Bible Dictionary J 1

Jabesh. [Ja'besh]

Father of Shallum king of Israel. 2 Kings 15:10, 13, 14.

Jabesh,  [Ja'besh]  Jabeshgilead.  [Ja'besh-gil'ead]

City in Gilead. When the tribe of Benjamin had been punished for its sin, and wives were wanted for the survivors, Jabesh-gilead was smitten because they came not when called, and only the young women were spared. Judges 21:8, 14. The city was afterwards saved from the Ammonites by Saul; and when Saul and his sons were killed in battle, the valiant men of the city took up their bodies and buried them. 1 Sam. 11:1-11; 1 Sam. 31:11-13; 2 Sam. 2:4-5; 2 Sam. 21:12; 1 Chr. 10:11-12. Identified with ed Deir (on the south of Wady Yabis, in which the name has probably been preserved), 32 23' N, 35 40' E.

Jabez. [Ja'bez]

1.  City in which the various families of the scribes dwelt. 1 Chr. 2:55. Not identified.

2.  A descendant of Judah, said to be more honourable than his brethren. He prayed to the God of Israel that He would bless him, and enlarge his border; that God's hand might be with him, and keep him from evil that it might not grieve him. God granted that which he requested. 1 Chr. 4:9-10. It is a beautiful instance of individual faith, which rose to the privileges of God's earthly people, and counted on the God of Israel.

Jabin. [Ja'bin]

1.  King of Hazor in the north, who, with confederate kings, raised an enormous army 'as the sand that is upon the sea shore,' but was signally defeated by Joshua, after he had overthrown the confederacy in the south. Joshua 11:1-11. Thus early in the history of Israel the kings of the south and the north appear on the scene, and perish.

2.  Another king of Hazor, who oppressed Israel twenty years; he was defeated by Deborah and Barak. Judges 4:2-24. Ps. 83:9 calls upon God to do to the great northern confederacy in the last days as was done to this king.

Jabneel, [Jab'neel] Jabneh. [Jab'neh]

1.  Border city between Judah and Dan. It was taken from the Philistines by Uzziah. Joshua 15:11; 2 Chr. 26:6. Identified with Yebnah, 31 52' N, 34 44' E.

2.  Border city of Naphtali. Joshua 19:33. Identified with Yemma, 32 42' N, 35 30' E.

Jachan. [Ja'chan]

Head of a family of Gad. 1 Chr. 5:13.

Jachin. [Ja'chin]

1.  Son of Simeon. Gen. 46:10; Ex. 6:15; Num. 26:12. Apparently called JARIB in 1 Chr. 4:24.

2.  Head of the twenty-first course of priests. 1 Chr. 24:17.

3.  Priest in Jerusalem on the return from exile. 1 Chr. 9:10; Neh. 11:10.

Jachin. [Ja'chin]

One of the two notable pillars in Solomon's temple: it signifies 'He will establish.' 1 Kings 7:21; 2 Chr. 3:17. See BOAZ.

Jachinites. [Ja'chinites]

Descendants of Jachin, son of Simeon. Num. 26:12.


The word ὑάκινθος signifies hyacinth, and this, as a colour, is a deep purple. In Rev. 9:17 the horsemen had breastplates of fire, jacinth, and brimstone, which seem to imply flashes of coloured light. In Rev. 21:20 the jacinth garnishes the eleventh foundation of the heavenly Jerusalem. It is supposed by some to be the same as the ligure. The Greek word occurs in the LXX in Ex. 25:4; Ex. 26:1, etc., but is translated 'blue.'

Jacob. [Ja'cob]

Son of Isaac and Rebekah. Though a twin, he is called 'the younger,' being born after Esau. Before the children were born it was said, "the elder shall serve the younger." The promises made by God to Abraham were thus confirmed to Jacob, as they had been to Isaac. When they grew up, Esau became a hunter, whereas Jacob was a peaceful man, dwelling in tents. Isaac loved Esau, and Rebekah loved Jacob. The typical character of these three patriarchs has been described thus: "In general, Abraham is the root of all promise, and the picture of the life of faith; Isaac is a type of the heavenly Man, who receives the church; and Jacob represents Israel as heir of the promises according to the flesh." The difference may be seen by comparing Gen. 22:17 ('stars ' and 'sand'), with Gen. 26:4 ('stars' only), and Gen. 28:14 ('dust of the earth' only).

Though Jacob was heir of the promises, and valued God's blessing in a selfish manner, he sought it not by faith, but tried in an evil and mean way to obtain it: first in buying the birthright when his brother was at the point of death; and then, in obtaining the blessing from his father by lying and deceit: a blessing which would surely have been his in God's way if he had waited: cf. Gen. 48:14-20.

Jacob had then to become a wanderer; but God was faithful to him, and spoke to him, not openly as to Abraham, but in a dream. The ladder reaching to heaven, and the angels ascending and descending on it, showed that he on earth was the object of heaven's care. The promises as to the land being possessed by his descendants, and all nations being blessed in his Seed, were confirmed to him, with this difference that in connection with the latter promise it says "in thee and in thy seed," because it includes the earthly blessings to his seed in the millennium. God also said He would keep Jacob wherever he went, and bring him back to the promised land. Jacob called the place Beth-el, saying that it was the house of God, and the gate of heaven. It is figurative of Israel's position, not in heaven, but the 'gate' is theirs. He made a vow that if God would bless him and bring him back in peace, Jehovah should be his God. This was not the language of faith.

Jacob, who had tricked his brother, was treated in a similar way by Laban, and Leah was given to him as wife instead of Rachel, though he had Rachel, the one he loved, afterwards. He had not learnt to trust God, but used subtle ways to increase his possessions; and he also was dealt with in a like manner, having his wages changed 'ten times.' But God was watching over him and bade him return to the land of his fathers; and when Laban pursued after him, God warned him in a dream not to speak to Jacob either good or bad. They made a covenant together, and each went his way.

Immediately afterwards the angels of God met Jacob, and he recognised them as 'God's host.' Then he had to meet Esau, and doubtless conscience smote him, for he was greatly alarmed. He prayed to God for help, yet was full of plans, sending presents to appease his brother, and

dividing his people into two bands, so that if one of them were smitten, the other might escape. When he was alone God took him in hand: a 'man' (called 'the angel' in Hosea 12:4) wrestled with him. He was lamed, yet he clung, and in faith said, "I will not let thee go, except thou bless me." He was accounted a victor, and his name was changed from Jacob to ISRAEL: "for as a prince hast thou power with God and with men, and hast prevailed." God did not yet make known His name to him.

God protected him from Esau, as He had from Laban: they kissed each other and wept. He then feigned that he would follow Esau to Seir, but turned aside to Shechem, where he bought the portion of a field, thus settling down for his own ease in the midst of the Canaanites, instead of going to Beth-el, God's house, from whence he had started. His peace was soon disturbed by his daughter Dinah going to see the daughters of the land, and being dishonoured, which was avenged by the slaughter of the Shechemites by his sons Simeon and Levi, bringing Jacob into great fear.

God used this humiliating sorrow to discipline Jacob, and recover him to his true calling. He therefore bade Jacob go to Beth-el, and make an altar there. This disclosed a sad state of things: he had to meet God, and must purify himself, and his household must put away their strange gods. He built an altar and called it, 'El-beth-el;'  'the God of Bethel.' God renewed His promises and revealed Himself to Jacob as GOD ALMIGHTY.

Jacob loved Joseph more than all his other sons, which caused them to hate Joseph; they also hated him for the communications given to him through dreams, and eventually sold him to the Ishmeelites. Again Jacob was dealt with deceitfully; his sons pretended that they had found Joseph's coat stained with blood, and Jacob was greatly distressed. But God was watching and overruling all for good. When Jacob and his household arrived in Egypt, he as a prince of God blessed Pharaoh king of Egypt. He lived in Egypt seventeen years, and died at the good old age of 147.

Jacob at the close of his life rose up to the height of God's thoughts, and by faith blessed the two sons of Joseph, being led of God to cross his hands, and gave the richest blessing to Ephraim. Then, as a true prophet of God, he called all his sons before him, and blessed them, with an appropriate prophecy as to the historical future of each (considered under each of the sons' names). He fell asleep, and his body was embalmed and carried into Palestine to lie with those of Abraham and Isaac.

Jacob being named ISRAEL led to his descendants being called the CHILDREN OF ISRAEL. They are however frequently addressed as 'JACOB,' or 'house of Jacob,' as if they had not preserved the higher character involved in the name of 'Israel,' but must be addressed by the natural name of their forefather, Jacob. Gen. 25 — Gen. 49.

Jacob. [Ja'cob]

Father of Joseph the husband of Mary. Matt. 1:15-16.

Jacob's Well.

In the valley of Shechem, near to a city called Sychar, was the well where the Lord rested, and conversed with the woman of Samaria. John 4:5-12. It is identified with Bir Yakub, at the base of Gerizim, 32 12' N, 35 16' E, and is one of the few spots in Palestine the identification of which has not been disputed.

The well is cut out of the solid limestone, 7ft. 6in. in diameter, and is 115 feet deep. The well's mouth is below the surface of the ground and is covered with a stone with a hole in the centre. A traveller, John of Wurzburg (A.D. 1160-1170), says that when he visited the well a church was then being erected over it; but that has long since been destroyed and a Russian Orthodox Church built over it, though unfinished due to the Communist Revolution of 1917.  See SYCHAR.

Jada. [Ja'da]

Son of Onam, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:28, 32.

Jadau. [Ja'dau]

One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:43.

Jaddua. [Jad'dua]

1.  One who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:21.

2.  Son of Jonathan, a descendant of Jeshua the priest. Neh. 12:11, 22.

Jadon. [Ja'don]

A Meronothite who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:7.

Jael. [Ja'el]

Wife of Heber the Kenite, a descendant of Jethro, father-in-law of Moses, who was head of an Arab clan which was established in the north of Palestine. When Sisera's army was defeated by Barak and Deborah, he left his chariot and fled on foot to the tent of Jael, whose husband was at peace with Jabin. Jael invited him into her tent, and bade him not to fear, gave him milk to drink, and covered him up. Being weary he fell asleep, and Jael with a hammer drove a tent-peg through his temples till it entered the ground. Judges 4:17-22; Judges 5:6, 24.

Great indignation has been expressed at this act of Jael, and even Christians have blamed her severely; but it was foretold that Jehovah would "sell Sisera into the hand of a woman;" and immediately after the deed, it is added, "So God subdued on that day Jabin the king of Canaan before the children of Israel." And Deborah, in her song of praise, pronounced Jael to be "blessed above women." It is clear from this song that Sisera was an enemy not only of God's people, but of the Lord Himself, for she prophetically utters the words, "So let all thine enemies perish, O Lord." Compare Num. 10:35. Hence God empowered Jael to take his life — as He had led Joshua in some instances to destroy the women and children of the places conquered by him. Where an act is clearly the execution of God's righteous judgement, it rises altogether above what would be justifiable under ordinary circumstances of hospitality or of warfare. Of course in some instances the thing accomplished may be according to the will of God, but not the way in which it is effected.

Jagur. [Ja'gur]

Town in the south of Judah. Joshua 15:21. Not identified.


An abbreviated form of Jehovah. Ps. 68:4. The same Hebrew word occurs many times, and is translated LORD.  See GOD.

Jahath. [Ja'hath]

1.  Son of Reaiah, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:2.

2.  Son of Libni, a Gershonite. 1 Chr. 6:20, 43.

3.  Son of Shimei, a Gershonite. 1 Chr. 23:10-11.

4.  Son of Shelomoth, a descendant of Levi. 1 Chr. 24:22.

5.  Descendant of Merari, and an overseer at the repairing of the temple under Josiah. 2 Chr. 34:12.

Jahaz, [Ja'haz] Jahaza, [Jaha'za] Jahazah, [Jaha'zah] Jahzah. [Jah'zah]

Place east of the Jordan where Sihon king of the Amorites was conquered. It was allotted to Reuben, but afterwards became a Levitical city. Num. 21:23; Deut. 2:32; Joshua 13:18; Joshua 21:36; 1 Chr. 6:78; Isa. 15:4; Jer. 48:21, 34. Not identified.

Jahaziah. [Jahazi'ah]

Son of Tikvah: a chief who supported Ezra in the matter of separating from foreign wives. Ezra 10:15.

Jahaziel. [Jahazi'el]

1.  A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:4.

2.  Priest who assisted at the bringing up of the ark. 1 Chr. 16:6.

3.  Son of Hebron, a descendant of Kohath. 1 Chr. 23:19; 1 Chr. 24:23.

4.  Son of Zechariah, a Levite: the spirit of Jehovah came upon him to encourage Jehoshaphat against the Moabites. 2 Chr. 20:14.

5.  Ancestor of some who returned from exile. Ezra 8:5.

Jahdai. [Jah'dai]

One in the family of Caleb. 1 Chr. 2:47.

Jahdiel. [Jahdi'el]

Head of a family in Manasseh. 1 Chr. 5:24.

Jahdo. [Jah'do]

Son of Buz, a descendant of Gad. 1 Chr. 5:14.

Jahleel, [Jah'leel] Jahleelites. [Jahlee'lites]

Son of Zebulun, and his descendants. Gen. 46:14; Num. 26:26.

Jahmai. [Jah'mai]

Son of Tola, a son of Issachar. 1 Chr. 7:2.

Jahzah. [Jah'zah]


Jahzeel, [Jah'zeel] Jahziel, [Jahzi'el] Jahzeelites. [Jahzee'lites]

Son of Naphtali, and his descendants. Gen. 46:24; Num. 26:48; 1 Chr. 7:13.

Jahzerah. [Jahze'rah]

A priest, son of Meshullam. 1 Chr. 9:12.

Jahziel. [Jahzi'el]




Jair. [Ja'ir]

1.  Son of Segub, a descendant of Judah but called 'son of Manasseh' from his mother the daughter of Machir. He is also called one of 'the sons of Machir, the father of Gilead.' He conquered the territory of Argob with some towns, which he called HAVOTH-JAIR, 'the towns of Jair.' Num. 32:41; Deut. 3:14; Joshua 13:30; 1 Kings 4:13; 1 Chr. 2:22-23.

2.  A Gileadite who judged Israel twenty-two years. Judges 10:3-5. He had thirty sons, who had thirty cities in the land of Gilead, which were also called 'HAVOTH-JAIR.'

3.  A Benjamite, father of Mordecai. Esther 2:5.

4.  Father of Elhanan who slew Lahmi the brother of Goliath. 1 Chr. 20:5. He is called JAARE-OREGIM in 2 Sam. 21:19.

Jairite. [Jai'rite]

Designation of Ira, a ruler under David. 2 Sam. 20:26.

Jairus. [Jai'rus]

Ruler of a synagogue in Galilee, whose daughter the Lord restored to life. Mark 5:22; Luke


Jakan. [Ja'kan]


Jakeh. [Ja'keh]

Father of Agur, whose 'words' are in Proverbs 30.

Jakim. [Ja'kim]

1.  Son of Shimhi, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:19.

2.  Head of the twelfth course of the priesthood. 1 Chr. 24:12.

Jalon. [Ja'lon]

Son of Ezra, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:17.

Jambres. [Jam'bres]


James, Son of Zebedee.

One of the twelve apostles, and brother of John the apostle. He was a fisherman, and was called to the apostleship while mending his nets. He at once forsook all and followed the Lord. Matt. 4:21; Matt. 10:2; Mark 1:19, 29; Luke 5:10; Luke 6:14; Acts 1:13. James and his brother were named by the Lord BOANERGES, 'sons of thunder.' He with John asked if they should call down fire from heaven on the Samaritans. Luke 9:54.

Peter, James, and John were privileged by the Lord to attend Him on several occasions, as on the mount of transfiguration. Matt. 17:1; Mark 5:37; Mark 9:2; Mark 13:3; Mark 14:33; Luke 8:51; Luke 9:28. The mother of James and John requested that her two sons might sit, the one on the right hand and the other on the left of the Lord in His kingdom. This raised the indignation of the other disciples; but the Lord taught them all a lesson of humility: He Himself had come to minister and to give His life a ransom for many. Matt. 20:20. James was killed by Herod Agrippa I. about A.D. 43.  Acts 12:2. The 'James' referred to in 1 Cor. 15:7 may be this apostle.

James, Son of Alphaeus.

One of the twelve apostles. Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13. These are the only passages where with certainty this apostle is spoken of; but we find in the Acts of the Apostles a James at Jerusalem after the son of Zebedee had been killed, and holding a sort of first place there. He spoke with a measure of authority at the conference respecting the law not being enforced on the Gentiles, saying, 'My sentence is,' etc. This suggests that he was an apostle, and the son of Alphaeus. Acts 12:17; Acts 15:13; Acts 21:18; Gal. 2:9, 12. He was most probably the writer of the Epistle of James, and the brother of Jude, or Judas, who was also an apostle. Luke 6:16; James 1:1; Jude 1.

James, the Lord's Brother.

Though the word ἀδελφός is used in the LXX in a wider sense than 'brother,' it has been judged that its use in the N.T. is restricted to those born of the same mother; and therefore the Lord's brother could not have been the same person as the son of Alphaeus. Nor is it probable that he was one of the twelve apostles, for we read that "neither did his brethren believe in him." John 7:5. The first mention of the Lord's brethren being with the apostles is in Acts 1:14, and there they are referred to as distinct from them. James the Lord's brother was seen at Jerusalem by Paul. Gal. 1:19. The being thus designated distinguishes him from the apostle who is simply called James in Gal. 2:9, 12. Learned authorities state that in Gal. 1:19 the construction of the passage in the Greek does not necessarily imply that James the Lord's brother was an apostle. He is mentioned also in Matt. 13:55; Mark 6:3

James the Less.

This occurs in Mark 15:40, and the same person is called simply James in Matt. 27:56; Mark 16:1; Luke 24:10. He is only mentioned to point out his mother, whose name was Mary. James and Joses were common names and are found also among the brethren of the Lord. But James the Less may be, as some think, the same person as James the son of Alphaeus.

James, Epistle of.

This was written to the twelve tribes which were in the dispersion, viewing them as still in relationship with God, though it was only the Jewish remnant, now become Christians, who professed the faith, which the Spirit gave, in the true Messiah. The moral measure of the life presented is the same as when the Lord was here among His disciples: it does not rise up to the position and principles of the church as found in Paul's epistles. The believers being in the midst of the Israelites, some of whom merely professed faith in Christ, accounts for the apostles address to the mass and the warning to professors. The epistle belongs in character to the transitional time in the early part of the Acts, when the believers went on with the temple worship, etc., before Paul's testimony came in. In some Greek MSS this epistle follows the Acts, preceding Paul's writings.

Referring to the various temptations into which saints fall, the apostle bids them count it all joy, inasmuch as the proving of faith works endurance. But this last must have her perfect work that they might be lacking in nothing. If wisdom be lacking, it should be sought in faith from God. The man who doubts will get nothing.

The poor and the rich had both that in which they could glory; the one in his exaltation, the other in his humiliation, being able rightly to judge of that which is but for a moment. The crown of life is for him who endures trial — for those in fact who love God.

There is however temptation from within, which is not from God, and this results in sin and death. What is from God is good, for He is the Father of lights. He has begotten us by the word of truth as a kind of first-fruits of His creatures. Hence let every one be swift to hear, but slow to speak, and slow to wrath: that is, swift to take in, but slow to give forth. The implanted word, received with meekness, is able to save the soul. But the believer must do it as well as hear it. If the tongue be unbridled, a man's religion is vain. Pure religion before God and the Father is deeply practical both as regards human need and separation from the world.

Chapter 2.  The saints are warned against respect of persons in their meetings, the rich honoured above the poor. Did not rich men oppress them and blaspheme Christ? If indeed they kept the royal law (to love their neighbour as themselves) they did well. But they transgressed it in respecting persons. They should speak and act as those that were to be judged by the law of liberty.

The apostle then speaks of the folly of saying one had faith apart from works. Where faith is alive there will be these latter. The question is viewed here from man's standpoint: "Show me thy faith," etc. Paul views it from that of God, who reckons people who believe "righteous without works." Both need to be apprehended.

Chapter 3.  The danger of being many teachers is now the theme. The tongue is a small member, but is capable of great effects, and must therefore be restrained. A man who does not offend in word is a 'perfect man.' A wise man will show his works out of a good conversation with meekness of wisdom. This is in contrast to the mere self-constituted teacher. Heavenly wisdom leads to peace; but it is first pure; that is, God has His place in the soul; then peaceable, self has no place; while the outcome as regards others is that it is full of mercy and good fruits.

Chapter 4.  The evil of lust and the world is set in contrast to the action of the Spirit in us. Lowliness, submission to God, and resistance to the devil, are urged upon the believers. They are warned against speaking evil one of another, in doing which they judged the law, which inculcates loving one's neighbour as oneself. None should exercise self-will; in going here or there the will of the Lord should be submitted to.

Chapter 5.  The unrighteousness, self-indulgence, and oppression of the rich are solemnly inveighed against, and they are reminded of the day of retribution. The brethren are exhorted to patience in view of the coming of the Lord, while they are warned against a spirit of mutual complaint, lest they themselves should be judged. The prophets are held forth as examples of suffering and patience. Those who endure are called blessed. The end of the Lord, to which saints in trial must look, shows Him to be very pitiful and of tender mercy. A warning follows against the evil of swearing. Prayer is the resource of the suffering; singing psalms that of the happy. Encouraging instructions are given in relation to cases of sickness. Forgiveness and healing are in the governmental dealings of God. The saints are exhorted to mutual confession and to prayer, the efficacy of which is then enlarged on.

The epistle closes somewhat abruptly with a short statement of the result achieved in the restoration of any who had erred from the truth; a soul is saved from death, and a multitude of sins are covered.

The epistle was doubtless written by James the son of Alphaeus; from whence it is not known, and its date is only conjectural, varying from A.D. 45 to 60. In the common versions it is called "the general, or catholic epistle," probably meaning no more than that it is not addressed to any particular assembly; but the word 'general' is not in any of the earlier Greek copies.

Jamin. [Ja'min]

1.  Son of Simeon. Gen. 46:10; Ex. 6:15; Num. 26:12; 1 Chr. 4:24.

2.  Son of Ram, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:27.

3.  Priest, or Levite, who helped to explain the law to the people. Neh. 8:7.

Jaminites. [Ja'minites]

Descendants of Jamin, son of Simeon. Num. 26:12.

Jamlech. [Jam'lech]

A prince in the tribe of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:34.

Janna. [Jan'na]

Son of Joseph in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:24.

Jannes [Jan'nes ] and Jambres. [Jam'bres]

These are mentioned by Paul as having withstood Moses; to whom he compares those who by imitation were resisting the truth in the church. 2 Tim. 3:8. Jannes and Jambres were doubtless the leaders of the Egyptian magicians who imitated the first plagues before Pharaoh; but who, when it was a question of the creation of life, had to confess that the finger of God was there. The judgement of God fell upon them also, for they were smitten with the boils and blains. As their folly was manifest in contending with the God of Israel, so shall be the folly of those who oppose the truth.

Janoah. [Jano'ah]

City of Naphtali. It was taken by Tiglath-pileser. 2 Kings 15:29. Identified with Yanuh, 33 16' N, 35 18' E.

Janohah. [Jano'hah]

Border city of Ephraim. Joshua 16:6-7. Identified with Yanun, 32 9' N, 35 21' E.

Janum. [Ja'num]

City in the highlands of Judah. Joshua 15:53. Identified with Beni Naim, 31 31' N, 35 9' E.

Japheth. [Japh'eth]

One of three sons of Noah. He was the father of Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. From these names it has been gathered that the descendants of Japheth spread over the whole of Europe and a great part of northern Asia. Noah prophesied of him, "God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant." He is not here brought into relationship with God, as Shem is: enlargement on the earth is what is predicted, and this has been manifestly fulfilled. Gen. 5:32; Gen. 6:10; Gen. 7:13; Gen. 9:18, 23, 27; Gen. 10:1-2, 21; 1 Chr. 1:4-5.

Japhia. [Japhi'a]

1.  King of Lachish, one of the five kings of the Amorites, defeated by Joshua. Joshua 10:3.

2.  Son of David, born at Jerusalem. 2 Sam. 5:15; 1 Chr. 3:7; 1 Chr. 14:6.

3.  Town on the boundary of Zebulun. Joshua 19:12. Identified with Yafa, 32 41' N, 35 16' E.

Japhlet. [Japh'let]

Son of Heber, a descendant of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:32-33.

Japhleti. [Japhle'ti]

"The border of the Japhletites," R.V., a boundary of Ephraim. Joshua 16:3.

Japho. [Ja'pho]

Boundary of the tribe of Dan. Joshua 19:46. It is the ancient name of JOPPA: now called Yafa, 32 3' N, 34 45' E.

Jarah. [Ja'rah]

Son of Ahaz, a descendant of Saul. 1 Chr. 9:42. Called JEHOADAH in 1 Chr. 8:36.

Jareb. [Ja'reb]

Apparently a symbolical name for the king of Assyria. Israel had sent to Assyria for help; but Assyria had proved to be no help, but rather a Jareb, or 'adversary, enemy' (Fürst). Hosea 5:13; Hosea 10:6; cf. 2 Chr. 28:16, 20.

Jared. [Ja'red]

Son of Mahalaleel, a descendant of Seth. Gen. 5:15-20; Luke 3:37. Called JERED in 1 Chr. 1:2.

Jaresiah. [Jaresi'ah]

Son of Jeroham, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:27.

Jarha. [Jar'ha]

Egyptian servant to Sheshan, who gave him his daughter in marriage. 1 Chr. 2:34-35.

Jarib. [Ja'rib]

1.  Son of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:24. See JACHIN.

2.  One whom Ezra sent to fetch Levites for the house of God. Ezra 8:16.

3.  Priest who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:18.

Jarmuth. [Jar'muth]

1.  City of Judah, taken from the Amorites by Joshua. Joshua 10:3, 5, 23; Joshua 12:11; Joshua 15:35; Neh. 11:29. Identified with el Yarmuk, 31 42' N, 34 58' E.

2.  City of Issachar, allotted to the Levites. Joshua 21:29. Probably the same as REMETH in Joshua 19:21, and RAMOTH in 1 Chr. 6:73. Not identified.

Jaroah. [Jaro'ah]

Son of Gilead, a descendant of Gad. 1 Chr. 5:14.

Jashen. [Ja'shen]

Father of one of David's valiant men. 2 Sam. 23:32.

Jasher, [Ja'sher] Book of.

A book only referred to in Joshua 10:13; 2 Sam. 1:18, and of which nothing further is known. The quotations are poetical. There are several writings extant bearing the above title, but neither of them have any connection with the one alluded to in scripture.

Jashobeam. [Jashobe'am]

1.  A Hachmonite, chief of David's captains. 1 Chr. 11:11; 1 Chr. 27:2.

2.  A Korhite who resorted to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:6.

Jashub. [Ja'shub]

1.  Third son of Issachar. Num. 26:24; 1 Chr. 7:1. Apparently the same as JOB in Gen. 46:13.

2.  One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:29.

Jashubilehem. [Ja'shubi-le'hem]

Person or place mentioned only in 1 Chr. 4:22.

Jashubites. [Ja'shubites]

Descendants of Jashub, son of Issachar. Num. 26:24.

Jasiel. [Jasi'el]

The Mesobaite, one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:47.

Jason. [Ja'son]

The host of Paul and Silas at Thessalonica, whose house was attacked by the Jews, and himself arrested. Acts 17:5-9. Perhaps the same as the one at Rome described as a kinsman of Paul. Rom. 16:21.


yashepheh, ἴασπις. This is not considered to be the same as the modern jasper, which is an opaque variety of quartz of many different colours. To what gem scripture refers is not known: some suppose the diamond. In Rev. 21:11 it is described as 'clear as crystal.' It had a place in the high priest's breastplate, and was one of the stones in the covering of the symbolical king of Tyrus in Eden. Ex. 28:20; Ex. 39:13; Ezek. 28:13. He who sat on the throne in heaven, as seen by John, was 'to look upon like a jasper;' it is also used in the description of the heavenly Jerusalem. Rev. 4:3; Rev.21:11, 18, 19. The jasper is a symbol of the communicable glory of God. Compare John 17:22.

Jathniel. [Jathni'el]

Son of Meshelemiah, a Korhite. 1 Chr. 26:2.

Jattir. [Jat'tir]

City in the highlands of Judah, allotted to the priests. Joshua 15:48; Joshua 21:14; 1 Sam. 30:27; 1 Chr. 6:57. Identified with ruins at Attir, 31 22' N, 35 E.

Javan. [Ja'van]

Fourth son of Japheth, and father of Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim and Dodanim. "From these came the distribution of the isles of the nations." Gen. 10:2, 4; 1 Chr. 1:5, 7. Corresponding to this is Isa. 66:19, where God sends His messengers to Javan, to the isles afar off, where His glory shall be made known. In Dan. 8:21, where the Hebrew is the same, Alexander the Great is king of Javan, agreeing with Dan. 10:20; Dan. 11:2; , Zech. 9:13 that Javan refers to Greece. In Ezek. 27:13 the Javan that traded with Tyre doubtless also refers to Greece; but in Ezek. 27:19 it is supposed to point to southern Arabia, the verse being better translated "Vedan and Javan of Uzal traded in thy markets," etc.


1.  chanith, a light, flexible spear, and often translated 'spear.' 1 Sam. 18:10-11; 1 Sam. 19:9-10; 1 Sam. 20:33.

2.  romach, spear or lance used by heavy-armed troops. Num. 25:7.

Jazer. [Ja'zer]


Jaziz. [Jaz'iz]

A Hagerite, David's chief shepherd. 1 Chr. 27:31.


qana, 'to be inflamed.' The warm affection that cannot bear to see its loved one enticed by another, as a man is jealous of his wife, Num. 5:14; as Paul felt for the Corinthian saints, 2 Cor. 11:2; and as God regarded the people and the land which He had chosen, and upon which He had placed His name. Ps. 79:5; Ezek. 39:25; Joel 2:18; Zech. 1:14; Zech. 8:2. "Jehovah, whose name is jealous, is a jealous God." Ex. 34:14.

Moses speaks of Jehovah provoking Israel to jealousy by their seeing Gentiles coming into blessing. Paul also sought to do the same that they might be saved. Deut. 32:21; Rom. 10:19; Rom. 11:11, 14.

THE IMAGE OF JEALOUSY, which provoketh to jealousy, was seen in a vision by the prophet, set up in the temple (Ezek. 8:3-5), as when Manasseh set up the graven image in the house of Jehovah, 2 Kings 11:7; though doubtless by the scope of the prophecy reference is made to secret idolatry in connection with the service of the temple, and to secret idols in the hearts of those who were professedly the worshippers of God: such would assuredly provoke the jealousy of Jehovah.

THE LAW OF JEALOUSY, when a man suspected his wife of being unfaithful to him, is given in Num. 5:11-31. The woman was required to drink bitter water, composed of 'holy water,' in which was placed dust from the floor of the tabernacle (type of the Holy Spirit applying what death is, as God's judgement of sin, by the word to the conscience). If she had been unfaithful it would be a curse to her. It pointed figuratively to the question of Israel's unfaithfulness to Jehovah.

Jearim. [Jea'rim]

Mount on the northern border of Judah, on the side of which was CHESALON, q.v. Joshua 15:10.

Jeaterai. [Jea'terai]

Son of Zerah, a descendant of Gershom. 1 Chr. 6:21.

Jeberechiah. [Jeberechi'ah]

Father of Zechariah, in the reign of Ahaz. Isa. 8:2.

Jebus, [Jebu's] Jebusi. [Jebu'si]

The original name of Jerusalem. Joshua 18:16, 28; Judges 19:10-11; 1 Chr. 11:4-5. In Joshua 15:8 it is called 'the Jebusite.'

Jebusites. [Jeb'usites]

A race of people, descendants of Canaan, son of Ham, living in Palestine when the land was promised to Abraham. Gen. 10:16; Gen. 15:21. They were described by the spies as dwellers in the mountains. Num. 13:29. When the kings of the land combined against Gibeon for having made alliance with Israel, the Jebusites, who were apparently living in Jerusalem, were among them. They were defeated with great slaughter, and the king of Jerusalem was slain. Joshua 10:1-23. They joined in another confederacy (Joshua 11:3) and were again defeated, but they were not rooted out of the land; and Israel mingled with them in marriage. Judges 1:21; Judges 3:5.

When David came to Jerusalem he was defied by the Jebusite inhabitants, who apparently held it by a strong fort; but 'David took the stronghold of Zion,' and called it the city of David. Some of the Jebusites were however in Jerusalem long after; for it was the threshing floor of Araunah, or Ornan, the Jebusite, that David bought at the time of the plague. 2 Sam. 5:6, 8;

2 Sam. 24:16, 18.

Jecamiah. [Jecami'ah]

Descendant of Jeconiah. 1 Chr. 3:18.

Jecholiah, [Jecholi'ah] Jecoliah. [Jecoli'ah]

Wife of Amaziah king of Judah, and mother of Azariah, or Uzziah. 2 Kings 15:2; 2 Chr. 26:3.

Jechonias. [Jechoni'as]


Jecoliah. [Jecoli'ah]


Jeconiah. [Jeconi'ah]

Another form of JEHOIACHIN king of Judah. 1 Chr. 3:16-17; Esther 2:6; Jer. 24:1; Jer. 27:20; Jer. 28:4; Jer. 29:2. Its Greek form is JECHONIAS. Matt. 1:11-12.

Jedaiah. [Jedai'ah]

1. Son of Shimri, a descendant of Simeon 1 Chr. 4:37.

2.  Head of the second course of priests. 1 Chr. 24:7.

3.  Son of Harumaph: he helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:10.

4.  One who had returned from exile, apparently bringing gold and silver, of which crowns were made to be "for a memorial in the temple of Jehovah." Zech. 6:10, 14.

5, etc.  Some priests who returned from exile. 1 Chr. 9:10; Ezra 2:36; Neh. 7:39; Neh. 11:10; Neh. 12:6-7, 19, 21.

In Nos. 1 and 3 the Hebrew is different from the others.

Jediael. [Jedi'ael]

1.  Son of Benjamin, and from whom descended 17,200 mighty men of valour. 1 Chr. 7:6, 10, 11.

2.  Son of Shimri and one of David's valiant men. 1 Chr. 11:45.

3.  A warrior of Manasseh who resorted to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:20.

4.  Son of Meshelemiah, a descendant of Korah. 1 Chr. 26:2.

Jedidah. [Jedi'dah]

Daughter of Adaiah, and mother of Josiah king of Judah. 2 Kings 22:1.

Jedidiah. [Jedidi'ah]

Symbolical name, signifying 'Beloved of Jehovah,' given by God to Solomon, when an infant. 2 Sam. 12:25. This, following on the great sin of David with Bathsheba, is a remarkable instance of how grace can abound over sin.

Jeduthun. [Jedu'thun]

Son of Berechiah, a Levite, and one of David's chief musicians; he is also called the king's seer. Ps. 39, Ps. 62, and Ps. 77 are inscribed to him. Some of his descendants assisted in the service of song and some returned from exile. 1 Chr. 16:38, 41, 42; 1 Chr. 25:1-6; 2 Chr. 5:12; 2 Chr. 35:15; Neh. 11:17.

Jeezer, [Jee'zer] Jeezerites. [Jee'zerites]

Son of Gilead and his descendants. Num. 26:30. Apparently the same as ABIEZER and ABIEZRITES in Joshua 17:2; Judges 6:11, etc. (one letter being omitted).

Jegarsahadutha.  [Jega'r-sahadu'tha]

Aramaic name given by Laban to the heap of stones raised as a witness between him and Jacob, which Jacob called GALEED, both signifying 'cairn of witness.' Gen. 31:47.

Jehaleleel. [Jehal'eleel]

Descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:16.

Jehalelel. [Jehal'elel]

A Merarite, father of Azariah. 2 Chr. 29:12.

Jehdeiah. [Jehdei'ah]

1.  Son of Shubael, a Levite. 1 Chr. 24:20.

2.  A Meronothite, overseer of David's asses. 1 Chr. 27:30.

Jehezekel. [Jehez'ekel]

Head of the twentieth course of priests. 1 Chr. 24:16.

Jehiah. [Jehi'ah]

Door-keeper when the ark was brought to Jerusalem. 1 Chr. 15:24.

Jehiel. [Jehi'el]

1.  A Levite, musician and door-keeper in the time of David. 1 Chr. 15:18, 20; 1 Chr. 16:5.

2.  Son of Laadan, a Gershonite: he had charge of the treasures. 1 Chr. 23:8; 1 Chr. 29:8.

3.  Son of Hachmoni, and a companion of David's sons. 1 Chr. 27:32.

4.  Son of Jehoshaphat, slain by Jehoram. 2 Chr. 21:2.

5.  Son of Heman, a Levite. 2 Chr. 29:14.

6.  Levite, set over the dedicated things. 2 Chr. 31:13.

7.  A 'ruler of the house of God.' 2 Chr. 35:8.

8.  Ancestor of some who returned from exile. Ezra 8:9.

9.  Father of Shechaniah, who supported Ezra in the matter of the strange wives. Ezra 10:2.

10, 11.  Two who had married strange wives. Ezra 10:21, 26.

12.  Father of Gibeon, ancestor of Saul. 1 Chr. 9:35.

13.  Son of Hothan and one of David's valiant men. 1 Chr. 11:44.

In Nos. 12 and 13 the Hebrew is different from the others.

Jehieli. [Jehie'li]

Gershonite family who had charge of the treasures. 1 Chr. 26:21-22. Apparently the patronymic of JEHIEL, No. 2.

Jehizkiah. [Jehizki'ah]

Son of Shallum: he opposed the captives from Judah being brought into Samaria. 2 Chr. 28:12.

Jehoadah. [Jehoad'ah]


Jehoaddan. [Jehoad'dan]

Wife of Joash king of Judah, and mother of Amaziah. 2 Kings 14:2; 2 Chr. 25:1.

Jehoahaz. [Jeho'ahaz]

1.  Son and successor of Jehu king of Israel: he reigned from B.C. 856 to 841. He did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, and was oppressed by Hazael king of Syria, who compelled him to reduce his army to fifty horsemen, ten chariots, and ten thousand foot soldiers. His submission to Syria continued under Benhadad. But when he prayed to the Lord a 'saviour' was raised up who delivered him out of the hand of the Syrians. 2 Kings 13:1-25; 2 Kings 14:1, 8, 17; 2 Chr. 25:17, 25.

2.  Son and successor of Josiah king of Judah: he reigned only three months, B.C. 610. He did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, and was deposed by Pharaoh-Necho, who sent him in chains to Egypt, where he died. 2 Kings 23:30-34; 2 Chr. 36:1-4. He is called SHALLUM in 1 Chr. 3:15; Jer. 22:11. In the parable of the Lion's whelps in Ezek. 19:1-9 this king is referred to as being carried in chains to Egypt.

3.  Name given to AHAZIAH in 2 Chr. 21:17. See AHAZIAH, No. 2.

Jehoash. [Jeho'ash]


Jehohanan. [Jehoha'nan]

1.  Son of Meshelemiah, a Korhite. 1 Chr. 26:3.

2.  Captain in the days of Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr. 17:15.

3.  Father of Ishmael one of the captains of Jehoiada. 2 Chr. 23:1.

4.  One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:28.

5.  Priest 'of Amariah.' Neh. 12:13.

6.  Priest who assisted at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:42.

Jehoiachin. [Jehoi'achin]

Son and successor of Jehoiakim king of Judah. According to 2 Kings 24:8 he began to reign when he was eighteen years of age, but 2 Chr. 36:9 says 'eight years' (one being apparently an error of the copyist). He reigned but three months, B.C. 599, when Jerusalem was taken by Nebuchadnezzar, and the great captivity of Judah was accomplished. Jehoiachin was carried to Babylon and kept in prison thirty-six years; on the accession of Evil-merodach, B.C. 561, he was released from prison and exalted above the other captive kings, and he ate bread before the king all the days of his life. 2 Kings 24:6-15; 2 Kings 25:27; 2 Chr. 36:8-9; Jer. 52:31; Ezek. 1:2. He is called JECONIAH in 1 Chr. 3:16 17; Esther 2:6; Jer. 24:1; Jer. 27:20; Jer. 28:4 (where his return from Babylon is falsely prophesied of); Jer. 29:2. He is also called CONIAH in Jer. 22:24, 28; Jer. 37:1, and JECHONIAS in Matt. 1:11-12.

Jehoiada. [Jehoi'ada]

1.  Father of Benaiah one of David's officers. 2 Sam. 8:18; 1 Kings 1:8-44, etc. In 1 Chr. 27:5 he is called 'a chief priest,' which makes it possible that he is the same person as No. 3; but in the margin he is called 'principal officer.'

2.  High priest during the usurpation of Athaliah. He preserved the life of Joash, the infant son of Ahaziah, and succeeded, with wisdom and energy, in placing him on the throne, and then caused the death of Athaliah. It is recorded that Joash did that which was right in the sight of the Lord all the days of Jehoiada; but on the death of the priest, the king forgot his kindness and slew Zechariah his son. 2 Kings 11:4-17; 2 Kings 12:2, 7, 9; 2 Chr. 22:11; 2 Chr. 23:1-18; 2 Chr. 24:2-25.

3.  Leader of the Aaronites (or 'prince of Aaron') who resorted to David at Hebron. 1 Chr. 12:27.

4.  Son of Benaiah and one of David's counsellors. 1 Chr. 27:34.

5.  Son of Paseah: he repaired the 'old gate ' of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:6.

6.  Priest mentioned by the false prophet Shemaiah in his letters against Jeremiah. Jer. 29:26.

Jehoiakim. [Jehoi'akim]

Name given by Pharaoh-Necho, to ELIAKIM son of Josiah king of Judah, whom he made king in the room of Jehoahaz his brother. He reigned from B.C. 610 to 599. 2 Kings 23:34-36. He was at first tributary to Egypt; but Egypt being defeated by Assyria at Carchemish, B.C. 606, he became tributary to Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar visited Jerusalem, bound Jehoiakim in chains to carry him to Babylon, but apparently altered his plans and left him at Jerusalem as a vassal; or, if he carried him to Babylon, allowed him to return. 2 Chr. 36:5-8; Dan. 1:2. After three years Jehoiakim revolted and God sent against him bands of the Chaldees, the Syrians, the Moabites, and the Ammonites to destroy Judah on account of their wickedness. 2 Kings 24:1-5.

Jehoiakim was warned many times, but he resented the admonitions, and put Urijah the prophet to death. In the fourth year of his reign, Jeremiah wrote in a book his prophecies against Judah and Israel, which were read in the Lord's house; but when tidings of this reached the king he sent for the book, heard it read, and then cut it in pieces and burnt it. He ordered the arrest of Jeremiah and of Baruch who had written the book; but the Lord hid them. God declared he would punish him, and said, "He shall be buried with the burial of an ass, drawn and cast forth beyond the gates of Jerusalem:" his end is not recorded. Jer. 22:18, 24; Jer. 26:21-23; Jer. 36:9-32.

Jehoiarib. [Jehoia'rib]

1.  Priest in Jerusalem, on the return from exile. 1 Chr. 9:10.

2.  Head of the first course of priests. 1 Chr. 24:7.

Jehonadab. [Jehona'dab]


Jehonathan. [Jehona'than]

1.  Son of Uzziah, overseer of David's storehouses. 1 Chr. 27:25.

2.  Levite sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the people. 2 Chr. 17:8.

3.  Priest 'of Shemaiah,' who returned from exile. Neh. 12:18. Apparently called Jonathan in Neh. 12:35.

Jehoram. [Jeho'ram]


Jehoshabeath. [Jehoshabe'ath]

Daughter of Joram king of Judah, and wife of Jehoiada, high priest. She with her husband sheltered her nephew Joash until he was set on the throne. 2 Chr. 22:11. She is called JEHOSHEBA in 2 Kings 11:2.

Jehoshaphat. [Jehosh'aphat]

1.  Son and successor of Asa king of Judah, B.C. 914 to 891. He sought God, walked in the 'first' ways of David, and took away the high places and groves out of Judah. God established the kingdom in his hand, and the fear of the Lord fell upon the kingdoms around. God gave him peace, and the Philistines and the Arabians brought him presents. He increased in riches, and was strengthened greatly. He not only feared the Lord himself, but he sent Levites and priests throughout all Judah, to teach the people. 2 Chr. 17:1-12. He erred, however, in making alliance with idolatrous Israel, and in allowing his son to marry Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. He went with Ahab to war against Ramoth-gilead, and nearly lost his life, but God delivered him. 1 Kings 22; 2 Chr. 18. He was rebuked by Jehu the seer, who said, "Shouldest thou help the ungodly, and love them that hate the Lord? Therefore is wrath upon thee from before the Lord." Then he sought the Lord, and set his heart to bring all his people to fear the Lord. 2 Chr. 19.

After this, the men of Moab and of Ammon, a great multitude, came against Jehoshaphat. He turned to the Lord, proclaimed a fast, and prayed for help in the house of the Lord, where the Lord had set His name, pleading that He was their God, who had given the land to the seed of Abraham His friend, pleading also His response to the prayer of Solomon. He was at once assured by a prophet that the battle was not theirs, but God's, whose name they had invoked: they should see the salvation of the Lord. Jehoshaphat and all the people fell down and worshipped the Lord, and the next morning they marched toward the enemy singing. They had no need to fight, for the enemy destroyed one another, and there was much spoil. Praise was given to Jehovah. Subsequently the king, forgetting what was due to the name of the Lord, associated himself with the wicked Ahaziah king of Israel in sending ships to Tarshish. This action was condemned by the prophet Eliezer, and his ships were wrecked. 2 Chr. 20. He is called JOSAPHAT in Matt. 1:8.

In Jehoshaphat there was a heart true to Jehovah, and a desire to bring his subjects to the true worship of God, but his history was marred by his inconsistently allying himself with the ungodly and idolatrous kings of Israel. The faithfulness of the Lord in chastening Jehoshaphat is very marked, and in not allowing him to be in a false position which practically denied the name of the Lord.

2.  Son of Ahilud, and recorder to David and Solomon. 2 Sam. 8:16; 2 Sam. 20:24; 1 Kings 4:3; 1 Chr. 18:15.

3.  Son of Paruah, and a commissariat officer of Solomon. 1 Kings 4:17.

4.  Son of Nimshi, and father of king Jehu. 2 Kings 9:2, 14.

5.  Priest who assisted in bringing up the ark. 1 Chr. 15:24.

Jehoshaphat, [Jehosh'aphat] Valley of.

This is mentioned only in Joel 3:2, 12, as a place where the nations will be judged for their treatment of God's people, when Judah is being brought into blessing. The name signifies 'Jehovah is judge,' and some think that it is used symbolically for the place where God will judge. In Joel 3:14 occurs 'the valley of decision,' which is also connected with God's judgements.

Others however associate the above with the valley lying between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives, now called the Valley of Jehoshaphat; but no trace of this name as attached to that particular valley can be found earlier than the fourth century. It was and is otherwise known as the Valley of the KIDRON, q.v.

Jehosheba. [Jeho'sheba]


Jehoshua, [Jehoshu'a] Jehoshuah. [Jehoshu'ah]

Name in its uncontracted form given to Joshua by 'Moses. He "called OSHEA the son of Nun Jehoshua," thus altering his name from 'Deliverance' to 'Jehovah is Saviour.' Num. 13:16; 1 Chr. 7:27.

Jehovah. [Jeho'vah]

See GOD.

Jehovahjireh. [Jeho'vah-jir'eh]

Name, signifying 'Jehovah will see, or provide,' given by Abraham to the place where he had been told to offer up his son Isaac in memory of God having provided a substitute. Gen. 22:14. "In the mount of the Lord it shall be seen" is added, which has led some to connect it with Mount Moriah in Jerusalem; but scripture does not reveal what mountain it was.

Jehovahnissi.  [Jeho'vah-nis'si]

Name, signifying 'Jehovah my banner,' which Moses gave to the altar he built after the defeat of Amalek. Ex. 17:15.

Jehovahshalom.  [Jeho'vah-sha'lom]

Name, signifying 'Jehovah of peace,' which Gideon gave to the altar which he built when the Lord appeared to him and he feared he should die. Jehovah said to him, "Peace be unto thee; fear not: thou shalt not die." Judges 6:24.

Jehovahshammah. [Jeho'vah-sham'mah]

Name, signifying 'Jehovah is there,' to be given to Jerusalem, when it is brought into full blessing in the millennium. Ezek. 48:35 margin.

Jehovahtsidkenu.  [Jeho'vah-tsidke'nu]

Name, signifying 'Jehovah our righteousness,' to be given to the Lord Jesus when He reigns over restored Judah and Israel in the millennium. Jerusalem will also bear the same name. Jer. 23:6; Jer. 33:16 margin.

Jehozabad. [Johoza'bad]

1.  Son of Shomer, or Shimrith: he, with Jozachar, slew Joash king of Judah. 2 Kings 12:21; 2 Chr. 24:26.

2.  Son of Obedadom, a Korhite. 1 Chr. 26:4.

3.  A Benjamite, captain of king Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr. 17:18.

Jehozadak. [Jehoza'dak]

Son of Seraiah: a priest carried into captivity. 1 Chr. 6:14-15. See JOSEDECH.

Jehu. [Je'hu]

1.  Son of Jehoshaphat, a son of Nimshi: tenth king of Israel and founder of the fifth dynasty: he reigned from B.C. 884 to 856. Jehu was captain of Jehoram, and was stationed at Ramoth-gilead to keep in check the Syrians on the east of the Jordan. A young man of the prophets, who had been sent by Elisha, arrived at the camp and said he had a message for Jehu. On retiring into the house he anointed Jehu to be king over Israel, with instructions to smite the whole house of Ahab. The prophet opened the door and fled. On Jehu relating what had happened, his companions in arms at once proclaimed him king of Israel. 2 Kings 9:1-13.

Jehu lost no time in fulfilling his mission; entering his chariot, he proceeded with some followers in haste to Jezreel, whither king Jehoram, being wounded, had gone to be healed. Jehu and his company were seen by the watchman of the city, and a horseman was despatched to meet him, and to ask if it was peace. Jehu detained him, and likewise a second messenger that was sent. The watchman now discerned that it was Jehu who was in the chariot, by his furious driving. Jehoram and Ahaziah king of Judah (who had come to visit the wounded king) at once each in his own chariot issued forth to meet Jehu. Jehoram, being repulsed by Jehu, called out 'Treachery,' and attempted to flee, but an arrow from Jehu pierced his heart and he fell dead. His body was thrown into the field of Naboth the Jezreelite, which Ahab had gained by murder: cf. 1 Kings 21:19-29. The king of Judah escaped after being wounded, but died of his wound. 2 Kings 9:14-27.

As Jehu entered Jezreel, Jezebel taunted him; but she was thrown down from the window and her body was consumed by dogs, according to the word of the Lord. Jehu then caused the death of seventy of the sons of Jehoram and forty-two of the 'brethren of Ahaziah' who came to salute the royal family; and slew all that remained to Ahab, his great men and his priests. Meeting Jehonadab, he took him up in his chariot, saying, "Come with me, and see my zeal for the Lord." He then in craft gathered together all the priests and worshippers of Baal, for a great sacrifice, completely filling the house of Baal. At his command all were slain, the images burned, and the house destroyed. 2 Kings 9:30 -2 Kings 10:28.

Jehu was commended for carrying out the will of God in exterminating the house of Ahab, and Jehovah said to him that his children to the fourth generation should sit upon the throne. 2 Kings 15:12.  But he took no heed to walk in the law of the Lord with all his heart. He did not remove the golden calves, and he departed not from the sins of Jeroboam who made Israel to sin. Therefore God began to cut Israel short by the king of Syria. 2 Kings 10:29-36; Hosea 1:4.

The history of Jehu shows how one may have great zeal as far as outward activity goes without a heart set upon serving the Lord.

2.  Son of Hanani and a prophet of Judah: he announced the judgement of God against Baasha and rebuked Jehoshaphat. 1 Kings 16:1, 7, 12; 2 Chr. 19:2; 2 Chr. 20:34.

3.  Son of Obed, and father of Azariah. 1 Chr. 2:38.

4.  Son of Josibiah, of the tribe of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:35.

5.  An Antothite who joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:3.

Jehubbah. [Jehub'bah]

Son of Shamer, of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:34.

Jehucal. [Jehu'cal]

Son of Shelemiah and an officer of Zedekiah. Jer. 37:3. He is Called JUCAL in. Jer. 38:1.

Jehud. [Je'hud]

City of Dan. Joshua 19:45. Identified with el Yehudiyeh, 32 2' N, 34 54' E.

Jehudi. [Jehu'di]

Son of Nethaniah, and an attendant at the court of Jehoiakim. Jer. 36:14-23.

Jehudijah. [Jehudijah]


Jehush. [Jehu'sh]

Son of Eshek, a descendant of Saul. 1 Chr. 8:39.

Jeiel. [Jei'el]

1.  A chief of the tribe of Reuben. 1 Chr. 5:7.

2.  Levite, musician and door-keeper in the time of David. 1 Chr. 15:18, 21; 1 Chr. 16:5.

3.  Son of Mattaniah, a Levite of the sons of Asaph. 2 Chr. 20:14.

4.  Scribe to king Uzziah. 2 Chr. 26:11.

5.  Son of Elizaphan, a Levite. 2 Chr. 29:13.

6.  A chief of the Levites in the time of Josiah. 2 Chr. 35:9.

7.  Son of Adonikam: he returned from exile. Ezra 8:13.

8.  One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:43.

Jekabzeel. [Jekab'zeel]

City in the extreme south of Judah. Neh. 11:25. Called KABZEEL in Joshua 15:21; 2 Sam. 23:20; 1 Chr. 11:22. Not identified.

Jekameam. [Jekam'eam]

Son of Hebron, son of Kohath. 1 Chr. 23:19; 1 Chr. 24:23.

Jekamiah. [Jekami'ah]

Son of Shallum, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:41.

Jekuthiel. [Jeku'thiel]

Father of Zanoah, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:18.

Jemima. [Jemi'ma]

Eldest daughter of Job after his restoration to health and prosperity. Job 42:14.

Jemuel. [Jemu'el]


Jephthah, [Jeph'thah] Jephthae. [Jeph'thae]

Son of Gilead by a 'strange woman.' Being turned out by his half-brothers he went into the land of Tob, where 'vain men' joined him, and went out with him, apparently as freebooters. But when the Ammonites attacked Israel, the men of Gilead called in the aid of this 'mighty man of valour.' He covenanted with them that if he was successful in the war he should be their head. After vainly seeking to divert the Ammonites from their unjust aggression, by maintaining that the Lord God of Israel had given them the land which Ammon now sought to possess, the Spirit of the Lord came upon Jephthah, and he prepared for the war; but before the battle, he vowed that if the Lord would deliver the Ammonites into his hand he would on returning devote to the Lord whatever should first come out of his house to meet him.

The Ammonites were smitten with very great slaughter: he conquered twenty cities, for the Lord delivered them into his hand. On returning to his house, his daughter, his only child, came out to meet him. He rent his clothes, and was in deep trouble; but said he had opened his mouth to the Lord, and could not go back. His daughter coincided with this view, seeing that the Lord had taken vengeance on their enemies. Two months were occupied by her and her companions bewailing her virginity.

As to his daughter being really offered as a sacrifice, the vow was "I will offer it up for a burnt offering;" and at the end of the two months "she returned to her father, who did with her according to his vow which he had vowed:" which seems to imply that she was offered up as a sacrifice. If so, such a sacrifice would have been contrary to the law, only certain clean beasts and birds being eligible. One of these may have been offered for her in the spirit of Ex. 13:13 and Lev. 26: and she have been devoted to perpetual virginity. This to an Israelite would have been a sufficient calamity to account for Jephthah's grief. Judges 11.

The men of Ephraim then gathered themselves together and complained that Jephthah had not called them to the war, beginning a quarrel, which ended with the death of 42,000 of the Ephraimites. Jephthah judged Israel six years. Judges 12:1-7.

The history of Jephthah shows how Israel had fallen in having recourse to the captain of a troop of 'vain men.' Jephthah suffered severely through his rash vow, and he had not wisdom and humility to appease the anger of Ephraim. God did not desert His people, but their low state is very manifest. 1 Sam. 12:11. The faith of Jephthae is spoken of in Heb. 11:32. He maintained the title of God's people to the inheritance God had given them.

Jephunneh. [Jephun'neh]

1.  Father of Caleb, of the tribe of Judah. Num. 13:6; Num. 34:19 etc.

2.  Son of Jether, of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:38.

Jerah. [Je'rah]

Son of Joktan, of the family of Shem. Gen. 10:26; 1 Chr. 1:20.

Jerahmeel. [Jerah'meel]

1.  Son of Hezron, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:9-42.

2.  Son of Kish, a Merarite. 1 Chr. 24:29.

3.  Son of Hammelech and an officer of Jehoiakim. Jer. 36:26.

Jerahmeelites. [Jerah'meelites]

Descendants of Jerahmeel, son of Hezron. 1 Sam. 27:10; 1 Sam. 30:29.

Jered. [Je'red]

Father or founder of Gedor. 1 Chr. 4:18.  See also JARED.

Jeremai. [Jere'mai]

One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:33.

Jeremiah. [Jeremi'ah]

1.  Man of Libnah, whose daughter Hamutal was the wife of Josiah. 2 Kings 23:31; 2 Kings 24:18; Jer. 52:1.

2. Head of a family in the tribe of Manasseh. 1 Chr. 5:24.

3. One who resorted to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:4.

4, 5.  Two of the Gadites who resorted to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:10, 13.

6. Son of Hilkiah, priest of Anathoth: the writer of the Book of Jeremiah. His history is contained in his prophecy. He was carried to Egypt by the rebellious Jews and his end is not recorded. 2 Chr. 35:25; 2 Chr. 36:12, 21, 22; Ezra 1:1; Jer. 1 — Jer. 51.

7. Priest who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:2; Neh. 12:1, 12, 34.

8. Father of Jaazaniah a Rechabite. Jer. 35:3.

Jeremiah, [Jeremi'ah] Book of.

This prophecy commenced in the thirteenth year of Josiah, B.C. 629, and extended beyond the destruction of Jerusalem. The great captivity was in B.C. 599, when Zedekiah was left in Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, and Jerusalem was not destroyed until B.C. 588, eleven years after. Great efforts were made by the prophet to bring Zedekiah to the fear of the Lord. What especially marks the spirit of the prophet personally is sorrow. It was a grief to him to see Judah departing from Jehovah, and to be obliged to predict  the judgement of God upon them, the people he loved; added to which he actually suffered from the hand of those whom he sought to help. A similar sorrow is seen in the Lord Jesus respecting Jerusalem, and in Paul respecting the church. In some instances Jeremiah's parables were acted, so as the more forcibly to impress the careless people. The prophecies are not arranged chronologically, but there is doubtless a divine reason why that order is not followed. In the LXX the order of the chapters differs widely from that in the Hebrew and the A.V., but it is not known what led to the difference. The LXX appears to have been made from a faulty copy, or the text was misunderstood by the translators, for there are many deviations from the Hebrew. The phrase 'the Lord saith' is omitted sixty-four times, with other omissions — in all about one-eighth of the whole.

Jer. 1.  Jeremiah is established in his office, to which he had been sanctified from his birth as prophet to the nations, Israel having been set in the midst of the Gentiles as the direct centre of God's government in the earth. He was in great fear, but was assured of God's presence. He saw a rod of an almond tree (which is the first tree to blossom) signifying that God would hasten to perform what He said. The prophet also saw a seething pot, and its face towards the north, answering to Chaldea.

Jer. 2 — Jer.6.  This section is an appeal to Jerusalem, with exhortations to repentance, and warnings as to what had befallen Israel. It was given in the days of Josiah, when there had been a reformation, but they had not turned to God with the whole heart: backsliding Israel had justified herself more than treacherous Judah. Jer. 3:6, 11.

Jer. 7 — Jer. 10.  This section is respecting the temple. The people boasted of possessing the temple, but there was insincerity and idolatry. Touching exhortations are made, and judgements declared.

Jer. 11 — Jer.12.  The responsibility of the people is pressed: they had entered into covenant with God, yet they had gone into idolatry, so that the Lord asks, "What hath my beloved [people] to do in mine house?" Judgement must follow; but here and there future blessings are spoken of. There is deep grief that judgements are needed. Jer. 12:14 shows the prophet's office against the nations — "mine evil neighbours."

Jer. 13.  The destruction of the pride of Jerusalem is foretold under the figure of a marred girdle which Jeremiah had buried, the great sorrow being that though as a girdle cleaves to the loins of a man, the Lord had caused all Israel to cleave to Him for His glory, yet they had left Him: compare Luke 19:41. [Some objectors consider it very improbable that Jeremiah would be told to go from Jerusalem to the Euphrates to hide the girdle, and then again to fetch it back. Some judge it to have been a vision only, and others that Ephrath (that is Bethlehem) is meant instead of the Euphrates. Jeremiah may however have gone but once, and it would have been a striking lesson of obedience to Jehovah to go such a long distance on such an errand.] The parable of the bottles of wine follows, with exhortations to repent of the abominations.

Jer. 14, Jer. 15.  A grievous famine occurred: the Lord would not be interceded with for them, yet Jeremiah takes up the sin of the people, and acknowledges it; but the answer (Jer. 15) is terrible. The false prophets were no excuse: they were utterly rejected. Jeremiah, though he loved the people, was hated by them. He had stood before the people for the Lord, who now identified him with the remnant. It should be well with them. Meanwhile Jehovah's words were the joy of his heart. Jehovah would deliver him.

Jer. 16, Jer. 17.  The prophet is told to take no wife: the children of the place should only come to death: compare Matt. 12:46, 50. God would drive them out of the land, but there was mercy in store for the future. The prophet was mocked by the people: he had to call them to the observance of the Sabbath.

Jer. 18 — Jer. 20.  God was the potter and the people were the clay: He could do as He pleased with them, or with any nation — either pull down or build up; but they determined to walk after their own devices. He would fulfil His word concerning them. The people laid plots against Jeremiah: he was put in the stocks, and smitten by Pashur, upon whom a doom was denounced. Jeremiah bemoaned his lot.

Jer. 21: — Jer. 24.  When Nebuchadnezzar came against Jerusalem, Zedekiah sent to the prophet to know whether the Lord would appear for them. Jeremiah had to utter the dreadful news that God would Himself fight against them. To the people it was said that if they would surrender to the king of Babylon they should live; if not, they should die. They were exhorted to repentance, and the prophecies against Shallum, Jehoiakim, and Coniah are detailed. Woe to the shepherds, but there was a day of blessing coming, when the true Son of David, the righteous Branch and King, should reign and prosper. A lamentation was made against the false prophets. The people carried away with Jeconiah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar are compared to good figs; but those left in the land under Zedekiah to bad ones.

Jer. 25  gives a summary of God's judgements by Nebuchadnezzar, with a seventy years' captivity for Judah: then Babylon and all the nations that surrounded Palestine should come under God's judgements, but judgement begins with the city called by God's name.

Jer. 26.  In the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim, Jeremiah exhorted to repentance, but the priests and prophets demanded his death. The princes however protected him, and the elders reminded the people that Hezekiah did not put Micah to death. To this it was apparently responded that Jehoiakim had put the prophet Urijah to death. Ahikam however shielded Jeremiah.

Jer. 27.  Most probably the name Jehoiakim in Jer. 27:1 should be Zedekiah; but it may be that the prophecy was given to Jeremiah in the days of Jehoiakim though not related till the days of Zedekiah. The king is exhorted to submit to the king of Babylon.

Jer. 28.  Hananiah prophesies falsely, and is opposed by Jeremiah, who foretells his death.

Jer. 29.  Jeremiah wrote to the captives in Babylon, urging them to make themselves homes there, and God would bring them back at the end of the seventy years. The false prophets are condemned.

Jer. 30, Jer. 31.  The captives should surely return; but these chapters apply to the future, and this restoration will be after the 'time of Jacob's trouble,' a tribulation such as has never been cf. Matt. 24; Mark 13.  The new covenant blessings concern both Judah and Israel. God will appear for them, and the restoration will be full and complete with universal blessing.

Jer. 32, Jer. 33.  Jeremiah was put in prison by Zedekiah, but he bought a field in token of his assurance of the captives' return. In Jer. 33 the prophecy goes on to the future, when the Lord Jesus will appear as the Branch of righteousness, and the successor of David. Jer. 33:15.

Jer. 34.  All who had Hebrew bondservants had made a covenant with Zedekiah, and had set them free, but afterwards they again made bondmen of them. This is denounced by Jeremiah and its punishment foretold.

Jer. 35.  The faithfulness of the Rechabites is held up as a worthy example: God would bless them and their posterity.

Jer. 36.  Jeremiah caused Baruch to write his prophecy against Jerusalem in a roll. On this being read to king Jehoiakim he burnt it, and sought to arrest the prophet and Baruch; but God hid them. Another roll was obtained and the prophecies re-written.

Jer. 37 — Jer. 39.  The taking of Jerusalem was at hand. Jeremiah was about to leave the city, but was arrested, beaten, and put into prison. Zedekiah gave him some relief; but on foretelling the fall of the city he was put into a dungeon, where he sank in the mire. He was delivered by Ebed-melech, an Ethiopian, on whom a blessing was pronounced. The city was taken. Zedekiah was captured by the Chaldeans; his sons were slain before his eyes, and he himself was blinded and taken to Babylon. Jeremiah was protected by Nebuchadnezzar.

Jer. 40 — Jer. 45.  These chapters give the history of the remnant left in the land under Gedaliah, Jeremiah being with them. Gedaliah was murdered by Ishmael, sent by the king of the Ammonites, and the people were carried away. They were however rescued by Johanan, and Jeremiah was requested to inquire of God for them, the people promising obedience. God bade them abide in the land; but they, refusing to obey, went into Egypt, carrying Jeremiah with them. There they persistently practised idolatry, though warned by Jeremiah. The end of Jeremiah is not recorded.

Jer. 46 — Jer. 51.  Judgements are pronounced against the various nations that had been in contact with Israel. God had used some of them as His instruments; but their pride, malice, and cruelty had afterwards to be punished. Judgements were to fall upon Egypt, the Philistines, Moab, the Ammonites, Edom, Damascus, Kedar, Elam, and Babylon. The prophecy against Babylon was written in a book, and given to Seraiah, 'a quiet prince,' to carry to Babylon, to be read there; then he was to bind a stone to the book and cast it into the Euphrates. Babylon was to be desolate for ever.

Babylon has a special place in the prophecy of Jeremiah: Israel and Judah had been unfaithful, and the government of the world was entrusted to Babylon; but Babylon failed and its destruction was the setting free of Judah to return to their land. This was a sort of type of the judgement of the last empire in a future day when Israel will be fully restored and blessed. This is foreshadowed in some places, as in Jer. 50:17-20, which speaks of both Judah and Israel being pardoned. Jer. 51: closes with "Thus far are the words of Jeremiah."

Jer. 52  is historical and nearly the same as 2 Kings 24:18 - 2 Kings 25:30.

The prophet's name occurs in the N.T. in Matt. 2:17; Matt.16:14; Matt.27:9 under the forms of JEREMIAS and JEREMY.

Jeremias. [Jeremi'as]

Jeremiah the prophet. Matt. 16:14.

Jeremoth. [Jere'moth]

1.  A chief man among the Benjamites. 1 Chr. 8:14.

2.  Son of Mushi, a son of Merari. 1 Chr. 23:23. Same as JERIMOTH in 1 Chr. 24:30.

3.  Son of Heman, appointed to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:22. Same as JERIMOTH in 1 Chr. 25:4.

4, 5.  Two who had married strange wives. Ezra 10:26-27.

Jeremy. [Jer'emy]

Jeremiah the prophet. Matt. 2:17; Matt. 27:9.

Jeriah, [Jeri'ah] Jerijah. [Jeri'jah]

Descendant of Hebron the Kohathite. 1 Chr. 23:19; 1 Chr. 24:23; 1 Chr. 26:31.

Jeribai. [Jeri'bai]

Son of Elnaam and one of David's valiant men. 1 Chr. 11:46.


The strongly fortified city that was the first to be taken by Israel when entering the land. The spies had been sheltered there by Rahab the harlot, from whom they heard that the terror of Israel had fallen upon the inhabitants. The city and all therein was accursed, and was to be utterly destroyed, except the silver, and gold, and vessels of brass and iron, which were consecrated to the Lord: typical of the power of Satan in the world that stops the progress of the Christian: he must count it all as accursed, though God may use such things by consecrating them to Himself.

The capture of the city was altogether of God, after it had been compassed six days by the people, accompanied by the ark and the priests blowing the trumpets: in that way they proclaimed the rights of the Lord of all the earth to the land, while Jericho was the fortress of the enemy. On the seventh day, after being compassed seven times (double type of perfection) the priests blowing their trumpets, the people shouted, and the walls of the city fell down. The city was destroyed and all that had life was put to the sword, except Rahab and those she had with her sheltered under the scarlet line. Joshua 2:1-22; Joshua. 6; Heb. 11:30. A curse was pronounced upon the man who should re-build the city. This was verified when Hiel built it. 1 Kings 16:34.

Jericho was allotted to Benjamin, Joshua 18:21; but later was taken possession of by Eglon the king of Moab. It is designated 'the city of palm trees.' Deut. 34:3; Judges 1:16; Judges

3:13; 2 Chr. 28:15. Afterwards 'sons of the prophets' dwelt there: they said that the situation of the city was 'pleasant,' but the water was bad. It was Elisha's first miracle, he cast in salt and the water was healed. It was the ministration of the heavenly blessing in the place of the curse. 2 Kings 2:18-22. Some who returned from exile are described as 'children of Jericho.' Ezra 2:34; Neh. 7:36.

But little more is known of Jericho until Antony gave its palm groves and balsam gardens to Cleopatra; from her the place was rented by Herod the Great, who had a palace there, and it was there he died. It was burned down soon after, but was rebuilt by Archelaus. This was the city visited by the Lord, when He lodged with Zacchaeus and cured the blind men. Matt. 20:29; Mark 10:46; Luke 18:35; Luke 19:1.

The Ain es Sultan, 31 52' N, 35 27' E, is held to be the fountain healed by Elisha, and the ruins around mark the site of the ancient city, five miles from the Jordan; but this is not the site of the Jericho of N.T. times, which may or may not agree with the situation of the miserable village of Eriha, which is sometimes called Jericho: it is a mile and a half S.E. of the ancient site.

Jericho, [Jer'icho] Plains of.

The part of the Jordan valley between the river and the mountains near Jericho. 2 Kings 25:5; Jer. 39:5; Jer. 52:8.

Jeriel. [Jeri'el]

Son of Tola, a son of Issachar. 1 Chr. 7:2.

Jerijah. [Jeri'jah]


Jerimoth. [Jeri'moth]

1, 2. Son of Bela and son of Becher, Benjamites. 1 Chr. 7:7-8.

3.  One who resorted to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:5.

4.  Son of Mushi, a son of Merari. 1 Chr. 24:30. Same as JEREMOTH in 1 Chr. 23:23.

5.  Son of Heman: appointed to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:4.  Same as Jeremoth in 1 Chr. 25:22.

6.  Son of Azriel and a ruler of Naphtali. 1 Chr. 27:19.

7.  Son of David: his daughter Mahalath was wife of Rehoboam. 2 Chr. 11:18.

8.  One of the Levites who had charge of the dedicated things in the time of Hezekiah. 2 Chr. 31:13.

Jerioth. [Jeri'oth]

Wife or concubine of Caleb, son of Hezron. 1 Chr. 2:18.

Jeroboam (1). [Jerobo'am]

Son of Nebat, of the tribe of Ephraim, and king of Israel. He reigned twenty-two years: B.C. 975-954. He had been an officer under Solomon, but Ahijah the prophet, having found him, tore his new garment into twelve pieces, and gave him ten of them, telling him that he should be king over ten of the tribes. Solomon thereupon sought to kill him, but he fled to Egypt and stayed there till the death of Solomon. On the division of the kingdom, Jeroboam was made king of the ten tribes. Fearing that his subjects, if they went up to Jerusalem to worship, would be alienated from him, he made two golden calves, placing one in Beth-el in the south, and the other in Dan in the north; and declared that these were the gods that had brought Israel out of Egypt. Priests of the common people were ordained by him, sacrifices were offered, and feast days devised. Thus the nation through their king sank at once into open idolatry: a warning to those in Christendom who devise out of their own heart their forms of worship, etc.

A man of God came from Judah to cry against the altar at Beth-el, and the king's hand, on being put forth to seize him, was dried up. On the prophet entreating the Lord his hand was restored, but he repented not of his idolatry. He had been told that if he would follow the Lord as David had done, his house should be established; but his dynasty extended only to his son Nadab. Jeroboam is charged with doing evil above all that had been before him, and his doings became a proverb. For Israel to sin "as Jeroboam the son of Nebat," was a mark of consummate wickedness. 1 Kings 11:26-40; 1 Kings 12.- 1 Kings 14., etc.

Jeroboam (2). [Jerobo'am]

Son of Jehoash, or Joash, and his successor on the throne of Israel. He was made co-regent in B.C. 836, and reigned alone 41 years: B.C. 825-784. Very little is recorded of this king except that he obtained signal victories over the Syrians, and Hamath and Damascus were recovered, for the Lord had mercy on Israel. "He departed not from all the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat." Amos announced his death by the sword. 2 Kings 13:13; 2 Kings 14:16-29; 2 Kings 15:1, 8; 1 Chr. 5:17; Hosea 1:1; Amos 1:1; Amos 7:9-11.

Jeroham. [Jero'ham]

1.  Son of Elihu a Kohathite, and grandfather of Samuel. 1 Sam. 1:1; 1 Chr. 6:27, 34.

2, 3.  Two heads of Benjamite families. 1 Chr. 8:27; 1 Chr. 9:8.

4.  Son of Pashur, a priest. 1 Chr. 9:12; Neh. 11:12.

5.  Man of Gedor, whose two sons resorted to David at Ziklag, 1 Chr. 12:7.

6.  Father of Azareel a prince of Dan. 1 Chr. 27:22.

7.  Father of Azariah a captain of a hundred. 2 Chr. 23:1.

Jerubbaal. [Jerub'baal]

Name, signifying 'Let Baal plead,' given to GIDEON, q.v.

Jerubbesheth. [Jerub'besheth]

Name, signifying 'Let the shameful thing plead,' given to GIDEON, q.v.

Jeruel. [Jeru'el]

A wilderness where Jehoshaphat was to find his enemies, the Ammonites, the Moabites, and the inhabitants of Mount Seir, who destroyed one another. 2 Chr. 20:16, 23. Doubtless in some part of the wilderness west of the Dead Sea, but it is not definitely identified.

Jerusalem. [Jeru'salem]

Great interest naturally attaches to this city because of its O.T. and N.T. histories, and its future glory. The signification of the name is somewhat uncertain: some give it as 'the foundation of peace;' others 'the possession of peace.' Its history has, alas, been anything but that of peace; but Hag. 2:9 remains to be fulfilled: "in this place will I give peace," doubtless referring to the meaning of 'Jerusalem.' The name is first recorded in Joshua 10:1 when Adoni-zedec was its king, before Israel had anything to do with it, and four hundred years before David obtained full possession of the city. 2 Sam. 5:6-9. This name may therefore have been given it by the Canaanites, though it was also called JEBUS. Judges 19:10. It is apparently symbolically called SALEM, 'peace,' in Ps. 76:2;* and ARIEL, 'the lion of God,' in Isa. 29:1-2, 7; in Isa. 52:1 'the holy city,' as it is also in Matt. 4:5; Matt. 27:53. The temple being built there, and Mount Zion forming a part of the city, made Jerusalem typical of the place of blessing on earth, as it certainly will be in a future day, when Israel is restored.

* On the TELL AMARNA TABLETS (see THE TELL AMARNA TABLETS under 'Egypt') Jerusalem occurs several times as u-ru-sa-lim, the probable signification of which is 'city of peace.'

Jerusalem was taken from the Jebusites and the city burnt, Judges 1:8; but the Jebusites were not all driven out, for some were found dwelling in a part of Jerusalem called the fort, when David began to reign over the whole of the tribes. This stronghold was taken, and Jerusalem became the royal city; but the great interest that attaches to it arises from its being the city of Jehovah's election on the one hand, and the place of Jehovah's temple, where mercy rejoiced over judgement. See ZION and MORIAH. In Solomon's reign it was greatly enriched, and the temple built. At the division of the kingdom it was the chief city of Judah. It was plundered several times, and in B.C. 588 the temple and city were destroyed by the king of Babylon. In B.C. 536, after 70 years (from B.C. 606, when the first captivity took place, Jer. 25:11-12; Jer. 29:10), Cyrus made a declaration that God had charged him to build Him a house at Jerusalem, and the captives were allowed to return for the purpose. In B.C. 455 the commission to build the city was given to Nehemiah. It existed, under many vicissitudes, until the time of the Lord, when it was part of the Roman empire. Owing to the rebellion of the Jews it was destroyed by the Romans, A.D. 70.

Its ruins had a long rest, but in A.D. 136 the city was rebuilt by Hadrian and called Ælia Capitolina. A temple to the Capitoline Jupiter was erected on the site of the temple. Jews were forbidden, on pain of death, to enter the city, but in the fourth century they were admitted once a year. Constantine after his conversion destroyed the heathen temples in the city. In A.D. 614 Jerusalem was taken and pillaged by the Persians. In 628 it was re-taken by Heraclius. Afterwards it fell into the hands of the Turks. In 1099 it was captured by the Crusaders, but was re-taken by Saladin. In 1219 it was ceded to the Christians, but was subsequently captured by Kharezmian hordes. In 1277 it was nominally annexed to the kingdom of Sicily. In 1517 it passed under the sway of the Ottoman Sultan, and became a part of the Turkish empire. It has already sustained about thirty sieges, and although in the hands of the Jews now its desolations are not yet over!

The beautiful situation of Jerusalem is noticed in scripture; it stands about 2593 feet above the sea, and the mountains round about it are spoken of as its security. Ps. 125:2; Lam. 2:15. Between the mountains and the city there are valleys on three sides: on the east the valley of the Kidron, or Jehoshaphat; on the west the valley of Gihon; and on the south the valley of Hinnom. The Mount of Olives is on the east, from whence the best view of Jerusalem is to be had. On the S.W. lies the Mount of Offence, so called because it is supposed that Solomon practised idolatry there. On the south is the Hill of Evil Counsel; the origin of which name is said to be that Caiaphas had a villa there, in which a council was held to put the Lord to death. But these and many other names commonly placed on maps, have no other authority than that of tradition. To the north the land is comparatively level, so that the attacks on the city were made on that side.

The city, as it now stands surrounded by walls, contains only about one-third of a square mile. Its north wall running S.W. extends from angle to angle, without noticing irregularities, about 3930 feet; the east 2754 feet; the south 3425 feet; and the west 2086 feet; the circumference being about two and a third English miles. Any one accustomed to the area of modern cities is struck with the small size of Jerusalem. Josephus says that its circumference in his day was 33 stadia, which is more than three and three-quarters English miles. It is clear that on the south a portion was included which is now outside the city. Also on the north an additional wall enclosed a large portion, now called BEZETHA; but this latter enclosure was made by Herod Agrippa some ten or twelve years after the time of the Lord. Traces of these additional walls have been discovered and extensive excavations on the south have determined the true position of the wall.

Several gates are mentioned in the O.T. which cannot be traced; it is indeed most probable they do not now exist. On the north is the Damascus gate, and one called Herod's gate walled up; on the east an open gate called St. Stephen's, and a closed one called the Golden gate; on the south Zion gate, and a small one called Dung gate; on the west Jaffa gate. A street runs nearly north from Zion gate to Damascus gate; and a street from the Jaffa gate runs eastward to the Mosque enclosure These two streets divide the city into four quarters of unequal size. Since the formation of the State of Israel a large modern city has built up to the North West of the Old City.

There is a fifth portion on the extreme S.E. called MORIAH, agreeing, as is supposed, with the Mount Moriah of the O.T., on some portion of which the temple was most probably built. It is now called 'the Mosque enclosure,' because on it are built two mosques. It is a plateau of about 35 acres, all level except where a portion of the rock projects near the centre, over which the Mosque of Omar is built. To obtain this large plain, walls had to be built up at the sides of the sloping rock, forming with arches many chambers, tier above tier. Some chambers are devoted to cisterns, and others are called Solomon's stables. That horses have been kept there at some time appears evident from rings being found attached to the walls, to which the horses were tethered.

Josephus speaks of Jerusalem being built upon two hills with a valley between, called the TYROPOEON VALLEY. This lies on the west of the Mosque enclosure and runs nearly north and south. Over this valley the remains of two bridges have been discovered: the one on the south is called the 'Robinson arch,' because that traveller discovered it. He judged that some stones which jutted out from the west wall of the enclosure must have been part of a large arch. This was proved to have been the case by corresponding parts of the arch being discovered on the opposite side of the valley. Another arch was found complete, farther north, by Captain Wilson, and is called the 'Wilson arch.' Below these arches were others, and aqueducts.

Nearly the whole of this valley is filled with rubbish. There may have been another valley running across the above, as some suppose; but if so, that also is choked with debris, indeed the modern city appears to have been built upon the ruins of former ones, as is implied in the prophecy of Jer. 9:11; Jer. 30:18. The above-named bridges would unite the Mosque enclosure, or Temple area, with the S.W. portion of the city, which is supposed to have included ZION.

The Jews are not allowed in the Temple area, therefore they assemble on a spot near Robinson's arch, called the JEWS' WAILING PLACE, where they can approach the walls of the area which are built of very large and ancient stones. On Fridays and feast days they assemble in numbers; they kiss the stones and weep, and pray for the restoration of their city and temple, being, alas, still blind to the only true way of blessing through the Lord Jesus whom they crucified.

The Christian population gave names to the streets, and point out traditional sites of many events recorded in scripture, but of course without the slightest authority. Of these arbitrary identifications the one that appears the most improbable is that of the CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE, said to cover the spots where the Lord was crucified and where He was buried, which is within the city. See CALVARY.

About a hundred yards east of the Damascus gate is the entrance to a quarry, which extends a long way under the city, and from which a quantity of stone must have been extracted. There are heaps of small chips showing that the stones were dressed there; perhaps the 'great and costly' stones for the temple, built by Solomon were made ready there. 1 Kings 5:17; 1 Kings 6:7. There are blackened nooks where apparently lamps were placed to give the workmen light; marks of the tools are easily discernible, and some blocks are there which have been only partially separated; everything has the appearance of workmen having but recently left their work, except that there are no tools lying about.

As to the future of Jerusalem, scripture teaches that a portion of the Jews will return in unbelief (and indeed many have now returned), occupy Jerusalem, rebuild the temple, and have a political existence. Isa. 6:13; Isa. 17:10-11; Isa. 18; Isa. 66:1-3. After being under the protection of the future Roman Empire, and having received Antichrist, they will be brought through great tribulation. The city will be taken and the temple destroyed. Isa. 10:5-6; Zech. 14:1-2. But this will not be the final destiny of Jerusalem. We read "it shall not be plucked up nor thrown down any more for ever." Jer. 31:38-40. "Thus saith the Lord of hosts: There shall yet old men and old women dwell in the streets of Jerusalem, and every man with his staff in his hand for very age. And the streets of the city shall be full of boys and girls playing in the streets thereof.'' Zech. 8:4. 5. The temple will also be rebuilt, the particulars of which are given in the prophet Ezekiel.   See TEMPLE.

The sides of the square space allotted to the future city measure 5000 enlarged cubits (of probably 24-1/2 inches), a little less than 2 miles: the city itself to occupy a square of 4500 cubits each way, with a margin all round of 250 cubits, with large suburbs east and west. The 4500 cubits equal about 1.8 mile, and give about three and a quarter square miles, which, by the dimensions given above, will be seen to be very much larger than the present Old City. Ezek. 48:15-20. The formation of the hills and valleys were thought to be a difficulty, but the New City is already built outside the walls, and there will be physical changes in the country: living waters will flow from the city, half of them running into the western sea and half of them into the eastern sea: cf. Zech. 14:8-10. The new city will have twelve gates, three on each of its sides. "The name of the city from that day shall be THE LORD IS THERE." Ezek. 48:30-35.

Jerusha, [Jeru'sha] Jerushah. [Jeru'shah]

Daughter of Zadok, wife of Uzziah, and mother of Jotham, king of Judah. 2 Kings 15:33;

2 Chr. 27:1.

Jesaiah. [Jesai'ah]

1.  Son of Hananiah, a descendant of David. 1 Chr. 3:21.

2.  Benjamite whose descendants returned from exile. Neh. 11:7.

Jeshaiah. [Jeshai'ah]

1.  Son of Jeduthun: appointed to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:3, 15.

2.  Son of Rehabiah, a Levite. 1 Chr. 26:25.

3.  Son of Athaliah: one who returned from exile. Ezra 8:7.

4.  A Merarite who returned from exile. Ezra 8:19.

Jeshanah. [Jesha'nah]

City taken from Jeroboam by Abijah. 2 Chr. 13:19.  Identified with Ain Sinia, 31 58' N, 35 14' E.

Jesharelah. [Jeshare'lah]

Levite appointed to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:14. See ASARELAH.

Jeshebeab. [Jesheb'eab]

Head of the fourteenth course of priests. 1 Chr. 24:13.

Jesher. [Je'sher]

Son of Caleb the son of Hezron. 1 Chr. 2:18,

Jeshimon. [Jeshi'mon]

Plain or desert seen from the tops of Pisgah and Peor. Num. 21:20; Num. 23:28. Perhaps the same as that mentioned in 1 Sam. 23:19, 24; 1 Sam. 26:1, 3. It was in the south, on the west of the Dead Sea. Some do not treat Jeshimon as a proper name, but translate it 'the waste' in all places.

Jeshishai. [Jeshi'shai]

Son of Jahdo, of the tribe of Gad. 1 Chr. 5:14.

Jeshohaiah. [Jeshoha'iah]

A prince among the descendants of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:36.

Jeshua, [Jeshu'a] Jeshuah. [Jeshu'ah]

1.  Head of the ninth course of priests. 1 Chr. 24:11; Ezra 2:36; Neh. 7:39.

2.  Levite who assisted in the distribution of the offerings of the people. 2 Chr. 31:15; Ezra 2:40; Neh. 7:43.

3.  Son of Jozadak: a high priest who aided Ezra and Nehemiah. Ezra 2:2; Ezra 3:2, 8, 9; Ezra 4:3; Ezra 5:2; Ezra 10:18; Neh. 7:7; Neh. 12:1, 7, 10, 26. He is called JOSHUA in Haggai and Zechariah: See JOSHUA No. 4.

4.  Levite, father of Jozabad. Ezra 8:33.

5.  Ancestor of some who returned from exile. Ezra 2:6; Neh. 7:11.

6.  Father of Ezer who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:19.

7.  Levite who explained the law to the people. Neh. 8:7; Neh. 9:4-5; Neh. 12:8.

8.  Son of Kadmiel, and a chief of the Levites. Neh. 12:24.

9.  JOSHUA the son of Nun. Neh. 8:17.

10.  Son of Azaniah: a Levite who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:9.

11.  City in which some dwelt who returned from exile. Neh. 11:26.