patriarchs, as El Shaddai, God Almighty, Ex. 6:3; which passage does not mean that the Patriarchs had not heard of the name of Jehovah, but that it was not the especial name for them.

5.  Elyon, 'the Most High,' is another name of God, which stands alone, as in Deut. 32:8; 2 Sam. 24:14; and in Dan. 4:17-34 (from a kindred word); or it has one of the above words added and is then 'the most high God,' Gen. 14:20; or 'the LORD most high.' Ps. 7:17. It is not confined to Israel, for He is "the Most High over all the earth." Ps. 83:18.

6, 7.   Adon and Adonai, and the plural Adonim, are all translated 'Lord'; they occur frequently, and are found in some of the following compounds:-
Adon Jehovah, Ex. 23:17, the Lord GOD.
Adon Jehovah Elohim, Isa. 51:22, thy Lord, the LORD, and thy God.
Adon Jehovah Sabaoth, Isa. 19:4, the Lord, the LORD OF HOSTS.
Adonai Elohim, Ps. 86:12, O Lord my God: cf. Dan. 9:3, 9, 15.
Adona Jehovah, Deut. 9:26, O Lord GOD (occurs frequently).
Adonai Jehovah Sabaoth, Jer. 2:19, the Lord GOD of hosts.
El Elohim, Gen. 33:20, El-elohe [Israel]; Gen. 46:3, God, the God [of thy father].
El Elohim Jehovah, Joshua 22:22, the LORD God of gods.
El Shaddai, Gen. 28:3, etc., God Almighty.
Jah Jehovah, Isa. 26:4, the LORD JEHOVAH.
Jehovah Adon, Neh. 10:29, the LORD our Lord.
Jehovah Adonai, Ps. 68:20, GOD the Lord.
Jehovah El, Ps. 31:5, O LORD God.
Jehovah Elohim, Gen. 9:26, etc., the LORD God.
Jehovah Elohim Sabaoth Adonai, Amos 5:16, the LORD, the God of hosts, the Lord.
Jehovah Jehovah El, Ex. 34:6, the LORD, the LORD God.
Jehovah Sabaoth, Jer. 46:18, the LORD of hosts.
Jehovah Sabaoth Elohim, Jer. 27:4, etc., the LORD of hosts, the God [of Israel].

For titles in combination with Jehovah, See JEHOVAH.

The true pronunciation of Jehovah is declared to be lost: the Jews when reading the O.T. never utter it (from a constrained interpretation of Lev. 24:16), but say, 'the name,' 'the great and terrible name,' etc.

In the N.T. the word Θεός is constantly translated God; and Κύριος is the word commonly rendered Lord. In the O.T. the latter is used by the LXX as the translation of Jehovah, so in the N.T. it often represents Jehovah, and is then mostly, if not always, without the article, as in Matt. 1:20, 22, 24, etc. The Lord is also called 'the Almighty,' Rev. 1:8, etc.; and there are a few compound names as in the O.T.:
God Almighty, Rev. 16:14; Rev. 19:15.
Lord Almighty, 2 Cor. 6:18.
Lord God Almighty, Rev. 4:8; Rev. 11:17; Rev. 15:3; Rev. 16:7; Rev. 21:22.
Lord of Sabaoth, Rom. 9:29; James 5:4.

The characteristic name of God in the N.T. in relationship with His saints is that of FATHER: it was used anticipatively in the Lord's intercourse with His disciples, but made a reality after His resurrection, when He sent the message: "I ascend unto my Father and your Father, and to my God and your God." John 20:17.

THE TRINITY.   In reference to this term the Father is God.  Phil. 2:11; 1 Thess. 1:1, etc. The Lord Jesus is God. Isa. 9:6; Matt. 1:23; John 1:1; Rom. 9:5; Phil. 2:6; Col. 2:9; 1 Tim. 3:16; Heb. 1:8. The Holy Spirit is God: "the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters." Gen. 1:2. Ananias lied to 'the Holy Ghost,' 'unto God;' and Sapphira unto the 'Spirit of the Lord,' Acts 5:3-4, 9; 'Spirit of God.' 1 Cor. 2:11; 1 Cor. 3:16, etc. That there are three divine Persons (if we may so express it) is plain from scripture. The Father sent the Son, and He came to earth. The Father sent the Holy Spirit, and the Lord Jesus sent the Holy Spirit, and He came from heaven. He is a divine Person, of which there are many proofs (See HOLY SPIRIT). There is but one God.

Scripture reveals what God is in Himself, 'God is love' (used absolutely), 1 John 4:8; and 'God is light' (used relatively, in opposition to darkness), 1 John 1:5; and Christ is the expression of both in a Man. The principal of God's attributes and characteristics as revealed in scripture are
1.    His Eternity. Hab. 1:12; Rom. 1:20.
2.    Invisibility. Col. 1:15.
3.    Immortality. Ps. 90:2; 1 Tim. 1:17.
4.    Omnipotence. Job 24:1; Matt. 19:26; only Potentate. 1 Tim. 6:15.
5.    Omnipresence. Ps. 139:7-10; Jer. 23:23-24.
6.    Omniscience. 1 Chr. 28:9; Isa. 42:8-9; Rom. 8:29-30; Heb. 4:13.
7.    Incorruptibility. Rom. 1:23; James 1:13.
8.    Immutability. Mal. 3:6; James 1:17.
9.    Wisdom. Ps. 104:24; Rom. 11:33-36.
10.  Holiness. Ps. 47:8; Ps. 99:3, 5; Rev. 4:8.
11.  Justice. Ps. 89:14; 2 Tim. 4:8.
12.  Grace and mercy. Ps. 136; 2 Cor. 1:3; Eph. 2:4.
13.  Longsuffering. Ex. 34:6; Rom. 9:22.
14.  Faithfulness. Ps. 36:5; Heb. 10:23.

God's eternal power and divinity may be known in creation, Rom. 1:20; but He has revealed Himself in the person of Christ, the Son, the eternal Word. God has been pleased also to reveal Himself in His written word. His purposes, His ways, and what He has done for sinful man, all demand universal reverence, adoration, and worship.

God forbid.

This is an unhappy expression, bringing in the name of God where it does not occur. In the O.T. it is chalilah, 'far be it.' Gen. 44:7, 17, etc.  In the N.T. μὴ γένοιτο, 'let it not be.' Rom. 3:4, 6, 31, etc.

God speed.

The word is χαίρω, 'to rejoice, to be glad:' hence do not 'greet' one who brings not true doctrine; say not to him 'Hail,' as in Luke 1:28; 2 John 10, 11.

Gods, Goddess.



1.  θεῖος, that which is 'divine:' it is not like gold, silver, or stone, etc. Acts 17:29. The word is translated 'divine' in 2 Peter 1:3-4.

2.  θειότης, that which is characteristic of God, namely, 'divinity.' Rom. 1:20.

3.  θεότης, Deity or Godhead; in Christ 'dwells all the fulness of the Godhead bodily.' Col. 2:9.


1.  θεοσέβεια, 'worship or reverence of God,' 'reverential fear of God.' 1 Tim. 2:10. The same word is used in the LXX for 'the fear of God' in Gen. 20:11, and for 'the fear of the Lord' in Job 28:28.

2.  εὐσέβεια, from 'to worship well,' hence piety towards God. The word 'piety' seems to suit all the passages where the Greek word occurs. Acts 3:12; 1 Tim. 2:2; 1 Tim. 3:16; 1 Tim. 4:7-8; 1 Tim. 6:3, 5, 6, 11; 2 Tim. 3:5; Titus 1:1; 2 Peter 1:3, 6, 7; 2 Peter 3:11.


Son of Shemaiah, a Reubenite. 1 Chr. 5:4.

Gog and Magog.

GOG is a symbolical name for the powerful and proud chief of the vast hordes of Scythia and Tartary. MAGOG, the son of Japheth (Gen. 10:2), whose descendants spread over the vast steppes in the north, after whom the land is here called. Ezek. 38:2 should read  "Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog, the prince of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal." Gog is the prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal answering to Russia, Moscow or Muscovy, and Tobolsk: all now in the Russian empire. These, 'coming out of the north,' as a cloud to cover the land,' will attack Israel in the land of Palestine, but will be smitten by God. Ezek. 38:2, 18; Ezek. 39:1, 6, 11. The valley where they will be buried will be called HAMON-GOG, the 'multitude of Gog,' Ezek. 39:11, 15. The destruction of these hordes will cause the heathen to know the Lord, that is, the nations extern to the Anti-christian Empire of the West.

In Rev. 20:8 we also read of Gog and Magog attacking "the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city," Jerusalem; but this must not be confounded with the prophecy in Ezekiel, for here they come out of 'the four corners of the earth;' and the battles do not coincide as to time. In Ezekiel the attack is before Israel is finally settled in the land, as may be seen by the context; whereas in the Revelation it is after the thousand years of the millennium, and is followed by the final overthrow of God's enemies who are led on by Satan. There is doubtless an allusion to the names in Ezekiel; 'Gog and Magog,' being symbolical names, are employed to describe all the proud and powerful hordes of post-millennium times, whose number is 'as the sand of the sea,' and whom Satan will collect together from all quarters to attack the kingdom of the Lord Jesus as established on earth, only to be devoured by fire from heaven: for Satan, when loosed, will not be able to raise up an empire against the Lord.

Golan. [Go'lan]

Levitical city of Manasseh. in Bashan, and a city of refuge. Deut. 4:43; Joshua 20:8; Joshua 21:27; 1 Chr. 6:71. Identified by some with Sahem el Jaulan, 32 48' N, 35 56' E.


The well-known precious metal. It was discovered very early. Gen. 2:11-12. It was purified by fire. Prov. 17:3; Zech. 13:9; and we read of 'choice gold,'  'fine gold,'  'pure gold.' Precious things are compared with gold to show their value. Ps. 119:72, 127. It was extensively used in the tabernacle and in the temple; some things being made of gold, and others being overlaid with it. For fabrics the gold was beaten into thin plates and cut into wires to be woven with the blue, the purple, and the fine twined linen. The heavenly Jerusalem is also described as of 'pure gold.' Rev. 21:18, 21. Being the most costly metal it is regarded as symbolical of what pertains to God, and as signifying divine righteousness. The Lord Jesus counselled the poor Laodiceans to buy of Him 'gold tried in the fire,' that they might be rich. Rev. 3:18.

Golden Candlestick.


Golden City.

"The golden city ceased," Isa. 14:4 is better translated, as in the margin, "the exactress of gold ceased!" Babylon, which had heaped up gold by its conquests, was overcome.

Golgotha. [Gol'gotha]


Goliath. [Goli'ath]

The giant of Gath, who for forty days defied the armies of Israel. He was slain by David with a sling and a stone in the name of Jehovah. David cut off his head and carried it to Jerusalem. Goliath's sword was preserved and eventually restored to David. His height was six cubits and a span, about 8ft. 4in. by the shortest cubit. He was a type of Satan, too strong for any to conquer except the one in the power of Jehovah, David being a type of the Lord Jesus. 1 Sam. 17:4-23; 1 Sam. 21:9. Goliath's brother, named Lahmi, also a giant, is evidently the one spoken of in 2 Sam. 21:19, compare 1 Chr. 20:5.

Gomer. [Go'mer]

1.  Eldest son of Japheth, and father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. Gomer is supposed to be the progenitor of the early Cimmerians who occupied the Tauric Chersonese, of which the name of the Crimea is a relic. In the 7th century they devastated the western part of Asia Minor. Gen. 10:2-3; 1 Chr. 1:5-6; Ezek. 38:6.

2.  Daughter of Diblaim, and 'wife' of Hosea. Hosea 1:3.

Gomorrah, [Gomor'rah] Gomorrha. [Gomor'rha]

One of the five cities of the plain, or Vale of Siddim, that revolted against Chedorlaomer, who attacked and carried away the people and the spoil. They were rescued by Abraham because Lot was among the captives. The wickedness of the cities being exceedingly great, they were, with the exception of the small city of Zoar, destroyed by fire and brimstone from heaven. SODOM is constantly associated with Gomorrah in the accounts of this destruction, and they are held up both in the O.T. and in the N.T. as a signal instance of God's direct action in judgement. Gen. 14, 18, 19; 2 Peter 2:6; Jude 7. Yet, solemn and complete as was their destruction, the Lord said it would be more tolerable in the day of judgement for these cities than for those where His mighty works had been done, and which had rejected Him. Matt. 10:15.

It is not known where these cities were situated, except that they were near to the Dead Sea: at its north end is now considered to be most probable.

In Isa. 1:10 Israel had fallen so low that the prophet addresses them as 'ye rulers of Sodom,' 'ye people of Gomorrah,' and Jerusalem is 'spiritually called Sodom and Egypt' in Rev. 11:8.


'Master of the house.' Prov. 7:19; Matt. 20:11; Matt. 24:43; Mark 14:14; Luke 12:39; Luke 22:11.

Gopher Wood.

The wood with which Noah built the Ark. For so large a vessel it must have been a strong wood, but 'gopher' is the Hebrew word and it is not known to what it refers. Gen. 6:14.

Goshen. [Go'shen]

1.  The part of Egypt in which the Israelites were located. It is often called 'the land of Goshen,' and is also termed 'the land of Rameses.' Pharaoh bade Joseph place his father and his brethren in the best of the land. It is generally supposed that Goshen was situated on the east of the ancient Delta of the Nile. Gen. 45:10; Gen. 46:28-29, 34; Gen. 47:1, 4, 6, 11, 27; Gen. 50:8; Ex. 8:22; Ex. 9:26.

2.  Land or district in the southern part of Palestine. Joshua 10:41; Joshua 11:16. Not identified.

3.  Town in the highlands of Judah. Joshua 15:51. Not identified.

Gospel, The,

εὐγγέλιον.  'Good news' or 'glad tidings.' Everything worthy of this title must come from God. It has not always had the same character. It was good news to Adam and Eve that the Seed of the woman should bruise the head of the serpent. Doubtless they believed it, for Eve said, when Cain was born, "I have gotten a man from the Lord." Gen. 3:15; Gen. 4:1. It was good news to Noah (when God made known that He was going to destroy all flesh) that he and his family should be saved in an ark, and that God would establish His covenant with him. Noah believed God, and was preserved. Heb. 11:7. It was good news to Abraham, when called out by God to be blessed by Him, to be told that he should have a son in his old age; that his seed should possess the land, and that in his Seed should all the nations of the earth be blessed. Gal. 3:8. Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness. Gen. 15:6; Rom. 4:3. It was good news to the Israelites, when slaves to Pharaoh, that God had come down to deliver them by the hand of Moses. They believed the good news, "they bowed their heads and worshipped." Ex. 4:31. But this was only a part of the good news to Israel; they were not only to be brought out of Egypt; but to be brought into a "good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey." Here alas, many of them failed; though this 'gospel,' as it is called in the Epistle to the Hebrews, was preached to them, it did not profit them, because it was not mixed with faith in them: they "entered not in because of unbelief." Heb. 4:2-6.

The "glad tidings of the kingdom" was prophesied of in the O.T. and was preached by the Lord Jesus when on earth. Matt. 4:23; Luke 4:43, etc.; and will be preached in the future. Matt. 24:14. Though this gospel was rejected by Israel at large, the Lord gathered around Him a little flock, who formed the nucleus of the church at Pentecost. Then Jesus Christ was preached and the forgiveness of sins through His death, "the gospel of the grace of God," and this was towards all mankind. Acts 20:24.

To Paul was revealed "THE GOSPEL OF THE GLORY," that God has glorified Christ, and that His glory shines in the face of Him who put away the sins of believers. 2 Cor. 4:4; 1 Tim. 1:11. So peculiarly was this committed to Paul that he called it 'my gospel.' 2 Tim. 2:8. It embraced more than salvation, great as that is, for he was desirous of making known "the mystery of the gospel," which separates believers from the first man of the earth, and associates them with Christ glorified in heaven.

In the future there will be glad tidings for Israel when God's time is come to bless them. The messengers will publish peace and salvation, and say to Zion, "Thy God reigneth." Isa. 52:7. There will also be proclaimed THE EVERLASTING GOSPEL to the Gentiles, that which has been from the beginning, that the Seed of the woman should bruise the serpent's head. The testimony rendered by means of angelic power is, "Fear God, and give glory to him, for the hour of his judgement is come," with the injunction to worship the Creator. Rev. 14:6-7.

Gospels, The.

God having been pleased to give in His word four Gospels, it is manifest that He had a design and purpose in doing so, which it is well to endeavour to discover. If it is accepted that God is really the author of them all, it at once sweeps away all questions of anterior documents, from which one evangelist selected certain events, and another chose events somewhat different; and also the unworthy hypothesis that after the first, each writer had before him the gospel or gospels that had been previously written, and then sought to supply their deficiencies. Surely in all such thoughts God is forgotten.

It is surprising that the mass of modern commentators do not see any design in the differences in the gospels, and that each gospel has its own peculiar characteristics. As early as Irenaeus (A.D. 120-200) this was seen: he compared them with the four cherubim in the Revelation; and in several of the old books a man is portrayed with Matthew; a lion with Mark; an ox with Luke; and an eagle with John. Why they were put in this order is not easy to see, for in the Revelation the lion is mentioned first, and the calf second; though the above is the order of the faces in Ezekiel. The distinctions may be seen in many instances.

MATTHEW.   The gospel opens with "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the Son of David, the son of Abraham." And the genealogy goes no further than Abraham, whereas in Luke it ascends to Adam, agreeing with the scope of that gospel. In Matthew there are many more quotations from the O.T. than in either of the others. All proving that this gospel was a testimony to Jesus as the true Messiah for Israel. Here the Magi come and inquire for "the king of the Jews." On His entry into Jerusalem He was hailed with "Hosanna to the son of David," which is not found in the other gospels: with many other designed differences. The ascension is not recorded: the record ends with the Lord in resurrection power on the earth, agreeing with the fact that the kingdom for Israel will be established on earth in the power of Him who is risen. In pointing out the characteristic feature of this gospel, which represents Christ as the Messiah and Son of David, it is not meant that other characters of the Lord are not there in a subordinate degree. Indeed in this gospel the Person of the Lord is very prominent, for every promise depends on the truth and glory of His Person.

MARK.   The opening words show that it is the Gospel rather than the history of Jesus Christ, Son of God, which gives character to this gospel. It opens with a short preface to prepare the way for the introduction of the gospel of the kingdom of God, quoting part of Mal. 3:1 and Isa. 40:3. Various details show that Christ is the faithful servant of this gospel: for instance, the word εὐθέως, translated 'immediately,'  'straightway,'  'forthwith,' etc., occurs forty-two times: immediately one thing had been accomplished something else was to be done; and in Mark alone we read that they had no leisure to eat!  The principles of the kingdom are not given here, nor the woes denounced, as in Matthew. In the passage "Of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father:" the words 'neither the Son' occur in this gospel only, agreeing with the passage that "the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth." As Son of God of course He knew all things. In Mark the Lord does not address God as His Father except in the agony in the garden, when His path of service was ended; nor do His disciples ever address him as 'Lord.' Surely all these things, and other differences that could be named, show the character of the gospel to be the Lord Jesus as the divine Servant.

LUKE.   In this gospel Jesus is presented as Son of man: as observed above, His genealogy is traced to Adam. The early incidents of His life are here stated, being subject to His parents, etc. In the quotation from Isa. 40:3-5, Matthew stops at the words "make his paths straight;" but Luke continues the quotation to "all flesh shall see the salvation of God." So also when the Lord sends out His apostles to preach, in Matthew He charges them, "Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not;" but in Luke these words are omitted. The Lord is here the Son of man for man. In this gospel only we have the parable of the good Samaritan, teaching that grace does not ask the question, "who is my neighbour?" for all men are neighbours; and here only we get the parable of the lost sheep, the lost piece of money, and the prodigal son: it is God seeking the lost. All this agrees with Christ being the Son of man, seeking the blessing of man: of. Luke 2:14.

JOHN.   The remarkable opening of this gospel gives its character. "The Word was with God, and the Word was God;" and near its close the object of its being written is stated to be that men might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God. There is no genealogy in John: in the beginning He was with God, and the world was made by Him. In this gospel the raising of Lazarus is recorded, and the Lord declares Himself to be 'the resurrection and the life.' Here alone is omitted the agony in the garden; and when they came to arrest Him, they all went backward and fell to the ground. In these and many other passages in this gospel we see the characteristic presentation of Jesus as the Son of God; though from the fifth chapter onwards, His perfect dependence upon the Father is fully presented.

Thus in the four gospels we have, as it were, four divine portraits of the Lord Jesus in the characters above named. It spoils their divine perfection if it is attempted to make them into one, often called a 'harmony.'  Let them stand in their integrity as drawn by the finger of God; admire their differences, and the Lord revealed therein will be the better learnt. Each of the gospels is further considered under its respective name.

The distinctive features of the gospels may be further studied by observing the frequency of certain Greek words in each.

Believe, to
End of the world (age)
Father, The
Glory, glorify
Kingdom of God
Kingdom of the Heavens
Know, to
Preach, to
Preach (the gospel), to

δόξα, δοξάζω
εὐθέως, εὐθύς

ἀγαπάω, ἀγάπη
μαρτυρέω, μαρτυρία

For the Chronology of the Gospel History see NEW TESTAMENT.


qiqayon.  This was some gourd of rapid growth that afforded Jonah needed shelter. Jonah 4:6-10. The margin of the R.V. calls it the Palma Christi. Others identify it with the Lagenaria vulgaris, which is often seen in Palestine as affording shelter. It grows rapidly, but rapidly withers, as by the gnawing of its bark by a snail, etc. Its fruit, emptied of seeds, is used for bottles.

Gourd, Wild,

paqquoth.  In a time of dearth a lap-full of gourds from a wild vine was gathered to provide a meal for Elisha and the sons of the prophets. 2 Kings 4:39. Some suppose this to have been the wild cucumber, the leaves of which resemble those of the vine, but have a bitter poisonous taste. Others think the poisonous Colocynth, the Colocynthis agri, to be referred to. The ancient versions support this. A kindred word is translated 'knops' in 1 Kings 6:18 ('gourds,' margin), as ornaments in the temple, for which the fruit of the Colocynth would be a graceful model.


There are ten Hebrew words thus translated, signifying any ruler, captain, viceroy, etc., that was set over the people. The term is also so used in the N.T. except the following:

1.   ἐθνάρχης 'governor of a nation,' an ethnarch, as the ruler of Damascus was called. 2 Cor. 11:32.

2.   εὐθύνων, 'one who directs, guides,' used of the 'steersman of a ship.' James 3:4.

3.   ἡγεμών, the procurator of Judaea. Matt. 27:2; Luke 20:20, etc.

4.   οἰκονόμος, 'manager of a house, steward.' Gal. 4:2.

Governor of the Feast.

The word is ἀρχιτρίκλινος, lit. 'head of three couches.' Three couches were set round the dining table, leaving the fourth side for the access of the servants: hence the president or ruler of a feast. John 2:8-9.

Gozan. [Go'zan]

Region in Mesopotamia, to which some of the Israelites were carried captive. The 'river Gozan' may signify the river at Gozan, and this is identified by most with the river Habor, now Khabour. A district about 37 N, 41 E.  2 Kings 17:6; 2 Kings 18:11; 2 Kings 19:12; 1 Chr. 5:26; Isa. 37:12.


chen, χάρις. The favour and graciousness shown by God to guilty man. It stands in contrast to law, John 1:17; Gal. 5:4; also to works and to desert or reward, Rom. 4:4; Rom. 11:6; 'by grace ye are saved.' Eph. 2:5, 8. The grace of God is vouchsafed to the saints all along the way: we find nearly all the Epistles commence and end with the invocation of grace on the churches: whereas when individuals are addressed MERCY is added. 1 Tim. 1:2; 2 Tim. 1:2; Titus 1:4; 2 John 3. The different aspects of grace and mercy have been thus set forth: "Grace refers more to the source and character of the sentiment; mercy to the state of the person who is its object, Grace may give me glory; mercy contemplates some need in me. Mercy is great in the greatness of the need; grace in the thought of the person exercising it."

Graff, To.

The reference to the grafting of trees in Romans 11 shows that the system was then practised. It speaks of Gentiles, the wild olive branches, being grafted into the good olive tree; and this is said to be 'contrary to nature.' Gentiles have now been grafted into the tree of witness on earth, and of promise; but by-and-by the natural branches, Israel, will again be grafted into 'their own olive tree.' It does not refer to individual salvation. Rom. 11:17-24.




This word is often used in scripture for any kind of small herb or fodder. It is frequently referred to metaphorically to represent human frailty. "Surely the people is grass: the grass withereth, the flower fadeth." Isa. 40:7. 8. It is growing one day, and the next it is cast into the oven as fuel. Matt. 6:30.


This insect cannot be distinguished from the locust.  See LOCUST.


Anything twisted or woven. It refers to the 'grating' made of brass that formed part of the brazen altar. Ex. 27:4; Ex. 35:16; Ex. 38:4-5, 30; Ex. 39:39.


The principal words are

1.  qeber, qeburah, τάφος, from 'to bury,' and hence any description of burying place, as Gen. 35:20; Gen. 50:5; Matt. 23:29, etc. They are often translated SEPULCHRE. Gen. 23:6; Deut. 34:6; Matt. 23:27.

2.  sheol, ἅδης, the place of departed spirits. Gen. 37:35; Ps. 6:5; Hosea 13:14; 1 Cor. 15:55, etc.   See HELL.

3.  μνῆμα, μνημεῖον, from 'to remember,' hence a memorial tomb or monument. Matt. 27:52-53, etc. It is often translated SEPULCHRE, as in John 20:1-11; and TOMB, as in Matt. 8:28, etc.

The graves were of various descriptions: some were simply holes dug in the ground and at times covered over with one or more large stones, over which men might walk unawares. Luke 11:44.  Some were hewn in the rock, and a single stone placed or rolled against the mouth, the tomb of Lazarus and that of Joseph in which 'the body of Jesus was laid' being of this description. Other sepulchres or tombs were said to be built; an ornamental structure being erected over the place where the body was laid, similar to those found in nearly all modern cemeteries. Matt. 23:29.

In places, and especially near Jerusalem, there are long passages, with holes cut in the sides in which the bodies were placed; and by continuing these passages such tombs could be enlarged to any extent. We read in the O.T. of the TOMBS OF THE KINGS. Those now bearing this name may be seen marked on maps to the north of Jerusalem; and others called the TOMBS OF THE PROPHETS are placed on the mount of Olives. These of course may not be those referred to in scripture.

Natural caves were also used as graves, as the cave of Machpelah. Gen. 23:3-20. In Luke 8:27 we read of a demoniac who lived in the 'tombs:' these were doubtless natural caves.

The Lord compared the hypocritical scribes and Pharisees to whited sepulchres, the outward beauty of which stood in strong contrast to the dead men's bones and uncleanness within. There is a tradition that the sepulchres were white-washed once every year, that they might be readily seen and avoided. The hour comes when all that are in the graves shall hear His voice and come forth, some to the resurrection of life, and others to the resurrection of judgement. John 5:28-29.

Grave, To.


Graven Image.

Images were of two descriptions: they were cut or hewn out of a block of stone, and fashioned into some likeness. Dagon, the god of the Philistines, had face, head, and hands, being, as is supposed, half fish and half man. 1 Sam. 5:3-4. The gods made of a tree were also doubtless wrought, at least rudely, in the form of some living or imaginary creature. But there were also MOLTEN IMAGES, as the golden calf, which was first cast and then shaped more exactly with the graving tool. Ex. 32:4: cf. Acts 17:29. Yet Israel had been expressly forbidden to make 'any graven image' to bow down to or to worship. Ex. 20:4-5. The Gentile also, led on by Satan, made his own god, and worshipped it, turning his eyes away from God's 'eternal power and divinity' which are manifest in His works. Rom. 1:20-23.



Grecia, [Gre'cia] Greece.

The Hebrew of Greece is Yavan, which naturally associates it with Javan the son of Japheth. Gen. 10:2, 4; 1 Chr. 1:5, 7. In Isa. 66:19 the country inhabited by his descendants is also called Javan, which is mentioned as a place whose merchants traded with Tyre. Ezek. 27:13, 19.  See JAVAN.  The same word is translated 'Grecia' in Daniel and 'Greece' in Zechariah. It is the well-known country bearing that name in the S.E. corner of Europe, but the name did not always apply to the same extent of territory. It did not anciently include Macedonia, nor does the modern kingdom. Greece is referred to in Daniel as the seat of the third great Gentile empire, of which Alexander the Great was the head, though he was a Macedonian; but he conquered Greece, and the empire he established bears that name. Dan. 8:21; Dan. 10:20; Dan. 11:2.

THE GRECIAN EMPIRE is called 'a kingdom of brass,' as inferior to the Babylonian and the Persian: Dan. 2:39. It was not inferior as to its extent. Of it was said, "it shall bear rule over all the earth;" but as an empire it was not consolidated, and scarcely had any capital. An army had to be left in Greece under Antipater to preserve peace. On the death of Alexander the empire was not conquered by others, but fell to pieces of itself.

The empire is further compared to a leopard, with four wings, marking its rapid conquests. It had four heads, answering to its being divided into four kingdoms, before Rome became supreme. Dan. 7:6. Again it is compared to a he-goat that touched not the ground, also marking the speed of its progress. It was very great, and when very strong its great horn was broken. "The rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king." Dan. 8:6, 8, 21.  See ALEXANDER THE GREAT.  In Zech. 9:13 Greece is mentioned as one of the nations to be subdued by Israel when Jehovah again fights for them. It was visited by Paul under the names of Macedonia, Achaia, and Greece. Acts 16:9-12: Acts 18:12; Acts 19:21; Acts 20:2.


1.  Sons of Javanim, Greeks. The children of Israel had been sold to them by Tyre and Sidon. Joel 3:6.

2. Ἑλληνιστής, Hellenists. Greek-speaking Jews, not to be confounded with Gentile Greeks. They stand in contrast to the Hebrews in Acts 6:1.  Paul disputed with them at Jerusalem. Acts 9:29. The gospel was preached to them at Antioch, Acts 11:20; but in this last passage many MSS read 'Greeks.'


 Ἓλλην. A native of Greece. For their origin, and reference to them in the O.T., see GRECIA and GRECIANS. In the N.T. we read that some came to Jerusalem to worship and desired to see Jesus; but He was then just about to be offered up. John 12:20-24. The Greeks were an intellectual people and naturally sought after wisdom; and Christ crucified was unto them foolishness. How could they naturally think of having faith in a man crucified with malefactors? But to the called ones Christ became the power and wisdom of God. 1 Cor. 1:22-24. In Paul's evangelising among them 'great multitudes ' believed, and lost their proud nationality in Christ. Acts 14:1; Acts 17:4; Gal. 3:28; Col. 3:11.

Greek Language.

God so ordained it that by the rise of the Greek empire this language was spread over Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and countries adjacent, and it is a language still understood by the learned of all nations. It is acknowledged to be a remarkably flexible language, capable of forming new theological terms with delicate shades of meaning, and of expressing ideas with precision. It was therefore, on all accounts, the most suitable language in which to make known the gospel of God, and the truths needed for the building up of the saints. Not only was the New Testament written in Greek, but the O.T. was also translated into the same language, and that version was quoted by both the Lord and His apostles. The chief captain at Jerusalem, though a Roman, asked Paul if he could speak Greek, supposing him to be an Egyptian. Acts 21:37. The inscription placed over the Lord at His crucifixion was written in Greek as well as in Hebrew and Latin: all the world must be informed who it was that hung upon that cross. Luke 23:38; John 19:20. The name and character of the angel of the bottomless pit was also proclaimed in Hebrew and Greek. Rev. 9:11.


This is literally 'girt in the loins,' and reads in the margin 'horse.' Prov. 30:31. It probably refers to a girded warhorse as something that 'goes well,' and is comely or stately in its going.


Grey colour, or mixed with grey. Gen. 31:10;  Zech. 6:3, 6.


1.  eshel, a tamarisk, or perhaps any large tree. Abraham planted a memorial tree in Beer-sheba, and called there on the name of Jehovah. Gen. 21:33. The same word is translated 'tree' in the A.V. in 1 Sam. 22:6 ('grove' in margin) and 1 Sam. 31:13.

2.  asherah, asherath. The word 'grove' naturally suggests a row of trees, but that this cannot be the meaning is evident from groves being set up 'under every green tree.' 1 Kings 14:23; 2 Kings 17:10.  Manasseh set a graven image of the grove that he had made in the temple, which Josiah removed, burnt, and ground to powder. 2 Kings 21:7; 2 Kings 23:6. This was doubtless made of metal, but the groves were of wood, as we learn from their being cut down, and burnt. Judges 6:25-26; 2 Kings 23:14-15. One passage speaks of groves being planted, Deut. 16:21; another, of their being made, and another, of their being built. 1 Kings 14:15, 23. They are constantly associated with idols and images, and Judges 3:7 speaks of their being served along with Baalim.

On the whole it seems most probable that they were wooden symbols of a goddess, in the form of images or pillars, or mere stems of trees inserted in the earth. In 2 Kings 23:7 we read that women wove 'hangings' for the groves, but these were literally 'houses' or 'tents,' which implies that they enclosed the groves, probably for impure purposes, for immorality was almost constantly associated with idolatry. Kalisch and others suppose that the name Asherah has reference to the Syrian goddess Astarte, and it is so translated by the LXX in 2 Chr. 15:16.  Fürst refers it to the Phoenician nature-god. The many references to the idols, images, and groves show how far Israel had departed from the living God and fallen into idolatry.


1.  mishmaath, from 'obedience,' a body-guard. 2 Sam. 23:23; 1 Chr. 11:25.

2.  mishmar, a place where watch was kept. Neh. 4:22-23; Ezek. 38:7.

3.  ruts, 'to run,' runners, state couriers, who published edicts in the provinces, some of which would always be with the king. 1 Kings 14:27-28; 2 Kings 10:25; 2 Kings 11:4-19; 2 Chr. 12:10-11.

4.  tabbach, slaughterer, executioner, attached to the body-guard of the king Gen. 37:36; Dan. 2:14. This Hebrew word occurs in every other passage where the word 'guard' occurs.

Gudgodah. [Gudgo'dah]

One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness. Deut. 10:7. Probably the same as HOR-HAGIDGAD in Num. 33:32-33.


It is recorded that in Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when so many persons came from distant places, those living in the city who were able, gave up a room for the use of any that came to worship, hence the term 'guest-chamber.' The disciples found such a room ready, furnished and prepared, where the Lord kept the last Passover with His disciples. Mark 14:14; Luke 22:11.

Guni. [Gu'ni]

1.  Son of Naphtali, whose descendants were called GUNITES. Gen. 46:24; Num. 26:48; 1 Chr. 7:13.

2.  Father of Abdiel, a chief man of Gad. 1 Chr. 5:15.


Descendants of Guni No. 1. Num. 26:48.


At the ascent or 'going up to Gur' Ahaziah was slain in his chariot. 2 Kings 9:27. Not identified.

Gurbaal. [Gur-ba'al]

Place in which, at the time of Uzziah, Arabians dwelt, against whom God helped him. 2 Chr. 26:7.


1.  tsinnor, 'waterspout or watercourse,' spoken of by David in reference to the attack upon the stronghold of the Jebusites in Jerusalem. 2 Sam. 5:8.

2.  rahat, water-trough for cattle. Gen. 30:38, 41.

Ha, Ha.

The war-horse answers the trumpet with Ha, Ha: he is ready. Job 39:25. The same Hebrew word is translated AH, AHA, q.v.

Haahashtari. [Haahashta'ri]

Son of Ashur of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:6.

Habaiah. [Habai'ah]

Ancestor of some priests who returned from exile. They could not prove their genealogy, and were put from the priesthood. Ezra 2:61; Neh. 7:63.


Nothing is said of the prophet's ancestors, nor as to when he prophesied. He is generally placed in the time of Josiah or a little later: it was before the captivity of Judah, for that is foretold.

Hab. 1.   The prophet exhibits the exercise of a heart full of sympathy towards the people of God. The evil among them greatly distressed him, and he cried mightily unto God. In Hab. 1:5-11 is God's answer. He will raise up the Chaldeans, a "bitter and hasty nation," to punish them. The character and violence of the Chaldeans are described.

In the verses from Hab. 1:12 to Hab. 2:1, the prophet pleads with God not to be unmindful that the Chaldeans were worse than Judah. He will watch for God's answer.

In Hab. 2:2-20   is God's reply. The prophet was told to write the vision so plainly that he who read it might run. The vision was for an appointed time, but it hasted to the end. The restless, grasping pride of the Chaldeans God would in due time judge; but meanwhile "the just shall live by his faith." The rapacity of the Babylonian is spoken of, and then woes are pronounced against the oppressor, for his covetousness, his blood-shedding, his debauchery, and his idolatry.

In contrast to all this the announcement is made that "The earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the Lord, as the waters cover the [bed of the] sea."  This looks forward to the millennium, passing over the partial return of the people in the books of Ezra and Nehemiah. The prophet is assured that "The Lord is in his holy temple: let all the earth keep silence before him." Judgement on the Gentile rulers of God's people will, at the time of the end, immediately precede and lead to the kingdom.

Hab. 3  is a prayer of the prophet. 'Upon Shigionoth,' reads in the margin "according to variable songs or tunes," which signification seems confirmed by the subscription, "To the chief singer on stringed instruments." The prophet realises the presence of God while he reviews His past dealings against Israel's enemies, and sees in them the pledge of the future salvation. At the close, while faith has to wait for the blessing he rejoices in God, saying, "I will rejoice in the Lord, I will joy in the God of my salvation. The Lord God is my strength, and he will make my feet like hinds' feet, and he will make me to walk upon mine high places."

Habaziniah. [Habazini'ah]

Ancestor of Jaazaniah, chief of the Rechabites in the time of Jeremiah. Jer. 35:3.



Habor. [Ha'bor]

An affluent of the Euphrates, joining that river about 35 N.  It marks one of the districts to which the Israelites were carried captive. 2 Kings 17:6; 2 Kings 18:11; 1 Chr. 5:26. It is now called Khabour. The name of the Habor has been found on some of the ancient Assyrian monuments. In ancient histories it has borne the names of Aborrhas, Aburas, Abora, and Chaboras, etc.

Hachaliah. [Hachali'ah]

Father of Nehemiah. Neh. 1:1; Neh. 10:1.

Hachilah. [Hach'ilah]

Hill near Ziph in Judah, described as being 'before' or 'on the south of' Jeshimon. David resorted there when pursued by Saul, and there David spared Saul when he was in his power. 1 Sam. 23:19; 1 Sam. 26:1, 3.  Identified by some with Dhahret el Kolah, 31 28' N, 35 13 E.

Hachmoni. [Hach'moni]

Father of Jehiel, a companion of David's sons. 1 Chr. 27:32. In 1 Chr. 11:11 the same Hebrew word is translated 'Hachmonite.'

Hachmonite. [Hach'monite]

Designation of Jashobeam, 1 Chr. 11:11, or he was 'the son of Hachmoni.' Supposed to be the same as the TACHMONITE in 2 Sam. 23:8 (see margin) the chief of David's valiant men. See ADINO.

Hadad. [Hadad']

1. Son of Bedad and king of Edom. Gen. 36:35-36; 1 Chr. 1:46-47.

2.  An Edomite of the royal family. When a child he was carried into Egypt: Pharaoh eventually gave him his sister-in-law as wife. On the death of David he returned to his own country, and, being stirred up by God, was an enemy and did mischief to Solomon. 1 Kings 11:14-22.

3.  Son of Ishmael. 1 Chr. 1:30. Called HADAR in Gen. 25:15.

4.  King of Edom who succeeded Baal-hanan. 1 Chr. 1:50-51.  Called HADAR in Gen.

36:39. Apparently 'Hadad' was a title of the kings of Edom rather than a name.

Hadadezer. [Hadade'zer]

Son of Rehob, Syrian king of Zobah. He was defeated by David with great loss, and driven across the Euphrates. David took much spoil and the shields of gold he dedicated to the Lord. Hadadezer was also again totally defeated by David. 2 Sam. 8:3-12; 1 Kings 11:23. Called HADAREZER in 2 Sam. 10:16, 19; 1 Chr. 18:3-10; 1 Chr. 19:16-19.

Hadadrimmon. [Hadadrim'mon]

Place in the valley of Megiddo where there had been great mourning. It is quoted as an illustration of the great mourning there will be at Jerusalem when the sin of Judah is brought home to their conscience for having demanded the death of their Messiah. Zech. 12:11. The allusion is considered to be the occasion when Josiah was smitten in that same valley, though the histories do not speak of any mourning there. 2 Kings 23:29; 2 Chr. 35:22-23.  It is identified with Rummaneh, 32 32' N, 35 12' E.

Hadar. [Had'ar]


Hadarezer. [Hadare'zer]


Hadashah. [Hada'shah]

City in the lowlands of Judah. Joshua 15:37. Identified by some with Ebdis or Eddis, 31 41' N, 34 42' E.

Hadassah. [Hadas'sah]

Another name for Esther. Esther 2:7.

Hadattah. [Hadat'tah]

City in the south of Judah. Joshua 15:25.  See HAZOR-HADATTAH.



Hadid. [Ha'did]

Town near Lod and Ono. Ezra 2:33; Neh. 7:37; Neh. 11:34. Identified with Haditheh, 31 58' N, 34 57' E.

Hadlai. [Had'lai]

Father of Amasa, a chief of the Ephraimites. 2 Chr. 28:12.

Hadoram. [Hado'ram]

1.  Son of Joktan, of the family of Shem. Gen. 10:27; 1 Ch. 1:21.

2.  Son of Tou or Toi king of Hamath: he was sent to congratulate David on his victory over Hadarezer. 1 Chr. 18:10. The same as JORAM in 2 Sam. 8:10.

3.  Chief officer over the tribute in the days of Solomon. He lost his life at the division of the kingdom. 2 Chr. 10:18. Apparently the same as ADORAM in 2 Sam. 20:24, and ADONIRAM in 1 Kings 4:6.

Hadrach. [Ha'drach]

District in Syria. Zech. 9:1. Not identified. It is supposed to be found on the Assyrian monuments in the names Hatarakka, and Hatarika, where it is associated with Damascus and Hamath, as in Zechariah.


The 'handle,' as of a dagger. Judges 3:22.

Hagab. [Ha'gab]

Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:46

Hagaba, [Haga'ba] Hagabah. [Haga'bah]

Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:45; Neh. 7:48.

Hagar. [Ha'gar]

Sarah's Egyptian handmaid, given to Abraham, and the mother of Ishmael. When she had conceived, her mistress was despised in her eyes, and on being harshly dealt with, she absconded; but the angel of the Lord bade her return. He would multiply her seed exceedingly. She called His name "Thou God seest me." Fifteen years later, at the feast made by Abraham on the occasion of the weaning of Isaac, Ishmael was seen to mock, and Sarah besought Abraham to cast out Hagar and her son; being instructed by God he did so. Still God protected her and her son, and saved him when she thought he was about to die. Gen. 16:1-16; Gen. 21:9-20; Gen. 25:12.

An allegory is drawn from the above history in Gal. 4:24-31. Hagar (AGAR) answers to the covenant of law and to Jerusalem then in bondage; and Sarah to the covenant of promise and to Jerusalem above, which is free. The conclusion as to the believer is, "so then, brethren, we are not the children of the bondwoman, but of the free." The Christian is not under the law nor in the flesh; but is free, under grace. Being the seed of Abraham according to promise, that is, being 'of Christ,' or 'Christ's,' the gospel and new covenant blessings have come to believers through Him, and they are reckoned as of God's city, Jerusalem above, that is free. The church is of God's eternal counsel, heavenly, and is never in scripture called a mother.

Hagarenes, [Hagare'nes] Hagarites. [Hagari'tes]

People in Arabia on whom the two and a half tribes made war. The great spoil captured shows that they were a wealthy tribe. 1 Chr. 5:10, 19-22; Ps. 83:6. The origin of the name, and where they abode, is not known. In the above Psalm they are distinguished from the Ishmaelites.

Hagerite. [Hag'erite]

Designation of Jaziz, whom David set over his flocks. 1 Chr. 27:31. Probably the same as Hagarene.

Haggai. [Hag'gai]

Scripture is silent as to the ancestors of this prophet. He stands as to date at the return from captivity, and his prophecy is mostly occupied with the house of the Lord, the temple at Jerusalem. About the year B.C. 535, by order of Cyrus, under God, the rebuilding of the temple had been begun; but in consequence of the opposition from without, and the Jews' lack of faith as to the purpose of God in restoring them to their land, the building was stayed. It had been lying for some fifteen years in that state when God caused Haggai to prophesy, and charge the Jews themselves with neglect of the house. God had been dealing with them in providence, withholding the fruits of the earth; but they understood it not, until the prophet bade them consider their ways. They had made excuses that the time had not yet come to build God's house; but they were building their own houses. The prophet bade them fetch wood and build the house, and God would take pleasure in it, though it might appear as nothing in their eyes.

Zerubbabel and Joshua at once responded, and the work was commenced with energy and without permission from the heathen authorities. When asked by whose permission they were building the house, they nobly said, "We are the servants of the God of heaven and earth." Letters were sent to Babylon by the governors of the land, and then God so ordered it that formal permission was given to continue the building. By comparing verses 1 and 15 of Haggai 1 it will be seen that in twenty-four days the work was resumed.

Haggai 2.   There was encouragement for them, and exhortations to be strong: Jehovah was with them. They were reminded of their deliverance from Egypt, and the prophecy then goes on to the future, when God's purpose will be fully accomplished. God is going to shake the heavens and the earth: "the desire of all nations shall come" — doubtless referring to Christ in an objective sense. God will fill His house with glory. And then it is added (as it should read) "the latter glory of this house shall be greater than the former." There have now been three buildings, if the one restored by Herod be counted as one, and there will be another built by the Jews in unbelief; and another, as described by Ezekiel: yet all are designated 'this house,' as the first and second are called 'this house' in 3: cf. Ezra 5:11. The latter glory will be when Christ, "the desire of all nations," shall come to it, and in that place He will give peace.

Hag. 2:10-19   are a separate message from God, reminding the people how unclean they were, and every work of their hands; and how He had been dealing with them in discipline; yet they had not turned unto Him. But from the day of laying the foundation of Jehovah's temple He would bless them.

 Hag. 2:20-23   are still another message from God, and refer again to the future, when all nations will be shaken, and when God will take the true seed of David (here still called 'Zerubbabel my servant', a type of Christ as 'the prince of the house of David'), and make Him as a signet. In contrast to the faithless Coniah, or Jeconiah, king of Judah (as a signet plucked from God's right hand: cf. Jer. 22:24), Christ is the signet on God's right hand, to seal all His purposes touching the nations, and concerning His chosen people Israel.

Haggeri. [Hag'geri]

Father of Mibhar one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:38

Haggi. [Hag'gi]

Son of Gad and founder of the Haggites. Gen. 46:16; Num. 26:15.

Haggiah. [Haggi'ah]

Son of Shimea, a descendant of Merari. 1 Chr. 6:30.

Haggites. [Hag'gites]

Descendants of Haggi. Num. 26:15.

Haggith. [Hag'gith]

One of the wives of David and the mother of Adonijah. 2 Sam. 3:4; 1 Kings 1:5, 11; 1 Kings 2:13; 1 Chr. 3:2.



Hai. [Ha'i]

The same as Ai, the translators having apparently included the article (ha) as part of the name in Gen. 12:8; Gen.13:3, but in these passages only.


Particles of ice falling from the clouds. Though hail is usually formed by natural causes not yet perhaps well understood, it is often referred to in scripture as one of the judgements of God. It formed one of the plagues in Egypt. Ex. 9:18-34; Ps. 78:47-48; Ps. 105:32; and is at times connected with fire or lightning. God smote the Amalekites by 'great stones' from heaven. Joshua 10:11. The hail is called upon to praise Jehovah, because it fulfils His word.  Ps. 148:8; Isa. 28:2, 17; Hag. 2:17. It will also form a notable part of the judgements of God in His future dealings with this guilty world. Rev. 8:7; Rev. 11:19; Rev. 16:21.


Given by God as an ornament and a protection for the head. The Israelites were not to "round the corners of their heads," doubtless in allusion to some heathen practice, one of which has been described as "cutting the hair in a ring away from the temples." Lev. 19:27. Neither were they to make any baldness between their eyes for the dead. Deut. 14:1. Baldness should come as a judgement. Isa. 15:2; Jer. 9:26, margin; Jer. 48:37.

Long hair is referred to in the N.T. as the natural covering of a woman, as owning her subjection to the man, and is a glory to her; but nature teaches that if a man have long hair, it is a shame to him.  His head must not thus be covered, for "he is the image and glory of God." 1 Cor. 11:6-15. "Hair as the hair of women" is a symbol of subjection to a head, and effeminacy. Rev. 9:8.

Hakkatan. [Hak'katan]

Father of Johanan whose descendants returned from exile. Ezra 8:12.

Hakkoz.  [Hak'koz]

The chief of the seventh course of priests. 1 Chr. 24:10. Some priests are alluded to as the descendants of Koz (the prefix being taken as the article) in Ezra 2:61; Neh. 3:4, 21; Neh. 7:63. The R.V. has HAKKOZ in these passages.

Hakupha. [Haku'pha]

Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:51; Neh. 7:53.

Halah. [Ha'lah]

District to which captive Israelites were carried. 2 Kings 17:6; 2 Kings 18:11; 1 Chr. 5:26. In an Assyrian geographical list the name of Halahhu has been found, which corresponds with Halah, but its position is not well defined. The texts associate it with HABOR, q.v.

Halak, [Ha'lak] Mount.

The southern limits of Joshua's conquests. Joshua 11:17; Joshua 12:7. Not identified.

Halhul. [Hal'hul]

City in the highlands of Judah. Joshua 15:58. Identified with Hulhul, 31 35' N, 35 6' E.

Hali. [Ha'li]

City on the boundary of Asher. Joshua 19:25.


This term, which signifies 'praise,' is used by the Jews in reference to certain of the Psalms.

1. The Egyptian Hallel embraces Psalms 113 - 118. It was so called because it was chanted in the temple while the Passover lambs, which were first enjoined in Egypt, were being slain. It was also chanted in private when the Passover was kept; and it is thought that the 'hymn' mentioned in Matt. 26:30; Mark 14:26 refers to part of this Hallel.

2. The Great Hallel. This is so called because of including Psalm 136, in every verse of which is the response "His mercy endureth for ever." Maimonides says it includes Psalms 118 - 136. Others say it begins at Psalm 120 or Psalm 135:4. It was recited on the first evening of the Passover, also on any special occasion.



Hallohesh. [Hallo'hesh]

One who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:24.

Halohesh. [Halo'hesh]

Father of Shallum who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:12.


1. One of Noah's three sons: he was father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan. Mizraim and Phut, in their descendants, were mainly connected with Egypt. Nothing personally is known of Ham except his disrespectful behaviour when his father was intoxicated, and which drew down the curse of Noah on Canaan. Gen. 5:32; Gen. 6:10; Gen. 9:18, 22; Gen. 10:1, 6, 20; 1 Chr. 1:4, 8.

2.  The dwelling place of the above in Egypt was mostly designated 'the land of Ham.' Ps. 78:51; Ps. 105:23, 27; Ps. 106:22.

3.  A place somewhere on the east of the Dead Sea, where the Zuzims dwelt who were smitten by Chedorlaomer. Gen. 14:5.

4.  The Simeonites in searching for pasture for their flocks in the South came to a place where they of Ham had dwelt of old. 1 Chr. 4:40. Some suppose these to have been a colony from Egypt; others judge them to have been Canaanitish nomads.

Haman. [Ha'man]

The chief minister of Ahasuerus in the time of Esther. He was called 'the Agagite,' which associated him with the Amalekites, a people that had attacked Israel maliciously. Perpetual warfare had been pronounced against them by Jehovah and this accounts for Mordecai's refusal to pay Haman reverence, which so wounded his pride and aroused his anger that he plotted to destroy not only Mordecai but all the Jews that were in the king's dominions. His offer of the immense sum of 10,000 talents of silver ought to have shown the king that he had some sinister end in view. Lots were drawn to get a propitious day for their destruction. Not wishing however to wait for that distant day, he thought he would get rid of Mordecai at once by hanging him, and prepared a gallows for the purpose, intending in the morning to ask for his life. But God, who was watching over all, caused that the king on that very night should be reminded of Mordecai's services, which resulted in Haman being compelled to take his intended victim through the city on the king's horse, and proclaim him as the man whom the king delighted to honour. Then Esther pleaded for her life, and the salvation of her people, pointing out Haman as the one who had plotted their destruction; and he was hanged on the very gallows he had prepared for Mordecai: cf. Prov. 26:27. The ten sons of Haman lost their lives also. Thus God watched over His people in their captivity and made the device of their enemy to fall upon his own head, as it will be with Satan. Esther 3 - 9.

Hamath, [Hamath'] Hemath.

District and a noted city in the north of Syria. We read of the HAMATHITE as early as Gen. 10:18. The district lay north of the Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon, but perhaps extended southward, as the northern border of Israel is spoken of as 'the entering in of Hamath.' 1 Kings 8:65. Toi, king of Hamath, sent to congratulate David on his victory over Hadadezer. It was more than a hundred miles farther north than Dan, but it became tributary to Solomon and he built store cities there. 2 Chr. 8:4. On the death of Solomon it appears to have gained its independence, for it was recovered by Jeroboam II.  2 Kings 14:28. It afterwards fell into the hands of the Assyrians. Jer. 52:9, 27.

Antiochus Epiphanes changed its name to Epiphaneia, which name appears on some maps. It is now called Hamah. The river Orontes runs through the city. It is so far removed from the path of ordinary travellers (35 12' N, 36 38' E) that it retains its ancient customs and pride, along with its poverty and fanaticism. The district is mentioned in the future division of the land. Ezek. 47:16-17, 20; Ezek. 48:1; Amos 6:14; Zech. 9:2. In Amos 6:2 it is called HAMATH THE GREAT.

Hamathite. [Hama'thite]

Inhabitant of Hamath. Gen. 10:18; 1 Chr. 1:16.

Hamathzobah.  [Ha'math-zo'bah]

A city conquered by Solomon. 2 Chr. 8:3. It can scarcely be the same as the Hamath which is mentioned in 2 Chr. 8:4. Probably Hamath was a province or city belonging to Zobah.

Hammath. [Ham'math]

One of the fenced cities of Naphtali. Joshua 19:35. Probably on the south of Tiberias, where there are hot springs (as its name implies). Now called Hummam Ibrahim Basha. The heat of the water rises from 132 to 140 Fahr.  See HAMMON.

Hammedatha. [Hammeda'tha]

An Agagite, father of Haman. Esther 3:1, 10, etc.

Hammelech. [Hamme'lech]

Father of Jerahmeel and Malchiah, as in the A.V. The word is considered by some not to be a proper name, but to signify 'the king,' reading 'Jerahmeel, the king's son,' and 'Malchiah, the king's son,' Jer. 36:26; Jer. 38:6; as in the margin and the R.V.

Hammoleketh. [Hammole'keth]

Apparently the daughter of Machir. 1 Chr. 7:18.

Hammon. [Ham'mon]

1.  City of Asher. Joshua 19:28. Identified by some with Ain Hamul, 33 7' N, 35 10' E.

2.  City in Naphtali allotted to the Levites. 1 Chr. 6:76.  By comparing this list of Levitical cities with the one in Joshua 21, Hammon appears to be the same as HAMMOTH-DOR (Joshua 21:32); and this, by the similarity of the name, appears to be the same as HAMMATH in Joshua 19:35.

Hammothdor.  [Ham'moth-dor]


Hamonah. [Hamo'nah]

Name of the place where the multitudes of Gog are to be buried after their destruction. This apparently will give the place its name, which signifies 'multitude.' Ezek. 39:16.

Hamon Gog. [Hamon' Gog]

See GOG.

Hamor. [Hamor']

Prince of the Hivites and father of Shechem, of whose family Jacob bought a piece of ground in which Joseph was buried. Gen. 33:19; Joshua 24:32; Judges 9:28. He is called EMMOR in Acts 7:16.  He with Shechem and all the males of the city were slain with the sword by Simeon and Levi in vindication of their sister Dinah. Gen. 34:2-26.

Hamuel. [Ha'muel]

Son of Mishma, a Simeonite. 1 Chr. 4:26.

Hamul, [Ha'mul] Hamulites.

Son of Pharez, and his descendants. Gen. 46:12; Num. 26:21; 1 Chr. 2:5.

Hamutal. [Hamu'tal]

Daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah, and wife of king Josiah. 2 Kings 23:31; 2 Kings 24:18;

Jer. 52:1.

Hanameel. [Hanam'eel]

Son of Shallum, and cousin of Jeremiah the prophet, of whom, when Jerusalem was besieged by the Chaldeans, the prophet bought a field, as a token that Jehovah would surely fulfil His word that houses, fields, and vineyards would be possessed again in that land. Jer. 32:7-15.

Hanan. [Ha'nan]

1.   Son of Shashak, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:23.

2.   Son of Azel, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:38; 1 Chr. 9:44.

3.   Son of Maachah and one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:43.

4.   Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:46; Neh. 7:49.

5, 6.  Levites who returned from exile, one of whom sealed the covenant. Neh. 8:7; Neh. 10:10.

7, 8. Two chiefs of the people who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:22, 26.

9.    Son of Zaccur and one of the 'treasurers.' (Apparently the four treasurers or store-keepers represented the priests, the scribes, the Levites, and the people.) Neh. 13:13.

10.  One whose sons had a chamber in the house of the Lord. Jer. 35:4.

Hananeel, [Hana'neel] Tower of.

Tower in the wall of Jerusalem between the sheep-gate and the fish-gate. Neh. 3:1; Neh. 12:39; Jer. 31:38; Zech. 14:10.  Its position is not identified.

Hanani. [Hana'ni]

1.  Son of Heman: appointed to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:4, 25.

2.  Seer who rebuked Asa for relying on the king of Syria instead of upon the Lord God. 2 Chr. 16:7.

3.  Father of Jehu the seer who testified against Baasha and Jehoshaphat. 1 Kings 16:1, 7; 2 Chr. 19:2; 2 Chr. 20:34.

4.  Priest who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:20.

5.  Brother of Nehemiah, and governor of Jerusalem under him. Neh. 1:2; Neh. 7:2.

6.  Priest who assisted at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:36.

Hananiah. [Hanani'ah]

1.  Son of Heman: appointed to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:4, 23.

2.  A captain of king Uzziah's army. 2 Chr. 26:11.

3.  Father of Zedekiah a prince in the reign of Jehoiakim. Jer. 36:12.

4.  Son of Azur and the false prophet who withstood Jeremiah. He prophesied that God would break the yoke of the king of Babylon within two years. Jeremiah denounced his prophecy as a lie: he should die within a year, which took place in the seventh month. Jer. 28.

5.  Father of Shelemiah and grandfather of Irijah. Jer. 37:13.

6.  Son of Shashak and a prince of the Benjamites. 1 Chr. 8:21.

7.  The Hebrew name of SHADRACH, a companion of Daniel. Dan. 1:6-19; Dan. 2:17.

8.  Son of Zerubbabel. 1 Chr. 3:19, 21. This Hananiah is supposed to be the JOANNA of Luke 3:27 in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus.

9.  One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:28.

   10, 11.   Two who repaired the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:8, 30.

   12.   Ruler of the palace, who had charge over Jerusalem in the time of Nehemiah: he is described as a faithful man who feared God above many. Neh. 7:2.

13.  One who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:23.

14.  A priest of the family of Jeremiah.  Neh. 12:12.

15.  Priest who assisted at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:41.




Any small cloth. Acts 19:12. The same is translated 'napkin' in Luke 19:20; John 11:14;

John 20:7.

Handmaid, Handmaiden.

These words often refer in scripture to a female slave, as applied to Hagar the Egyptian, Gen. 25:12; but were also used by women themselves as a term of humility, as when Hannah spake to Jehovah and to Eli, 1 Sam. 1:11, 16, 18; as Abigail to David, 1 Sam. 25:24-41; and by Mary and Elizabeth as handmaids of the Lord. Luke 1:38, 48.

Hands, Laying on of.

This was very significant in the sacrifices of the O.T. At the consecration of Aaron and his sons, they laid their hands on the bullock for the sin offering, on the ram for the burnt offering, and on the ram of consecration, showing identification of the offerers with the sacrifices. Lev. 8:14, 18, 22. At the consecration of the Levites the children of Israel first laid their hands on the Levites, and the Levites laid their hands on the head of one bullock for a sin offering, and on another for a burnt offering, to make atonement for the Levites. Num. 8:10-12. On the day of atonement Aaron laid his hands upon the head of the scapegoat, and confessed over it all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and it was sent away into the wilderness to signify the putting away of the sins confessed over the goat. Lev. 16:21.

There was also the laying on of hands as the induction to office, as Moses laid his hands on Joshua, and gave him a charge from the Lord as his successor. Num. 27:23. The apostles also laid hands upon those that had been chosen to take charge of the poor, Acts 6:6; and it is probable that in the appointment of elders, hands were laid upon them. Timothy was counselled not to 'lay hands suddenly' on any man. 1 Tim. 5:22. As a mark of commendation and fellowship hands were laid on Paul and Barnabas when sent forth on their missionary journey. Acts 13:3. A gift was imparted to Timothy with the laying on of Paul's hands, the elderhood being associated with the apostle in the act. 1 Tim. 4:14; 2 Tim. 1:6. The Holy Spirit was also given with the laying on of the apostles' hands. Acts 8:17; Acts 19:6. The sick were often cured with the laying on of hands. Mark 6:5; Luke 4:40; Luke 13:13; Acts 28:8. This apostolic action has been imitated in Christendom and much misused, great pretensions being made as to a status given and spiritual blessing imparted; whereas if it were regarded as a simple recognition and mark of fellowship in service it would be a scriptural act.


City in Egypt to which the ambassadors of Israel were sent when they trusted in Egypt instead of in Jehovah. Isa. 30:4. It was for long identified with Tahpanhes on the eastern frontier, but is now supposed to be the ancient Heracleopolis Magna, identified with Ahnas el Medeeneh, about seventy miles S.W. of Cairo.



Haniel. [Han'iel]

Son of Ulla, and prince of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:39.

Hannah. [Han'nah]

A pious woman, the wife of Elkanah. She deeply lamented that she had no child, and was on that account provoked by Peninnah, the other wife of Elkanah. She represented the feeble condition of Israel at that time, and in that condition prayer was her resource. In pouring out her soul before the Lord, she vowed that if God would hear her prayer and give her a man-child, she would give him unto Jehovah all the days of his life, and no razor should come upon his head. God heard her prayer, and she became the mother of Samuel (which means 'asked of God'), who, when he had been weaned, was given to be servant of Eli the priest. He was 'lent' or 'returned' to the Lord who gave him: see 1 Sam. 1:28, margin.

Hannah prayed to the Lord, and the joy of her heart flowed out in a beautiful prophetic song, praising and exalting God for His salvation and wonderful doings, which would cause the poor to inherit the throne of glory. Led by the Spirit she spoke of Jehovah giving strength to His king and exalting the horn of His Anointed. Her son Samuel anointed David who was a type of Christ. Thus the prayer of a feeble and barren woman brings in intervention and blessing of God by His Messiah. Eli blessed Elkanah and his wife, and she became the mother of three sons and two daughters. 1 Sam. 1:1-28; 1 Sam. 2:1-21.

Hannathon. [Hanna'thon]

Border city of Zebulon. Joshua 19:14. Identified with Kefr Anan, 32 55' N, 35 25' E.

Hanniel. [Han'niel]

Son of Ephod and a prince of Manasseh. Num. 34:23.

Hanoch, [Hanoch'] Henoch. [He'noch]

1.  Son of Midian, and grandson of Abraham and Keturah. Gen. 25:4; 1 Chr. 1:33.

2.  Eldest son of Reuben, and founder of the HANOCHITES. Gen. 46:9; Ex. 6:14; Num. 26:5; 1 Chr. 5:3.

3.  Son of Jered. 1 Chr. 1:3. The same as ENOCH in Gen. 5:19-24.

Hanochites. [Hano'chites]

Descendants of Hanoch, No. 2. Num. 26:5.

Hanun. [Ha'nun]

1.  Son of Nahash and king of Ammon: he insulted the ambassadors of David, and was severely punished for his insolence. 2 Sam. 10:1-4; 1 Chr. 19:2-6. He is a type of those who, refusing the proffered grace of God, will suffer by His judgements.

2, 3. Two who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:13, 30.


'Happen;' if it should so happen; it happened to Ruth that she gleaned in the field of Boaz. Ruth 2:3.

Haphraim. [Haphra'im]

City of Issachar. Joshua 19:19.  Identified by some with ruins at el Farriyeh, 32 38' N, 35° 6' E

35 6' E.


'Perchance, perhaps.' 1 Sam. 14:30; Mark 11:13; Luke 14:29, etc.

Hara. [Ha'ra]

Place to which some of the captives of Israel were carried. 1 Chr. 5:26. It is not included in the parallel passage in 2 Kings 17:6, and may in Chronicles signify 'hill country.'

Haradah. [Hara'dah]

One of the stations of the Israelites. Num. 33:24-25.

Haran. [Ha'ran]

1.  Son of Terah, and brother of Abraham, and father of Lot. Gen. 11:26-31.

2.  Son of Shimei a Gershonite. 1 Chr. 23:9.

3.  Son of Caleb and Ephah. 1 Chr. 2:46. The Hebrew of this differs from Nos. 1 and 2.

Haran, [Ha'ran]

Ancient city in Mesopotamia to which Terah and his family removed from Ur of the Chaldees, and where Abraham tarried, when on his way to the land of Canaan, until his father's death. Here also the descendants of Nahor, Abraham's brother, established themselves; hence the city was called the 'city of Nahor.' Gen. 24:10. The name occurs in Gen. 11:31-32; Gen. 28:10; Gen. 29:4; Isa. 37:12; Ezek. 27:23, etc. It appears in its Greek form as CHARRAN in Acts 7:2, 4. Its district is situated between the river Khabour and the Euphrates. There is still a town in the district called Harran, about 36 52' N, 39 02' E. The name signifies 'road' in Accadian. It was probably so called because the caravan routes of Syria, Assyria, and Babylonia crossed there. It was the seat of a bishopric in the fourth century, and there are still ruins of a cathedral.

Hararite. [Hara'rite]

Designation of Agee, Shammah, Shage, and Sharar or Sacar. 2 Sam. 23:11, 33; 1 Chr. 11:34-35. The term has been thought to signify 'mountaineer.'

Harbona, [Harbo'na] Harbonah. [Harbo'nah]

One of the eunuchs or chamberlains of Ahasuerus. Esther 1:10; Esther 7:9.

Hardly bestead.

'Hard pressed.' Isa. 8:21.


The Hebrew word is arnebeth, and the Arabic name for hare is ernebah; the LXX also translate it as the hare. There can be little doubt therefore that this is the right signification. A difficulty thereupon arises in its being forbidden as unclean, because it chewed the cud but did not divide the hoof. Lev. 11:6; Deut. 14:7. It is now a well-known fact that the hare does not chew the cud, its teeth and stomach not being suited for such a process. Various suggestions have been made in explanation, the most probable is that as the animal appears to chew the cud it is classed with those who did so. Scripture usually speaks of things in nature is they appear to the senses of man, and not according to strict science.

The hare is almost constantly moving its jaws as if it were a ruminant. The poet Cowper kept some young hares in his house, and he says of one, "I made it my custom to carry him always after breakfast into the garden, where he hid himself generally under the leaves of a cucumber vine, sleeping, or chewing the cud, till evening." The two principal species in Palestine are the Lepus syriacus and the Lepus aegyptiacus.

Hareph. [Ha'reph]

Father of Beth-gader, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:51.

Hareth. [Ha'reth]

Forest where David hid himself from Saul. 1 Sam. 22:5.

Harhaiah. [Harhai'ah]

Father of Uzziel who repaired the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:8.

Harhas. [Har'has]

Grandfather of Shallum the husband of Huldah the prophetess. 2 Kings 22:14. Called HASRAH in 2 Chr. 34:22.

Harhur. [Har'hur]

Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:51; Neh. 7:53.

Harim [Ha'rim]

1.  The head of the third order of priests. 1 Chr. 24:8.

2.  Ancestor of priests who returned from exile. Ezra 2:39; Ezra 10:21. Neh. 7:42.

3-5.  Ancestors of some who returned from exile. Ezra 2:32; Ezra 10:31; Neh. 7:35.

6.  Father of Malchijah. Neh. 3:11.

7.  Priest who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:5.

8.  A chief of the people who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:27.

9.  Head of a priestly family. Neh. 12:15.

Hariph. [Ha'riph]

1.  Ancestor of some who returned from exile. Neh. 7:24. Apparently called JORAH in Ezra 2:18.

2.  A chief of the people who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:19.


A woman given up to fornication: there were such as early as Gen. 38:15. The term is used metaphorically for unfaithfulness: "how is the faithful city become an harlot!" Isa. 1:21; Ezek. 16:31, 35.  The mystic Babylon is designated "The mother of harlots," Rev. 17:5: not only unfaithful herself, but the mother of such.

Harmony of the Gospels.

Many have laboriously tried to mould the four gospels into one narrative, thereby more or less destroying what is peculiar to each. Such attempts arise from not seeing that each gospel has its own characteristics stamped upon it by God.  See GOSPELS.

Harnepher. [Harne'pher]

Son of Zophah of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:36.


Armour. Ahab was wounded by an arrow that entered at the joints of his armour. 1 Kings 22:34; 2 Chr. 9:24; 2 Chr. 18:33.


The children of Israel went up 'arrayed,' or, as in the margin, 'by five in a rank.' Ex. 13:18.  See EXODUS, THE.

Harod. [Harod']

A well, or more correctly a spring, near which Gideon encamped, and at which apparently he tested his army by their manner of drinking the water. Judges 7:1. Identified with Ain Jalud, 32 33' N, 35 21' E; connected with which is a large pool, at which many might drink at the same time.

Harodite. [Haro'dite]

Designation of Shammah and Elika, two of David's mighty men, probably from some place called Harod. 2 Sam. 23:25. Apparently the former is called SHAMMOTH the HARORITE in 1 Chr. 11:27.

Haroeh. [Haro'eh]

Son of Shobal, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:52.

Harorite. [Haro'rite]


Harosheth [Haro'sheth ] of the Gentiles.

City where Sisera dwelt. At his defeat Barak pursued the enemy to this city. Judges 4:2, 13, 16. Identified with el Harithiyeh, 32 43' N, 35 6' E.


Musical instrument, probably somewhat like those now bearing the name, for such are seen depicted on the Egyptian monuments. The harp is mentioned as early as Gen. 4:21. It was one of the instruments used in the temple service. 1 Kings 10:12; 1 Chr. 13:8, etc. The harp is remarkable for its soft, soothing sounds. It was used by David to drive away the evil spirit from Saul, 1 Sam. 16:23 and it is the only musical instrument referred to symbolically as being in heaven. Rev. 5:8; Rev. 14:2: called 'the harps of God' in Rev. 15. 2.

Harsha. [Har'sha]

Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:52; Neh. 7:51.


ayyal. A species of deer which is not now definitely known. Many suppose it to be the red deer, the Cervus elaphus. It was a clean animal, and was one supplied to Solomon's table. Deut. 12:15, 22; 1 Kings 4:23. Its desire for the water-brooks is used as a symbol of a soul's panting after God. Ps. 42:1. The bride in the Canticles compares the bridegroom to a young hart. Cant. 2:9, 17; Cant. 8:14. In predicting God's blessing upon Israel in a future day it is said, "the lame man shall leap as a hart." Isa. 35:6. The deer are remarkable for their pleasing form, their graceful movements, and their great agility.

Harum. [Ha'rum]

Father of Aharhel, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:8.

Harumaph. [Haru'maph]

Father of Jedaiah who returned from exile. Neh. 3:10.

Haruphite. [Haru'phite]

Designation of Shephatiah who resorted to David in Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:5.

Haruz. [Ha'ruz]

Father of Meshullemeth wife of Manasseh, and mother of king Amon. 2 Kings 21:19.


With Israel the harvest was associated with the Feasts, which should have kept ever before them the goodness of God. Barley harvest was at the feast of first fruits; the wheat harvest at the feast of weeks; and the vintage at the feast of tabernacles. Lev. 23:10, 16. 34.  Harvest was a joyful time, Isa. 9:3, and the poor were not to be forgotten. Deut. 24:19-22.

The harvest is used symbolically in the N.T. for the gathering of souls to God. Matt. 9:37-38; John 4:35. Also of the judgement of the kingdom at the end of the age, when the angels as reapers will first gather the tares and bind them in bundles for burning, and then the wheat will be gathered into God's barn. Matt. 13:39-41. There will also be a harvest of judgement for the earth: the earth will be reaped; and the vine of the earth, that should have produced fruit to God, will be cast into the winepress of the wrath of God. Rev. 14:15-20. In the harvest there is discrimination in judgement.

Hasadiah. [Hasadi'ah]

Son of Zerubbabel, a descendant of David. 1 Chr. 3:20.

Hasenuah. [Hasenu'ah]

Father of Hodaviah of the tribe of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 9:7.

Hashabiah. [Hashabi'ah]

1.  Son of Amaziah, a Merarite. 1 Chr. 6:45.

2.  A Merarite, father of Azrikam. 1 Chr. 9:14.

3.  Son of Jeduthun: appointed to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:3, 19.

4.  A Hebronite, an officer of David. 1 Chr. 26:30.

5.  Son of Kemuel, a Levite. 1 Chr. 27:17.

6.  Levite who assisted Josiah at the great passover feast. 2 Chr. 35:9.

7, 8.  Two priests who returned from exile. Ezra 8:24; Neh. 12:21.

9-11.  Three Levites who returned from exile. Ezra 8:19; Neh. 10:11; Neh. 12:24.

12, 13. Two Levites, ancestors of some who returned from exile. Neh. 11:15, 22.

14.  One, described as 'ruler of the half part of Keilah,' who helped to repair the wall. Neh. 3:17.

Hashabnah. [Hashab'nah]

One who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:25.

Hashabniah. [Hashabni'ah]

1.  Father of Hattush. Neh. 3:10.

2.  Levite who assisted at the great fast under Ezra and Nehemiah. Neh. 9:5.

Hashbadana. [Hashbada'na]

One who assisted Ezra when he read the law. Neh. 8:4.

Hashem. [Ha'shem]

A Gizonite, father of some of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:34. Apparently the same as JASHEN in 2 Sam. 23:32.

Hashmonah. [Hashmo'nah]

Halting place of Israel. Num. 33:29-30.

Hashub, [Ha'shub] Hasshub. [Has'shub]

1.  Merarite, son of Azrikam. 1 Chr. 9:14; Neh. 11:15.

2, 3.  Two, who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:11, 23.

4.  A chief of the people who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:23.

Hashubah. [Hashu'bah]

Son of Zerubbabel, a descendant of David. 1 Chr. 3:20.

Hashum. [Ha'shum]

1.  Ancestor of some who returned from exile, some of whom had married strange wives. Ezra 2:19; Ezra 10:33; Neh. 7:22.

2.  One who assisted Ezra when he read the law. Neh. 8:4.

3.  A chief of the people who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:18.

Hashupha. [Hashu'pha]

Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Neh. 7:46. Called HASUPHA in

Ezra 2:43.

Hasrah. [Has'rah]


Hassenaah. [Hassena'ah]

One whose sons built the fish gate at Jerusalem. Neh. 3:3. Probably the same as SENAAH in Neh. 7:38 and Ezra 2:35, the article being added in Neh. 3:3.

Hasshub. [Has'shub]


Hasupha. [Hasu'pha]



'Turban.' Dan. 3:21. The word karbela occurs nowhere else.

Hatach. [Hatach']

Chamberlain or eunuch of Ahasuerus who attended on Esther. Esther 4:5-10.

Hathath. [Hathath']

Son of Othniel, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:13.

Hatipha. [Hati'pha]

Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:54; Neh. 7:56.

Hatita. [Hati'ta]

Ancestor of some door-keepers who returned from exile. Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:4.5.

Hattil. [Hat'til]

Servant of Solomon, whose descendants returned from exile. Ezra 2:57; Neh. 7:59.

Hattush. [Hat'tush]

1.  Son of Shemaiah, a descendant of David. 1 Chr. 3:22: cf. Ezra 8:2.

2.  Son of Hashabniah: he helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:10.

3.  Priest who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:4; Neh. 12:2.

Hauran. [Hau'ran]

Province on the east of the Jordan forming part of the ancient kingdom of Bashan, lying to the south of Damascus. The half tribe of Manasseh occupied it. Afterwards it became the province, including Ituraea, ruled over by Philip. Luke 3:1. It is now called the Hauran. It is a fat and fertile plain, but with little natural supply of water. There are many sites of ruined cities and villages, with houses built of hard stone, some of which are in fairly good repair, but with few inhabitants. It is remarkable for its under-ground dwellings, even forming villages, which are difficult of access. The inhabitants are mostly Druzes and nomadic Arabs. When Israel in a future day are in full possession of Palestine, their territory will reach on the N.E. to the 'coast of Hauran.' Ezek. 47:16, 18.

Havilah. [Havi'lah]

1.  Son of Cush, a descendant of Ham. Gen. 10:7; 1 Chr. 1:9.

2.  Son of Joktan, a descendant of Shem. Gen. 10:29; 1 Chr. 1:23.

3.  Land compassed by the river Pison, where there was fine gold and precious stones. Gen. 2:11. It has not been identified.

4.  District near or connected with that of the Amalekites, on the south of Palestine, reaching towards Shur 'that is over against Egypt.' Gen. 25:18; 1 Sam. 15:7. It was probably named from No. 2.

Havothjair.  [Ha'voth-jair]

This signifies 'towns of Jair.' They were in "the country of Argob unto the coasts of Geshuri and Maachathi;" and were also called Bashan-havoth-jair." Deut. 3:14. They were small towns of Gilead. Num. 32:41. The same are called 'towns of Jair' in Joshua 13:30; 1 Kings 4:13; 1 Chr. 2:23. The name occurs again in Judges 10:4. See JAIR.


The Hebrew word is nets, and is held to embrace the different species of hawk, of which there are several, as indeed is implied by the words 'the hawk after his kind.' They were birds of prey and were pronounced to be unclean. Lev. 11:16; Deut. 14:15. Some at least of the hawks are migratory, and this is supposed to be alluded to in Job. 39:26, in the expression "stretch her wings toward the south." The most common of the smaller hawks in Palestine is the Kestrel, Tinnunculus alaudarius.

Hawk, Night,

tachmas.  According to Gesenius this is the ostrich, but both the LXX and the Vulgate make it the night owl. It is classed among the unclean birds. Lev. 11:16; Deut. 14:15.