Bible Dictionary J 2

Jeshurun, [Jeshu'run] Jesurun. [Jesu'run]

Name given to Israel, probably signifying 'upright ones;' others prefer 'beloved of Jehovah.' Jehovah was the 'God of Jeshurun;' and Moses, 'king in Jeshurun.' Deut. 32:15; Deut. 33:5, 26; Isa. 44:2.

Jesiah. [Jesi'ah]

1.  One of the Korhites who resorted to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:6.

2.  Son of Uzziel, a Kohathite. 1 Chr. 23:20.

Jesimiel. [Jesi'miel]

A prince among the descendants of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:36.

Jesse. [Jes'se]

Son of Obed, a Bethlehemite, and father of David. Little is recorded of Jesse, but his name constantly occurs in the description of David as 'the son of Jesse.' Ruth 4:17, 22; 1 Sam. 16:1-22; 1 Sam. 17:12-20, 58; Ps. 72:20; Matt. 1:5-6; Luke 3:32. The Lord Jesus is referred to as a branch and a root of Jesse. Isa. 11:1, 10: cf. Rev. 22:16.

Jesui, [Jesu'i] Jesuites. [Jesu'ites]


Jesurun. [Jesu'run]


Jesus. [Je'sus]

1.  The Greek form of Joshua, it occurs in Acts 7:45; Heb, 4:8, for Joshua the son of Nun.

2.  Jesus called JUSTUS. A fellow-worker who had been a comfort to Paul while a prisoner at Rome. Col. 4:11.

Jesus, [Je'sus] The Lord.

Jesus is the pre-announced name of the Son of God as man. It signifies 'Jehovah the Saviour.' Matt. 1:21. What is revealed of Him historically may be thus divided:-

1.   His birth and early years until He was about thirty years old.

2.   His baptism by John; His being anointed with the Holy Ghost, and consequently John's testimony that He was the Lamb of God, the Baptiser with the Holy Ghost, and the Son of God. This testimony attracted, as to a new centre, some of John's disciples. Subsequently, and before entering upon His public ministry, He was led of the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil.

3.   His public ministry, extending over the period of three-and-a-half years.

4.   His sufferings and death upon the cross.

5.   His resurrection and subsequent exaltation to glory.

1.  Begotten by the power of the Holy Ghost, He was born of the Virgin Mary, as predicted in Isa. 7:14. The details of this wonderful event are given in the gospels of Matthew and Luke. The former gospel records the accomplishment of the prophetic word that God would be present with His people, signified by the name Immanuel, 'God with us.' The latter, that the babe born of Mary was 'that Holy thing,' called "the Son of God." For thirty years He led a life of lowly retirement, but the references of scripture to this period show that He grew up under the eye of God in the perfection of manhood, and yet in conscious Sonship to the Father, the vessel of the grace and wisdom of God.

2.  At thirty years of age He took His place in Jordan with the repentant remnant of Israel, entering in by the door according to divine appointment, and He fulfilled righteousness in being baptised of John. He was at once owned of God by being sealed with the Holy Ghost, as distinct from all the others baptised, a voice from heaven declaring "Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased." The gospel of John, at this moment, shows the momentous issues which hung upon the truth of His person. The taking away of the sin of the world by the Lamb of God, the baptising with the Holy Ghost, and Himself as the powerful attraction and commanding object for repentant sinners. The gospels of Matthew and Luke here record His being led of the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil. It was necessary that the tempter of man should be overcome by man, and Jesus overcame all the wiles of Satan by the spiritual power of the word of God. Thus vanquished, the devil left Him for a season.

3.  In the power of the Spirit (John the Baptist's preparatory ministry having closed through his imprisonment by Herod) He now commenced the marvellous ministry of divine words and works of grace and power which is presented to us in the four gospels.

  In Matthew we see Him as the Seed of promise, the Son of Abraham, and as the Son of David, the Heir of the throne of the Lord in Israel; He is also Emmanuel, the Jehovah of Israel.

  In Mark He is viewed as the Son and Servant of God, acting and speaking for God in the midst of the circumstances of sin and sorrow into which He had entered.

  In Luke He is Son of man, yet altogether of a new order of manhood, the vessel of grace for man in the like circumstances of sin and sorrow.

  In John He is the Word, the Light and Revelation of God, but He became flesh and tabernacled here, full of grace and truth; and, as the only begotten Son who is in the bosom of the Father, He fully declared God, whom no man had seen at any time. It is said of Him, that He "went about doing good and healing all that were oppressed of the devil." He relieved man of every pressure which sin had brought upon him. He preached glad tidings to the poor, and brought to man the light of another sphere — the kingdom of God. It is also said of Him, that "God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses." He refused to judge, for He came to save. He perfectly set forth God to men, and in Him as Man God found His delight. His words were the words of God (John 3:34), and the Father who dwelt in Him did the works. John 14:10. His presence among men exposed men and revealed the thoughts of many hearts, and divine wisdom in Him detected the hollow religiousness, the infidelity, and the worldliness of the heart of man. As sent to do the will of God, He received all that came to Him, drawn by the grace of the Father. He led them and went before them as the Good Shepherd, held them in His hand, securing them thus for eternal life, and finally laid down His life for the sheep. In death He wrought redemption and by that work gave effect to His ministry.

4.  From the first He was refused by the leaders of Israel, and 'the world knew him not.' From the mount of transfiguration, where God gave Him honour and glory, He descended to suffer at the hands of men, though His death was according to "the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God." Because of this enmity of man, He retired beyond Jordan till the time came for the counsels of God to be accomplished in His death. During that period He visited Bethany to raise Lazarus, but again retired into the wilderness till six days before the Passover. He then presented Himself to Zion as her king, cleansed the temple of God, and judged with divine wisdom all the questions by which they sought to entrap Him. Then approached the 'hour' of man and of 'the power of darkness.' Jesus, knowing that this hour was at hand, ate the last Passover with His disciples, and instituted the Lord's supper. He then crossed the Kidron valley into the garden of Gethsemane. There His soul was 'exceeding sorrowful even unto death' in the anticipation of the cup which He had to drink, but, in the submission which flowed from His perfect accord with the Father's will, He received the cup from the Father's hands, and went forth to drink it. On the cross the judgement of God as to sin was fully executed; God was glorified as to it, and redemption was accomplished, hence a dying malefactor who turned to Jesus could that day be with Him in Paradise. He gave up His life, and the blood and water which flowed from His dead side witnessed that expiation and cleansing for man are alone found in His death. His death also laid the righteous ground for God to effectuate His counsels with regard to man, and to fulfil His promises.

5.  Though rejected here by men, He was "raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father," and "God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name: that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory of God the Father." As Lord, He administers everything for God according to the redemption He has accomplished, and the place He has taken in resurrection life and glory. He is there as the last Adam and the Second man, the Head and pattern of a new race of men. He is also the Advocate, Intercessor, and High Priest on behalf of those who believe on Him, who are still in weakness on earth and need His support and aid.

He is sitting at the right hand of God until His enemies are made His footstool. It is revealed that He will descend from heaven into the clouds to receive His own to Himself: the living changed and the dead raised in glory will be caught up to meet Him in the air. He will come with all His saints to reign where once He was rejected. He will purge out of His kingdom all evil and reign in righteousness, King of Righteousness and King of Peace. He will finally, having put down all enemies, deliver up the kingdom to God, even the Father; and, as the Son who has assumed manhood, take the place of subjection to Him who put all things under Him, that God may be all in all — supreme in a vast universe of bliss, the Son being the Head and Pattern of the whole redeemed and blessed race of man.

He is Judge of living and dead, and all that have done evil He will exclude from the presence of God, in the hopeless and helpless misery prepared for the devil and his angels. He will thus have brought to an issue the whole question of good and evil. Good will be for ever secured, and evil be in its own place of powerless misery.

Jether. [Je'ther]

1.  Gideon's firstborn son. Judges 8:20.

2.  An Ishmeelite, father of Amasa. 1 Kings 2:5, 32; 1 Chr. 2:17. He is called ITHRA, an Israelite, in 2 Sam. 17:25. He may have been an Ishmeelite by birth, and have become a proselyte.

3.  Son of Jada, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:32.

4.  Son of Ezra, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:17.

5.  Descendant of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:38.

Jetheth. [Jetheth']

Duke of Edom, a descendant of Esau. Gen. 36:40; 1 Chr. 1:51.

Jethlah. [Jeth'lah]

City of the tribe of Dan. Joshua 19:42. Identified by some with ruins at Beit Tul, 31 49' N, 35 4' E.

Jethro. [Jeth'ro]

Father-in-law of Moses, and a priest of Midian, with whom Moses spent forty years of his life. He brought to Moses his wife and their two sons soon after Israel had left Egypt. He advised Moses to appoint judges for minor cases. He rejoiced and blessed God for the deliverance He had given to His people, and said, "Now I know that Jehovah is greater than all gods: for in the thing wherein they dealt proudly he was above them." He also took a burnt offering and sacrifices for God: and Aaron and all the elders of Israel came to eat bread with him before God. He thus prefigures the joy of the Gentiles in the Lord's salvation and deliverance witnessed to them in His dealings with Israel. Deut. 32:43; Ps. 67; Ps. 117.  He departed again to his own land. Ex. 3:1; Ex. 4:18; Ex. 18:1-12.

He is apparently called REUEL in Ex. 2:18; and HOBAB in Num. 10:29, where RAGUEL is REUEL in the Hebrew. This passage says that Raguel, the Midianite, was the father of HOBAB, the father-in-law of Moses (see also Judges 4:11), so that in Ex. 2:18 'father' may signify 'grandfather.' Hobab may have been the personal name, and Jethro an official name. In Judges 1:16 Moses' father-in-law is called a Kenite, but the exact signification of this term is not known.

Jetur. [Jetur']

Son of Ishmael. Gen. 25:15; 1 Chr. 1:31; 1 Chr. 5:19. His descendants were defeated by the tribes who dwelt on the east of the Jordan.  See ITURAEA.

Jeuel. [Jeu'el]

Descendant of Zerah: he returned from exile. 1 Chr. 9:6.

Jeush. [Jeush']

1.  An Edomite duke, son of Esau. Gen. 36:5, 14, 18; 1 Chr. 1:35.

2.  Son of Bilhan, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 7:10.

3.  Son of Shimei, a Gershonite. 1 Chr. 23:10-11.

4.  Son of king Rehoboam. 2 Chr. 11:19.

Jeuz. [Jeuz']

A chief man in the tribe of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:10.


A man of Judah. The term does not occur until after the division of the kingdom. 2 Kings 16:6; 2 Kings 25:25. It is applied to any one belonging to the two tribes, and it may have been used respecting any of the ten tribes who remained in the land at the captivity or returned thither. The name is principally found in the O.T. in Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, and Jeremiah. In Esther the name is applied to all the Hebrews in Persia. In the N.T. the name occurs most frequently in the gospel of John, where it is applied to those of Jerusalem and Judaea in distinction from 'the people' who may have been Galileans or visitors from a distance. John speaks of 'the Jews,'  'the Jews' passover,' etc., as though he were not a Jew. They had rejected the Lord, and in spirit John was separate from them.

In the addresses to the seven churches we twice read of those who "say they are Jews, and are not." The name is there used of those claiming to be the people of God by descent, but not so morally, as in another place there are some "who say they are apostles, and are not." Rev. 2:2, 9; Rev. 3:9. In a similar way the Jews prided themselves in being 'sons of Abraham,' whereas, the Lord declared that they were not such morally. The name JEWESS occurs only in Acts 16:1; Acts 24:24.


A general name for costly ornaments of dress, of silver, gold, or precious stones. Ex. 3:22; Cant. 7:1; Isa. 3:21; Hosea 2:13, etc. In Gen. 24:53 the word is used for the equipment of the bride. In Mal. 3:17 it is used symbolically for the remnant that will be precious to the Lord of hosts in a future day, as the saints are now during the rejection of the Lord Jesus by the world.

Jewry. [Jew'ry]

Same as Judaea in Luke 23:6; John 7:1. In Dan. 5:13 it refers to Judah.

Jews' Language.

The Hebrew language, common to the Jews. Rab-shakeh was asked to speak in the Syrian language (the Aramaic); but he, wishing the people of Jerusalem to understand him, spoke in Hebrew. 2 Kings 18:28; Neh. 13:21; Isa. 36:13.

Jezaniah. [Jezani'ah]


Jezebel. [Jez'ebel]

Daughter of Ethbaal king of the Zidonians, wife of Ahab king of Israel, and mother of Ahaziah, Joram, and Athaliah. She was a bold, wicked idolatress, and stirred up her husband to do evil against the Lord. She 'cut off' the prophets of Jehovah, and had four hundred prophets of Baal that ate at her table. When these were slain by Elijah, she threatened the life of the prophet, but he escaped out of her hands. When Ahab longed for the vineyard which Naboth refused to sell, Jezebel caused Naboth to be falsely accused and stoned to death, and then told her husband to go and take possession. Elijah was soon on the spot to tell Ahab his doom, and of his wife he said, "The dogs shall eat Jezebel by the wall of Jezreel." Jehu was to be the instrument of vengeance. He killed Joram and wounded the king of Judah, then as he rode into Jezreel, Jezebel, with painted face and head attired, looked from a window and taunted him with "Had Zimri peace who slew his master?" But on Jehu asking who was on his side, the eunuchs looked out, and at his request they threw her down to the ground. Her blood was sprinkled on the wall and she was trodden under foot. When Jehu told them to bury the 'cursed woman,' it was found that, as foretold by the prophet, the dogs had eaten her, except her skull, her hands and her feet. In the N.T. she is mentioned as symbolical of an evil seducing system in the professing church that leads others into idolatrous associations. 1 Kings 16:31; 1 Kings 18:4, 13, 19; 1 Kings 19:1-2; 1 Kings 21:5-29; 2 Kings 9:7-37; Rev. 2:20.

Jezer, [Je'zer] Jezerites. [Je'zerites]

Third son of Naphtali, and his descendants. Gen. 46:24; Num. 26:49; 1 Chr. 7:13.

Jeziah. [Jezi'ah]

One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:25.

Jeziel. [Jezi'el]

A Benjamite who resorted to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:3.

Jezliah. [Jezli'ah]

Son of Elpaal, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:18.

Jezoar. [Jezo'ar]

Son of Ashur, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:7.

Jezrahiah. [Jezrahi'ah]

Leader of the singers at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:42.

Jezreel. [Jez'reel]

1.  Descendant of 'the father of Etam.' 1 Chr. 4:3. (Six Hebrew MSS, the LXX, and the Vulgate read 'sons' instead of 'father.')

2, 3.  Symbolical name both of the son of Hosea and of Israel. Hosea 1:4, 11. Jezreel is interpreted both 'God scatters' and 'God sows.' Hosea 1:4 refers to judgement upon the house of Jehu and the house of Israel; and Hosea 1:11 to blessing, when of both Israel and Judah it will be said, "Ye are the sons of the living God."  Then "great shall be the day of Jezreel:" cf. Hosea 2:22-23; "I will sow her unto me in the earth." Then God will say to her, "Thou art my people; and they shall say, Thou art my God."

4.  City of Judah, from whence David married Ahinoam. Joshua 15:56; 1 Sam. 25:43;

1 Sam. 29:1, 11.

5.  City in Issachar, the abode of Ahab and Jezebel, and principally connected with their history. It was the scene of Jezebel's tragical end.  Joshua 19:18; 2 Sam. 2:9; 2 Sam. 4:4; 1 Kings 18:45-46; 1 Kings 21:1, 23; 2 Kings 8:29; 2 Kings 9:10-37; 2 Kings 10:1-11. Identified with Zerin, 32 34' N, 35 19' E.

6.  The extensive valley or plain in which the last-named city was situated, in southern Galilee. It has been called the battle-field of Palestine. It was where Barak triumphed, and where Josiah was defeated, Judges 5:19; 2 Chr. 35:22 — Megiddo being in the same locality. It is also perhaps the place where the great battle of Armageddon will be fought. Rev. 16:16. It is a very fertile plain, and is now well cultivated (cf. Hosea 2:22); Joshua 17:16; Judges 6:33; Hosea 1:5. The name ESDRAELON is given to this valley in the Apocryphal Book of Judith 3:9, etc. Now called Merj Ibn Amir.

Jezreelite, [Jez'reelite] Jezreelitess. [Jez'reelitess]

Inhabitants of Jezreel. 1 Sam. 27:3; 1 Sam. 30:5; etc.; 1 Kings 21:1-16; 2 Kings 9:21, 25; etc.

Jibsam. [Jib'sam]

Son of Tola, a son of Issachar. 1 Chr. 7:2.

Jidlaph. [Jid'laph]

Son of Nahor, Abraham's brother. Gen. 22:22.

Jimna, [Jim'na] Jimnah. [Jim'nah]


Jimnites. [Jim'nites]

Descendants of Jimna. Num. 26:44.

Jiphtah. [Jiph'tah]

City of Judah. Joshua 15:43.

Jiphthahel, [Jiph'thah-el] Valley of.

The boundary of Asher and Zebulon. Joshua 19:14, 27. Not identified.

Joab. [Jo'ab]

1.  Son of Zeruiah the sister of David. He was a bold and successful warrior, and was made David's commander-in-chief; but he is not mentioned as associated with David until he was established at Hebron, and he is not classed among David's valiant men. He treacherously slew Abner in cold blood, avowedly because Abner had killed Asahel, Joab's brother; but the latter had been slain in battle. 2 Sam. 3:23-27. He was the unscrupulous instrument of David's sin in causing the death of Uriah. 2 Sam. 11:14-17. The return of Absalom was brought about by his means, but when Absalom revolted Joab remained faithful to David, and with his own hand slew Absalom. 2 Sam. 18:11-15. Though David on this occasion needed to be reminded that his life and throne had been saved, yet Joab's arrogant and threatening language to the king was unjustifiable; and Amasa was made captain of the host in the room of Joab.

This roused the jealousy of Joab, and he craftily slew Amasa and resumed his place at the head of the army. 2 Sam. 20:4-10. David had said before this, "These men, the sons of Zeruiah, be too hard for me;" but his own sin in the matter of Uriah made him feeble in the presence of Joab's murder of Amasa.

When David wished the people to be numbered, Joab endeavoured to dissuade him from it. The worldly wisdom in which he always acted, and not in faith, perceived the impolicy of the act. 2 Sam. 24:1-4. His aiding Adonijah led to his ruin. When Solomon was declared king, David reminded him of what Joab had done to him, and how he had slain two captains in time of peace, and asked that his hoar head should not go down to the grave in peace. 1 Kings 2:5-6. When Joab heard of the failure of Adonijah's cause, he saw his danger, fled to the tabernacle, and caught hold of the horns of the altar. Refusing to leave when summoned, he was put to death at the altar. Thus punishment for the murders he had committed, though long delayed, fell now in righteous judgement upon him. 1 Kings 2:33-34.

2.  Descendant of Caleb the son of Hur. 1 Chr. 2:54.

3.  Son of Seraiah: described as "the father of the valley of Charashim," or craftsmen. 1 Chr. 4:14.

4, 5.  Two whose descendants returned from exile. Ezra 2:6; Ezra 8:9; Neh. 7:11.

Joah. [Jo'ah]

1.  Son of Asaph and an officer in the household of Hezekiah. 2 Kings 18:18, 26, 37; Isa. 36:3, 11, 22.

2.  Son of Zimmah, a Gershonite. 1 Chr. 6:21.

3.  Son of Obed-edom, a Korhite. 1 Chr. 26:4.

4.  Son of Zimmah, a Gershonite. 2 Chr. 29:12.

5.  Son of Joahaz, and recorder: he was sent by Josiah to repair the temple. 2 Chr. 34:8.

Joahaz. [Joa'haz]

Father of Joah, No. 5. 2 Chr. 34:8.

Joanna. [Joan'na]

1.  Son of Rhesa in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:27.

2.  Wife of Chuza, Herod's steward: she ministered to the Lord of her substance, and was one who carried news of His resurrection to the apostles. Luke 8:3; Luke 24:10.

Joash. [Jo'ash]

1.  Son of Ahaziah king of Judah. When his grandmother Athaliah attempted to cut off all the seed royal, Joash, then an infant, was hidden and preserved by his aunt, Jehosheba, the wife of Jehoiada the high priest. When he was about seven years old, Jehoiada succeeded in placing him, as the preserved seed of David, on the throne, and putting Athaliah to death. Thus, at that time, did the Lord secure the sure mercies centred in the house of David. He reigned forty years, from B.C. 878 to 839.

During the life of Jehoiada, Joash did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, and with zeal caused the temple to be repaired. But on the death of the high priest, the princes of Judah and the king turned to idolatry. God sent them prophets, but they would not hear. Zechariah, son of Jehoiada, attempted to call them back to the worship of God, but by command of the king he was stoned to death in the court of the temple. God sent the Syrians to punish them: a small company of whom overcame a very great host of Judah, the princes were destroyed, and Joash gave all the treasures of the temple and of the king's house to the Syrians. Joash was now greatly diseased; and his servants conspired against him and slew him. He is very frequently called JEHOASH. 2 Kings 11:2, 21; 2 Kings 12:1-20; 2 Kings 13:1, 10; 2 Chr. 22:11; 2 Chr. 24:1-26; 2 Chr. 25:23, 25.

2.  Son and successor of Jehoahaz, king of Israel: he reigned sixteen years: B.C. 841 to 825. He did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, even as Jeroboam; but when Elisha was dying Joash visited him, and wept over him, uttering the same words which Elisha had uttered as he beheld Elijah taken to heaven. Joash had the sense that the power which translated Elijah had been with Elisha, who was now departing. Elisha then prophesied that he should smite Syria. He told the king to smite upon the ground with arrows, and he smote three times. Elisha said that if he had smitten more times he would have consumed Syria; but now he should defeat them only three times. This was fulfilled, Joash smote them three times and recovered the cities of Israel that the king of Syria had taken. After this Amaziah king of Judah asked Joash to let them 'look one another in the face.' Joash in a parable called Judah a thistle, and himself a cedar, and advised Amaziah to stay at home; but he would not, and Judah was smitten. Joash went to Jerusalem, brake down the wall of it, and took away all the treasures of the temple and of the king's house, and returned with hostages to Samaria. Thus the two kingdoms punished each other. 2 Kings 13:9-25; 2 Kings 14:1-27; 2 Chr. 25:17-25; Hosea 1:1; Amos 1:1. Called also JEHOASH.

3. Father of Gideon: he defended his son when he had thrown down the altar of Baal, saying, If Baal "be a god, let him plead for himself." Judges 6:11, 29-31; Judges 7:14; Judges 8:13, 29, 32.

4.  Son of Ahab king of Israel. 1 Kings 22:26; 2 Chr. 18:25.

5.  Descendant of Shelah, a son of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:22.

6.  Son of Becher, a son of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 7:8.

7.  Son of Shemaah: he resorted to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:3.

8. One who had the care of the stores of oil in the time of David. 1 Chr. 27:28.

Joatham. [Jo'atham]

Son of Ozias in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Matt. 1:9. The same as JOTHAM, the son of Uzziah.


1.  The 'perfect and upright man' whose history is given in the book of Job.

2. Son of Issachar. Gen. 46:13.  See JASHUB.


Job, Book of.

All that is known of the history of Job is found in the book bearing his name. He lived in the land of Uz, which was probably named after Uz, or Huz (the Hebrew is the same), the son of Nahor, Abraham's brother. Another link with that family is also found in that Elihu was the son of Barachel the Buzite, for Buz was the brother of Huz. Gen. 22:21. The land of Uz is supposed to be in the S.E. of Palestine toward Arabia Deserta. Job is called "the greatest of all the men of the east." No date is given to the book, but there being no reference in it to the law, or to Israel, makes it probable that Job lived in patriarchal times, as the name Almighty, which was revealed to Abraham, was known to Job, his three friends, and Elihu. He is described as "perfect and upright, and one that feared God, and eschewed evil;" yet he suffered the loss of all his property; his children were killed; and his body was grievously afflicted. The great problem of the book is, the government of God, not directly as with Israel, but providentially in a world into which sin and death had entered, and where Satan, if permitted of God, can exercise his antagonistic power. God's dealings with men in government and chastening are for good; but this brings out another question, How can man be just with God? — a question answered only in the gospel.

Job's three friends entirely misunderstood this government of God, asserting that he must have been doing evil or he would not have been thus dealt with. Job resented their judgement of him, and in justifying himself blamed God in His ways with him. The key to this part of the book is that Job was being tested: his heart was being searched that his true state might be brought out, and that he might learn to know God in His wisdom and power, and that His ways are in view of blessing to man.

The testing, all came from God: it was He who introduced Job to the notice of Satan, in the wonderful vision of the unseen, where the 'sons of God' presented themselves before God. Satan was ever ready to afflict man and to impute motives; but he was foiled. When all Job's property and his sons and daughters were swept away, still he worshipped, saying the Lord who gave was the Lord who had taken away; and he blessed the name of the Lord. Then, when his body was full of sores, his wife was used of Satan to try and induce him to curse God; but he replied, "What! shall we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil?"  "In all this did not Job sin with his lips." Satan was defeated, and he is not again mentioned in the book.

Then come Job's three friends, and though thus far he had not sinned with his lips, yet his friends bring out what was in his heart. Though they did not understand God's government with him, and falsely accused him, they said many right things as to that government in other cases. In short, Eliphaz went upon personal experience. He said "I have seen they that plough iniquity, and sow wickedness, reap the same."  Job 4:8. Bildad is the voice of tradition and the authority of antiquity. He said, "Enquire, I pray thee, of the former age, and prepare thyself to the search of their fathers." Job 8:8. Zophar exhibited law and religiousness. He said, "If iniquity be in thine hand, put it far away, . . . . then shalt thou lift up thy face without spot." Job 11:14-15.

All this led Job to assert his integrity as among men. He said to God, "Thou knowest that I am not wicked; and there is none that can deliver out of thine hand. Thine hands have made me, and fashioned me together round about; yet thou dost destroy me."  Job 10:7-8. "I will maintain mine own ways before him . . . . behold now, I have ordered my cause: I know that I shall be justified." Job 13:15, 18. Then, provoked by the suspicions and misjudgement of his friends, he falsely judged God, saying, "God hath delivered me to the ungodly, and turned me over into the hands of the wicked."  "Behold, I cry out of wrong, but I am not heard: I cry aloud, but there is no judgement."  "Let me be weighed in an even balance, that God may know mine integrity." Job 16:11; Job 19:7; Job 31:6. Yet, as before God, he owned, "If I justify myself, mine own mouth shall condemn me;" and again, "If I wash myself with snow-water, and make my hands never so clean, yet shalt thou plunge me in the ditch and mine own clothes shall abhor me." Job 9:20-30, 31. But the unsolved question in Job's mind was, Why should God set his heart upon man? He so great, and man so fleeting and wretched: why would not God let him alone to fill out his day? For Job had the sense that it was God who was dealing with him, and that he was not suffering from ordinary providential causes. His friends could not explain it.

Elihu then came forward: he is a type of Christ as mediator, and spoke on God's behalf. He said, "The Spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life . . . . . I am according to thy wish in God's stead." Job 33:4-6. He showed that Job was not just in justifying himself rather than God. He spoke of God's dealings with mankind; how He speaks to man, even in dreams, to give him instruction; and if there be an interpreter, one among a thousand, who can show him how his soul can stand in truth before God, he may be delivered from going down to the pit; for God has found a ransom. God chastises man to bring him into subjection, so that He may be favourable to him.

In Job 36 Elihu ascribes righteousness to his Maker, and assures Job that "He that is perfect in knowledge is with thee." God despiseth not any and He withdraweth not His eyes from the righteous; and if they are afflicted it is for their blessing. He closes with dwelling on the incomprehensible power of God.

God Himself then takes up the case of Job, and, by speaking of the acts of His own divine wisdom and power in nature, shows by contrast the utter insignificance of Job. As to the wisdom of God's ways, would Job pretend to instruct Him? Job replied 'I am vile,' and is silent. God continues to argue with him, "Wilt thou disannul my judgement? wilt thou condemn me, that thou mayest be righteous?" And He again points to His power in nature. Job confesses that he had uttered what he understood not: things too wonderful for him, which he knew not. He said, "I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear: but now mine eye seeth thee: wherefore I abhor myself, and repent in dust and ashes."

Job had now learned the lesson God intended to teach him: he is in his proper place of nothingness before God. There God can take him up. In 1 Cor. 1 Christ is seen to be the wisdom and power of God when man is brought to nothing by the cross. Job had seen God, and all was changed. God reproved Job's friends: they had not spoken of Him what was right as Job had. They must take a sacrifice, and Job must pray for them: Job was God's servant, and him God would accept. God blessed his latter end more than the beginning: he had great possessions, and seven sons and three daughters. He lived after his restoration 140 years.

Twice Job is mentioned along with Noah and Daniel in connection with 'righteousness' when the state of Israel had become so iniquitous that if these three men had been there, even their righteousness would have delivered their own souls only, but would not have saved so much as a son or a daughter. Ezek. 14:14, 20. Job is also held up as an example of endurance, and as showing what the end of the Lord is, that He is very pitiful, and of tender mercy. James 5:11.

Jobab. [Jo'bab]

1.  Son of Joktan, a descendant of Shem. Gen. 10:29; 1 Chr. 1:23.

2. Son of Zerah and king of Edom. Gen. 36:33-34; 1 Chr. 1:44-45.

3. King of Madon, conquered by Joshua. Joshua 11:1.

4. Son of Shaharaim, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:9.

5. Son of Elpaal, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:18.

Jochebed. [Jo'chebed]

Wife and aunt of Amram, and mother of Aaron, Moses, and Miriam. Ex. 6:20; Num. 26:59.

Joed. [Jo'ed]

Son of Pedaiah, a Benjamite. Neh. 11:7.

Joel. [Jo'el]

1.  Eldest son of Samuel: he and his brother Abiah acted as judges; their corrupt practices were the plea upon which Israel demanded a king. 1 Sam. 8:2; 1 Chr. 6:33; 1 Chr. 15:17. Apparently Joel is called VASHNI in 1 Chr. 6:28; but it is possible that the word Joel has dropped out: the passage would then read "the firstborn Joel, and 'the second' Abiah," as in the R.V.

2. Prince in the tribe of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:35.

3. A Reubenite, father of Shemaiah, or Shema. 1 Chr. 5:4, 8.

4. A chief man among the Gadites. 1 Chr. 5:12.

5. Son of Azariah, a Kohathite. 1 Chr. 6:36.

6. Son of Izrahiah, a descendant of Issachar. 1 Chr. 7:3.

7. One of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:38.

8. A chief of the sons of Gershom. 1 Chr. 15:7, 11.

9. Son of Jehieli, and descendant of Laadan, a Gershonite. 1 Chr. 23:8; 1 Chr. 26:22.

10.  Son of Pedaiah, of the tribe of Manasseh. 1 Chr. 27:20.

11.  Son of Azariah, a Kohathite of Hezekiah's time. 2 Chr. 29:12.

12.  One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:43.

13.  Son of Zichri, and overseer of the Benjamites in Jerusalem. Neh. 11:9.

14.  Son of Pethuel: the prophet. Joel 1:1.

Joel, [Jo'el] Book of.

Of the minor Prophets, Joel is judged to be the earliest in connection with Judah, though there are no dates given in the prophecy itself. The key-note of the prophecy is 'the day of Jehovah,' which is five times mentioned in connection with the future judgements, which will bring in the full blessing of Israel and the earth, when the Lord also will have His portion, a meat offering, and a drink offering for Himself.

Joel 1.  The Prophet takes occasion by the devastation wrought in his day by an army of insects to call the priests, the princes, and the people to a fast, and a solemn assembly in the house of the Lord, there to cry unto Jehovah. Then he adds, "Alas for the day! for the day of the Lord is at hand, and as a destruction from the Almighty shall it come." Here it is destruction, open judgement, as in the day when God will judge the world in righteousness. The army of insects was but a precursor, but as a present thing, instead of joy and gladness being in the house of God, God was judging. The prophet said 'is at hand;' but God's long-suffering deferred its full execution, and defers it still.

Joel 2.  The day of Jehovah is nigh at hand, and the trumpet is to sound an alarm of war: cf. Num. 10:9. The army of insects is still alluded to, but it looks forward to the future, when God will bring His judgements upon the land. The army is His, and the camp is His: the day of Jehovah. is great and very terrible. The people are called to repentance, to rend their hearts and not their garments, for God is merciful and gracious. The trumpet was to be blown in Zion for a solemn assembly: cf. Num. 10:7. Priests and all are called to weep and pray. God will hear, and will destroy their enemies, especially the northern army (Joel 2:20, elsewhere alluded to as Assyria) and He will bring His people into great blessing. When they repent, the Holy Spirit will be poured out upon them and upon all flesh. This was quoted by Peter in Acts 2:16-21, but the nation did not then repent, it was only a remnant that turned to the Lord and entered into the blessing that God was bestowing — not outward and visible benefits as it will be in the future. There will also be signs in the heavens and in the earth before the great and terrible day of the Lord. There were some such omens, according to the historians, before the destruction of Jerusalem, so this passage, quoted in Acts 2, may have had a partial fulfilment then, though it remains to be fully verified in a future day.

Joel 3.  This enters into the details of the last days as far as Judah and Jerusalem are concerned, the restoration of the ten tribes not being the subject here. The nations have oppressed God's people in many ways, and sold them as slaves. God will requite this on their own heads. They are called to arm themselves, to bring all their mighty men, and to come unto the valley of Jehoshaphat, which is the valley of judgement, and there God will deal with them. In the valley of decision (or threshing) they will be cut to pieces. The enemies of God and of Judah being destroyed, there will be great blessing for His people, whom He had chastened in His love; but, cleansed and restored, He will dwell among them.

Joelah. [Joe'lah]

Son of Jeroham of Gedor: he resorted to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:7.

Joezer. [Jo'ezer]

A Korhite who resorted to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:6.

Jogbehah. [Jog'behah]

City of Gad. Num. 32:35; Judges 8:11. Identified with el Jubeihat, 32 2' N, 35 52' E.

Jogli. [Jog'li]

Father of Bukki, a prince of Dan. Num. 34:22.

Joha. [Jo'ha]

1.  Son of Beriah, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:16.

2. The Tizite, one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:45.

Johanan. [Joha'nan]

1.  Son of Kareah and captain among the Jews left in the land after the destruction of Jerusalem. He warned Gedaliah of the plot against his life, and when Gedaliah was slain, and the people carried away, he was the means of rescuing them. He would not however listen to Jeremiah and remain in the land, but headed the remnant in going to Egypt, where they practised idolatry. 2 Kings 25:23; Jer. 40:8-16; Jer. 41:11-16; Jer. 42:1-8; Jer. 43:2, 4, 5.

2.  Eldest son of Josiah king of Judah. 1 Chr. 3:15.

3.  Son of Elioenai, a descendant of David. 1 Chr. 3:24.

4. Son of Azariah, a priest. 1 Chr. 6:9-10.

5, 6.  Two who resorted to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:4, 12.

7. An Ephraimite, father of Azariah. 2 Chr. 28:12.

8. Son of Hakkatan: he returned from exile. Ezra 8:12.

9. Son of Eliashib, a Levite. Ezra 10:6; Neh. 12:22-23.

10.  Son of Tobiah the Ammonite. Neh. 6:18.


1.  Kinsman of Annas the high priest. Acts 4:6.

2. Son of Mary.  See MARK.

John the Baptist.

Son of Zacharias, priest of the order of Abia, or Abijah (1 Chr. 24:10), and of Elizabeth, a descendant of Aaron, born when they were both old. The conception was foretold by the angel Gabriel, who announced that John was to be a Nazarite, and should be filled with the Holy Ghost from his birth. His mission was also foretold: in the spirit and power of Elias he would be the forerunner of Christ, and would call the people to repentance, according to the prophecy in Isaiah 40:3. All that is recorded of his early life is "the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the deserts till the day of his showing unto Israel." Luke 1:80.

When he began his ministry he is described as having on "raiment of camel's hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins: and his meat was locusts and wild honey." He preached in the wilderness, calling on the people to repent, for the kingdom of heaven was at hand. The people went out to him, and were baptised of him in the Jordan, confessing their sins. Matt. 3:1-6. A godly remnant morally apart from the nation was thus prepared in spirit for the Lord. With these (the excellent in the earth, Ps. 16) the Lord Jesus identified Himself.

To the Pharisees and the Sadducees he was especially severe, calling them a 'generation of vipers' (Matt. 3:7), but in Luke the multitude are so designated, for all must flee from the wrath to come, and bring forth fruits meet for repentance. The axe was laid to the root of the tree. There was One coming with the winnowing fan, who would divide the wheat from the chaff.

When the religious authorities at Jerusalem sent to John to ask who he was, he declared that he was not the Christ, nor Elias, nor 'that prophet.' Deut. 18:15, 18. He was "the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord," as Isaiah had prophesied. John 1:19-23. The Lord, in speaking of John, said, "Elias is indeed come," Mark 9:13, which seems to clash with John 1:21; another passage however explains it: "If ye will receive it, this is Elias which was for to come." Matt. 11:14. He had come in the spirit and power of Elias, as foretold by Gabriel; and he was Elias to those who received him and who afterwards followed the Lord, as Andrew and another in John 1:40.

So far we have considered John's official place as the forerunner of Christ, but in John's gospel the Baptist's testimony is given to the Lamb of God. He also adds, "I knew him not," but he had been told that He upon whom he saw the Holy Spirit descend and remain was the Baptiser with the Holy Ghost; and he adds, "I saw, and bare record that this is the Son of God." He may have known Jesus in a natural way, but his knowing Him as Son of God was by a divinely-given testimony. John proclaimed Jesus as "the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world;" and in the hearing of two of his own disciples he said, "Behold the Lamb of God." Jesus was to be the object of their hearts, and they followed Him. Afterwards, when John was told that Jesus was baptising, and that all the people were going to Him, he gave a remarkable answer: "He that hath the bride is the bridegroom; but the friend of the bridegroom, which standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom's voice: this my joy therefore is fulfilled. He must increase, but I must decrease." John was the friend of the bridegroom. The Lord said that among those born of women no one was greater than John; but the least in the kingdom of heaven was greater than he, because the latter was in a new dispensation, John being connected with the law and the prophets of the old dispensation. Matt. 11:11-13.

While in prison John's faith or patience seems in measure to have failed him, and he sent two of his disciples to the Lord with the question, "Art thou he that should come, or do we look for another?" He evidently had not apprehended the humiliation and rejection of the Messiah, and expected to have been delivered from prison by the power which he knew had been exercised in grace by the Lord. The Lord wrought various miracles while John's disciples were there, and bade them tell him what they had seen and heard, adding, "Blessed is he, whosoever shall not be offended in me." Luke 7:19-23.

It was because of John's faithfulness in reproving the sins of Herod Antipas that he had been by him cast into prison. This led to his death through Salome and her guilty mother. John's work was done; he was faithful unto death. Mark 6:14-29.

John the Apostle.

Son of Zebedee, and brother of James. James and John were fishermen, but when the Lord called them, they forsook all and followed Him. The Lord surnamed them BOANERGES, 'sons of thunder.'

John, Peter, and James were the three selected to be with the Lord on the mount of transfiguration, and in the garden of Gethsemane. In the Acts of the Apostles John was with Peter when the lame man was healed, and they were both cast into prison. They boldly declared that they could not but speak the things they had seen and heard. John was associated with Peter in visiting the Samaritans, who had received the word preached by Philip, and through the laying on of their hands the Holy Spirit was given. Acts 8.

John was one of the apostles at Jerusalem who, when Paul went thither, gave to him and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that they should go to the heathen. Gal. 2:9. He was afterwards banished to the Isle of Patmos, probably under the emperor Nero or Domitian; it is not known with certainty which, nor at what date. There he had the visions recorded in the Revelation. He also wrote the Gospel and the three Epistles bearing his name, which are generally judged to have been written after the other Gospels and Epistles.

John in his gospel calls himself 'the disciple whom Jesus loved;' at the last Passover he leaned upon the bosom of Jesus, and to his care did the Lord when on the cross commend His mother.

John, The Gospel by.

This Gospel is different in character from the other three, which are often called 'the Synoptical Gospels,' because they each give a fuller account of events than is found in John. The gospel by John has often been judged to be supplementary to the others; but this is not a true view of it. It stands by itself, complete in itself. Each gospel has its own characteristic line: for this see under GOSPELS.

It is the gospel in which we have most distinctly the revelation of the Godhead. The Father is revealed in the Son in both words and works; and in the rejection of the Son the Father was rejected. And, consequent on the Son going back to the Father who had sent Him, the Holy Ghost was to be sent from the Father in His name. See John 14 — John 16.

In John, together with the state of man, is brought out the gift of eternal life, as if the Lord Jesus had been rejected and redemption had already been accomplished. Israel is viewed as reprobate throughout: the feasts are not spoken of as the feasts of Jehovah, but as 'of the Jews,' and 'the Jews' (those of Jerusalem and Judaea) are distinguished from 'the people,' who may have been Galileans or visitors at the feasts from districts outside Judaea.

John 1.  All the essential names of the Lord are brought out in this chapter. His essential Godhead before creation; He is the Creator; the true Light; the only-begotten of the Father (His eternal Sonship); He is the Incarnate, 'the Word became flesh;' the Lamb of God; the Son of God; the Messiah; the king of Israel; and the Son of man. The Jews, 'his own,' received Him not; but to those who received Him He gave authority to become children of God. The Lord became a centre for such, and

1,  His dwelling place an abode for them;

2,  He is the One to be followed down here;

3,  He is the hope of Israel.

A glimpse of millennial glory is given in the declaration at the close of the chapter as to angels ascending and descending upon the Son of man.

John 2  gives a type of millennial blessing in the marriage feast (Jesus being the source of the 'good wine' — the best joy — when the wine of Israel had run out), and His divine right in cleansing the temple would be proved by His power in raising the temple of His body, by which, for the time, the material temple was set aside. John 2:23-25 belong to John 3. The Lord discerns who are really His.*

* The 'third day' of John 2:1  probably refers to the millennial day: John's testimony being the first, John 1:35; Christ's ministry the second, John 1:43; and the millennium the third.

John 3.  Man, such as he is by nature, and even under privilege needs a work of the Spirit in him for the apprehension of, or entrance into the kingdom of God. He must be born of water and of the Spirit: that which is born of the Spirit is spirit in contrast to flesh, and the water no doubt signifies the word morally: cf. John 15:3; 1 Peter 1:23. This should have been known by a teacher of Israel from the prophetic announcement with regard to earthly blessing in Ezek. 36:25, etc. But the Lord proceeds to speak of heavenly things. Man, being a sinner, his whole status as in the flesh, whether Jew or Gentile, is regarded as judged and set aside in the lifting up of the Son of man, the antitype of the brazen serpent, and life is found for man beyond death. This introduces the testimony of the love of God to the world, and His purpose for man in His giving His only begotten Son, namely, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have eternal life. The love of God is not limited to the Jews.

A further and touching testimony is rendered to the Lord by John the Baptist, whose joy was fulfilled in hearing His voice, though he himself should be eclipsed. The last two verses are doubtless the words of the evangelist. The Son being presented, the issue would be either eternal life or the wrath of God.

John 4.  Being obliged to withdraw through the jealousy of the Pharisees from Judaea, the Lord on His road to Galilee must needs pass through Samaria, where He meets with a poor empty-hearted woman — empty spite of all her efforts to find satisfaction in sin. To her He speaks of God being a giver, and that He Himself was ready to give her living water — water that should be in the one receiving it a fountain of water springing up into eternal life — doubtless that which is called in Rom. 8 "the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus," a source of perennial satisfaction within. Connected with this the Father is revealed as seeking worshippers. At the close of the chapter the Lord restores a nobleman's son who was at the point of death, typical of that which He was doing in Israel to sustain the faith of the godly remnant ready to perish.

John 5.  The impotent man was enabled to carry that whereon he lay. The blessing which had resided in vain in the pool of Bethesda, so far as he was concerned, was now superseded by what was in the word of the Son of God.*  This miracle being performed on the Sabbath served to bring out His glory. "My Father worketh hitherto and I work." The Father and the Son are one in the activity of grace. The Father does not judge; the Son quickens and judges. The one who hears His word, and believes on the Father who sent Him, has everlasting life, and will not enter into judgement — is passed, in fact, out of death into life. Those morally dead hear His voice now, and those who have heard shall live. Those in their graves shall also hear, and shall come forth, and there shall be a resurrection of life, and one of judgement. †  Life in this chapter is viewed in connection with the voice of the Lord as the Son.  He brings the soul into the light of the Father. Apart from the testimony of John, there was the three-fold witness to His glory: His works, the Father, and the scriptures.

* Some editors omit from 'waiting,' ver. 3, to end of ver. 4; but it is doubtless a portion of what God caused to be written, and should be retained.

† 'Judgement' in vers. 22, 27, 30; 'condemnation' in ver. 24; and 'damnation' in ver. 29, are all the same Greek word, κρίσις.


John 6.  Five thousand men are fed by the power of the Lord. Struck by this sign of power the multitude, recognising Him as the Prophet, would make Him king. But He retires to a mountain apart, typically in the place of Priest. The disciples meanwhile were on the sea amid darkness and storm. The Lord went to them, walking on the sea. All this would seem to have its application to Israel — the Lord being seen as Prophet, King, and Priest. He will bring them to their desired haven.

What follows has a present application. The Son of man was the true bread from heaven, and the work of God was that people should believe on Him. There is a contrast here between the manna and the new and heavenly food; and life is presented from the point of view of man's appropriation, rather than as the quickening power of the Son of God, as in John 5. "If any one shall have eaten of this bread he shall live for ever." But for this Christ must die — must give His flesh for the life of the world. "He that eats my flesh, and drinks my blood, has life eternal; and I will raise him up at the last day." To appropriate His death is to accept death to all that in which the flesh lives morally, to find life in Him who is out of heaven, and who is gone back thither. This puts every one to the test.

John 7.  The earthly blessing, of which the Feast of Tabernacles is typical, is deferred, owing to Christ's rejection: even His brethren did not believe in Him. But the great day of the feast is the eighth, typical of the day of new creation and of eternal blessing; of this the Spirit is the earnest, as sent from a glorified Christ. On this day Jesus stood and cried, "If any one thirst, let him come to me and drink. He that believes on me, as the scripture has said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. But this he said concerning the Spirit, which they that believed on him were about to receive." The Jews are left in dissension and darkness.

John 8 — John 10.  The Lord is now manifested as the Light, according to what is said of Him in John 1. Those who brought to Him a case of flagrant sin in the expectation of putting Him in a dilemma, were themselves convicted by the light of His word: "He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her." They went out of His presence one by one, convicted by their own conscience. The testimony of His own word as the light of the world follows, and is definitely rejected by the Jews; and when He at length bears witness, "Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am," they took up stones to cast at Him.

Passing through the midst of them the Lord went on His way, and in John 9 gives sight to a man born blind. Here the testimony is that of His work. The leaders of the Jews were themselves blind, and said of Jesus, "We know that this man is a sinner." Being confounded at the poor man's simple reasoning, they cast him out of the synagogue. Upon this Jesus reveals Himself to him as Son of God, and as such he worships Him. Cast out, he finds himself in the company of One whose glorious Person is thus made known. But the Jew is made blinder by the light that has come in.

Rejected both in word and work, the Lord is now revealed as the Shepherd of the sheep in John 10, which must be read in close connection with what precedes. If the Jews cast His disciples out of the synagogue, it was the Lord who led them out of the Jewish fold. For this He was the Shepherd, and the door of the sheep. No doubt His death is supposed here. By Him if any one entered in he should be saved, and find liberty and food, in contrast to the Jewish system in which these were not found. He is the good Shepherd, and gives His life for the sheep; and there is a reciprocal knowledge or an intimacy between Himself and the sheep who are of a new and heavenly order, as there is between the Father and Himself. Also there is no fold now, but one flock and one Shepherd: thus Jews and Gentiles are joined in one flock. Furthermore, He gives His sheep eternal life, and preserves them as given Him of the Father, on the absolute security of His own and His Father's hand. The Jews seeking again to take Him, He departed beyond Jordan.

John 11.  Here the glory of the Son of God is revealed, Jesus setting Himself forth to the faith of His own as the resurrection and the life. Lazarus is allowed to die, but it was for the glory of God, that the Son of God might be glorified thereby. He embodies and expresses in His own person victory over death, and an entirely new order of life in man, which only the Son become man, and dying, could make available to us. In the resurrection of Lazarus this is set forth in pattern; but at the same time a crisis was reached as regards His testimony to the Jews, and He is now conspired against by the leaders of the people, who decide that it was expedient that one man should die for the nation. The high priest spoke this by inspiration, and the Spirit adds, "and not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad." All was now ready for the final act.

John 12.  Mary, in communion with His own mind, anoints His body for His burial, and the house is filled with the odour of the ointment. The godly remnant at Bethany is distinguished by the place He had in their hearts, and Mary by her deep appreciation of His worth. A final testimony is given to the daughter of Zion as her king rode into Jerusalem, sitting on an ass's colt, amid the acclamations of the crowd, who gave witness to His having raised Lazarus. The Pharisees for the moment were confounded.

His glory as Son of God having been displayed, and He being presented to Jerusalem as Son of David, certain Greeks now express a desire to see Jesus. These were Gentiles, and their petition serves to bring out yet another glory of the Lord Jesus. He is the Son of man; and the hour was come that the Son of man should be glorified. He could not take the kingdom, and bring in blessing either for Jews or Greeks without dying; and, while the kingdom glory would be deferred, He would Himself be glorified as Son of man, and would, in dying as the grain of wheat, bring forth much fruit. But this was for another world — for life eternal; one's life in this world must be hated, and a rejected Christ followed. We here see what the counsels of God are in regard to man being glorified in heaven, and how the death of the Son of man would bring them about. But the world is now definitely judged and its prince cast out, and a lifted-up Son of man becomes the attractive object and gathering point for faith. The chapter closes with the utter rejection of the Jews. Thenceforward the ministry of the Lord is in private with His own.

John 13, 14.  In John 13 the Lord washes the disciples' feet, the hour having come that He should depart out of this world unto the Father; in view, that is, of this great fact. The point was to maintain them in moral suitability to the new place to which He was going, in which they should have part with Him. The action of the word (the water) would free them morally to enter into and enjoy communion with Him when gone to the Father. At the outset they had been washed or bathed all over (as in the consecration of the priests) and this was not to be repeated; but, to enjoy heavenly things, a continuous practical cleansing was necessary, signified by the washing of the feet alone. (See WASHING.) This gracious work is set forth as a pattern for the disciples to do to one another — to remove, that is, by the ministry of the word, all that hinders communion. They were to be suited as servants to represent the Lord in this world, and for this they must first be suited to Himself. To Judas however these things could not apply. Having received the sop at the hands of the blessed Lord, Judas went out immediately to betray Him; and it was night. The chapter shows the Lord's knowledge of every form of evil to which His people could be exposed in this world.

In contrast to what is here discovered as to man, the Lord brings forward the glorification of the Son of man, in whom the glory of God would first be secured. He should be immediately glorified. His disciples would be known as His by their love one to another, this being the new commandment given by the Lord. What the flesh is, even in a saint of God, is set forth in Peter's sincere but self-confident assertion of faithfulness even to death. In view of all that man is, there was enough to appal the disciples in the prospect of Christ leaving them, but they were to believe in Jesus (John 14) as they believed in God; and hence their heart need not be troubled. He was going away to prepare a place for them in His Father's house, and would come again to receive them to Himself. He was Himself the way, the truth, and the life — the revealer of and way to the Father — a divine Person, who could say, "I am in the Father and the Father in me." He was going to the Father, and whatever they should ask in the Son's name the Father would do. And further, "If ye shall ask anything in my name I will do it." This supposes that they would be in the knowledge of His interests during His absence. They were to keep His commandments, if they loved Him.

He would ask the Father, who would give them another Comforter, the Spirit of truth, who would remain with them for ever: He would be in them. Furthermore, He would not leave them orphans, He would Himself come to them. The Comforter would teach them all things and bring to their remembrance what He had said to them. He left them peace, and gave them His own peace. If they loved Him they would rejoice that He was going to the Father. All this discourse, preparatory to His departure, was to fit the disciples to serve His interests when He should be gone from them.

John 15.  The Lord in this chapter shows how He had taken the place of the vine, which Israel had been set to be by Jehovah (Ps. 80; Isa. 5.), but in which it had utterly failed, so far as fruit was concerned. The Lord was the true Vine, and no fruit could be borne but as abiding in Him: as He said, "Without me ye can do nothing." The disciples were to abide in His love, keeping His commandments. He calls them friends, no longer bondsmen, for all things He had heard of His Father He had made known to them. But they were to love one another. The world would hate them because they were not of it: it had however hated Him first. But when the Comforter was come, the Spirit of truth, He should bear witness concerning the Lord, and the disciples would do so likewise, because they had been with Him from the beginning.

John 16.  The Lord warns the disciples of the persecution they would meet with from the world. He was about to leave them; but this was for their advantage, because the Comforter would come to them in His stead. This great event would on the one hand have its bearing on the world; and on the other, on the disciples. To the world the Holy Spirit would bring demonstration of sin, righteousness, and judgement; while the disciples would be guided by Him into all the truth. He would glorify the Son, and show to them the things of the Father which were the Son's. The Lord would be withdrawn from them for a little while by death, but they would see Him again, as indeed they did, a foretaste of what is yet to come in a still more blessed manner. They should thus have a joy which no one could take from them, in the knowledge and enjoyment of the new relationship with the Father, into which He was introducing them. The world however would rejoice at being rid of Him: terrible testimony to its state.

The disciples failed to apprehend the true import of the Lord's discourse about the Father, in which He assured them of the Father's love for them, by reason of which they might henceforward address themselves immediately to Him in the name of the Son, that is, in His interests, and be assured of their petitions. For the moment they would be scattered, and, but for the Father's presence with Him, would leave Him alone. The Lord spoke these things to them that in Him they might have peace, whereas in the world they should have tribulation.

John 17.  There follows a prayer to the Father, in which, in the most affecting manner, the Lord allows us to know His desires for His own according to the counsel of the Father. It is divided into three parts; the first, down to the end of John 17:5, having reference to His own glory, and the consequent glory of the Father; the second, to John 17:19, referring to the disciples then present — the eleven; the third, to those who should believe on Him through their word. Eternal life; the revelation of the Father's name, and the relationship with Him in which the disciples were placed in consequence; their place in the world; their oneness in the present and in the future; glory with Christ, in which all who believe share; and the love of the Father to the Lord Jesus, into which His own are brought, are some of the subjects in this portion.

John 18.  Jesus in the garden is betrayed by Judas. The agony of the Lord is not recorded here, which may be owing to His being seen in this gospel as Son of God; and those sent to arrest Him fall to the ground. He is arraigned before Caiaphas and before Pilate, to whom He confesses that He is a king. The Jews choose Barabbas.

John 19.  Jesus is pronounced to be guiltless, but is condemned by Pilate, after being presented to the Jews as their king. They call for His crucifixion, declaring that they have 'no king but Caesar.' On the cross He commits His mother to John. Jesus having fulfilled all, Himself delivers up His spirit. From His pierced side flow blood and water: cf. 1 John 5:6-8.

John 20  records the resurrection of the blessed Lord and its result. Mary Magdalene, ignorant of the great event, but with the deepest affection for her Lord, came in the early morning of the first day of the week to the sepulchre. He was no longer there. She summoned Peter and John, who, running and looking into the sepulchre, took note of what they saw as evidence on which they believed. They then went home again. She, with less intelligence but more affection, lingered still. To her the Lord revealed Himself, and not suffering her to touch Him (no doubt as indicating that the relationship with His own was no longer of an earthly kind), He sent her with the surprising message to His disciples, "I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God." He put them in His own relationship as man before His Father and God. Then we have a picture of the assembly gathered in the truth of this relationship, in the midst of which He Himself took His place. He brought peace to them, assuring them that He was in very deed the same who had been pierced and nailed to the cross. He then gave them their commission: "As the Father sent me forth, I also send you," again pronouncing peace. Having said this, He breathed into them and said, "Receive [the] Holy Spirit." This must not be confounded with Acts 2, in which the descent of the Holy Ghost is connected more with power. Here it corresponds with the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus. Rom. 8:2. Thomas, who saw and believed, represents the Jewish remnant in the latter day, who will believe when they see the Lord.

John 21.  This is on the ground of the synoptic gospels, that is to say, is dispensational in its character — the draught of fishes is identified with the work of Christ in connection with earth. Led by Peter the disciples go fishing, but catch nothing. The Lord appears to them, and tells them to cast the net on the right side of the ship; and now they were not able to draw it for the multitude of fishes. There is no breaking of the net here, and 153 great fishes are secured. They now recognise the Lord, and find a dinner ready prepared, of which they are invited to partake. All this points to a resumption of the Lord's earthly association with His people Israel, whom He will use for an abundant ingathering of souls from among the sea of nations after the close of the present period.

After this we have the full restoration of Peter in a passage of most touching grace, and obscurely the relative portion and service of both Peter and John.

It is not surprising that a book, in which the divine glory of the Son of God is especially unfolded, should be concluded by the surmise of the apostle, that the world itself could not contain all that might be written of His doings.

John, First Epistle of.

This was doubtless written after the epistles of Peter and Paul.  Morally John's writings have their place when the church as a testimony had failed, and the 'last time' had arrived. The three Epistles come in between the Gospel of John and the Revelation. The real remedy for the evils spoken of is the coming in of the Lord as the faithful witness.

Near the end of the first century the error had arisen that Christ had no real body — had not come in flesh: this doctrine is condemned in this epistle. Others held that only the germ of Christianity could be found in existing teachings, and that development must be looked for (an error prevalent also in the present day), which was met by the apostle insisting on 'that which was from the beginning' — the revelation of life in Christ Himself.

The leading truth of this epistle is that eternal life had come down from the Father in the person of Christ; and it was written that

1.  The believer's joy might be full, through being in communion with the Father and with His Son Jesus Christ by means of inspired and apostolic revelation, He as Advocate maintaining the same.

2.  That believers should not sin. 1 John 2:1.

3.  That believers might know that they have eternal life, which is in the Son. 1 John 5:13. The epistle presents things largely in their own proper character, touching but little upon what is experimentally different therefrom, and thus contains tests of profession.


1 John 1  presents that which the apostles had heard, seen, contemplated, and handled of the Word of life in the person of the Son become man. It is that which was set forth in a Man. That which was with the Father, namely, the eternal life, was thus manifested to the apostles, who reported what they had seen and heard to the disciples, that they might have fellowship with them, and that their joy might be full. The apostles' fellowship was with the Father and His Son Jesus Christ. But it is in the light that it is enjoyed, where also christian fellowship is known, and the blood of Christ is the foundation of all.

1 John 2.  What is inconsistent and consistent with the light is then referred to, leading on to the unfolding of the advocacy of "Jesus Christ the righteous" with the Father, and its effects in case any one sinned. The test of the knowledge of God is keeping His commandments, and the love of God is perfected in him who keeps His word. But this commandment of love is no new one; what is new is that which is true both in Him and in His disciples. They are in the light now, for God is fully revealed, and they are in the light of this revelation. He who hates his brother is in darkness. Different stages of growth in Christians are now spoken of, namely, fathers, young men, and babes. What is characteristic of each is presented, together with certain besetting dangers, against which young men and babes are warned. 1 John 2:12 and 1 John 2:28 speak of all Christians under the general term 'little children.' It may be noticed that even the babes have the Holy Ghost — the unction from the Holy One.

1 John 3  gives the nature of the Christian's place and blessings as given of the Father's love, and the actual result of being born of God, both in the practice of righteousness and in loving one another. In these things the children of God are manifested; while in the practice of sin, and the hatred of their brother, the children of the devil are discerned. In John's epistle people are viewed absolutely as either one thing or the other.

Jesus Christ is set forth as the perfect pattern both of righteousness and of love. He is here viewed as veritably God, and the One who came to undo the works of the devil, and He has 'laid down his life for us.' He fully vindicated the rights of God, which sin had compromised, and He loved even unto death.

In fine, this chapter declares, on the one hand, what believers are before God, in present relationship, Christ Himself being the completion and measure of all their blessing; on the other hand, the test of it as regards men, Christ abiding in them that His character may come out in them. In the concluding verse the Spirit is introduced in connection with the conscious knowledge believers have that God abides in them. It is by Him they know it.

1 John 4  gives a test for distinguishing spirits, namely, the confession of Jesus Christ come in flesh, which could only be by the Spirit of God. There were those who, denying this great foundation of the faith, spoke as of the world, and who had the world's approval. Christians are qualified to discriminate as to what is presented to them. Then it is shown that those towards whom God's love is so great ought to love one another. The character of God morally, which had been seen in Christ, is now seen in those who are the objects of His love; they are identified even in this world with Christ as He is, from whom they derive everything in new creation. He who does not love, does not know God. It is in loving one another that believers come out before the world as the disciples of Christ. In this chapter it is said that we know 'that we abide in Him' (1 John 4:13), not merely that He abides in us: cf. 1 John 3:24.

1 John 5  gives a test whereby believers may know that they love God's children, namely, when they love God and keep His commandments. Those born of God get the victory over the world — those, in fact, who believe that Jesus is the Son of God. The glory of His person eclipses all that naturally appeals to them, and they are thus delivered from the influence of the world. This leads the apostle to speak of eternal life, which he shows is not in the first man, but in God's Son. "He that hath the Son hath life: he that hath not the Son of God hath not life." The water and the blood show that it involves clearance from all that is morally of the first man, and the Spirit proves it is in another Man. The Spirit is the 'truth' here: but it is to bring believers into the conscious knowledge of eternal life, which is set forth objectively in the person of the Son of God. Christians are brought by the Spirit, through the application of death, into the present enjoyment of eternal life, and He leads their hearts into the heavenly things into which the Son of God, the Man Christ Jesus, has entered.

The epistle closes with a kind of summary of Christian knowledge from its particular point of view. Christians know first the nature of one begotten of God. Then they know that they are of God, and that the whole world lies in the wicked one — the difference morally between Christians and the world. Lastly, they know that the Son of God has come, and that He has given them an understanding to know Him, in whom God is perfectly revealed. They know moreover that they are in God's Son, Jesus Christ, who is the true God and eternal life. No other object should govern the heart. "Little children, keep yourselves from idols."

John, Second Epistle of.

This is addressed to 'the elect lady,' but gives no intimation as to who she was. Some suppose the word κυρία to be a proper name, and read 'To Kyria the elect.' She is warned against countenancing in any way those who brought not true doctrine as to Christ. Love is governed by truth, accompanied with obedience — in a word, Christ. Obedience would prove the apostle's work to be real, and he would receive a full reward. As in the first epistle, 'that which was from the beginning' is enforced, in opposition to any supposed development. It is an important principle that one bidding 'God speed' to a false teacher, is partaker of his evil deeds.

John, Third Epistle of.

This is addressed to 'the beloved Gaius,' but whether he is the same person as either of those mentioned elsewhere is not known. Gaius is commended for receiving and helping on those that travelled about doing the Lord's work; and Diotrephes is denounced for refusing to aid such, and for putting some out of the assembly. The spirit of clericalism was found thus early in the church. The apostle had no greater joy than to hear that his children were walking in the truth which was ever precious to him. Demetrius is commended, and greetings sent to Gaius and to 'the friends.'

Joiada. [Joia'da]

Son of Eliashib, a descendant of Jeshua the priest. Neh. 12:10-11, 22; Neh. 13:28.

Joiakim. [Joia'kim]

Son of Jeshua the priest. Neh. 12:10, 12, 26.

Joiarib. [Joia'rib]

1.  One sent by Ezra to fetch Levites for the house of God. Ezra 8:16.

2.  Son of Zechariah, the son of Shiloni. Neh. 11:5

3.  A priest, father of Jedaiah. Neh. 11:10. Perhaps the same that is mentioned in Neh. 12:6, 19.

Jokdeam. [Jok'deam]

City in the hill country of Judah. Joshua 15:56. Not identified.

Jokim. [Jo'kim]

Son of Shelah, a son of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:22.

Jokmeam. [Jok'meam]

Levitical city, in Ephraim. 1 Chr. 6:68. Probably the same as JOKNEAM in 1 Kings 4:12, where the R.V. has JOKMEAM. The Hebrew is the same in both places. Not identified.

Jokneam. [Jok'neam]

1.  Levitical city in Zebulun. Joshua 12:22; Joshua 19:11; Joshua 21:34.  Identified with Tell Keimun, 32 40' N, 35 6' E.

2.  See JOKMEAM.

Jokshan. [Jok'shan]

Son of Abraham and Keturah. Gen. 25:2-3; 1 Chr. 1:32.

Joktan. [Jok'tan]

Son of Eber, of the family of Shem. Gen. 10:25-26, 29; 1 Chr. 1:19-20, 23.  His descendants are traced to southern Arabia.

Joktheel. [Jok'theel]

1.  City in the lowlands of Judah. Joshua 15:38.

2.  Name given by Amaziah to Selah (the 'rock') in Edom when captured by him. 2 Kings 14:7.



Jonadab. [Jon'adab]

1.  Son of Shimeah and nephew of David: he subtly led his cousin Amnon into sin. 2 Sam. 13:3, 5, 32, 35.

2.  Son of Rechab the founder of the Rechabites. Jehu took him with him to see his zeal for the Lord. He also is called JEHONADAB. 2 Kings 10:15, 23; Jer. 35:6-19.

Jonah. [Jo'nah]

Son of Amittai and the prophet of Gath-hepher (in Galilee: cf. John 7:52). His prophecy is in the main the history of himself. It shows that the prophet embodied in himself the testimony of God through Israel to the Gentiles (comp. Matt. 24:14), and also the important fact that God regards the contrition and turning from evil of a city or nation. Jonah was directed to go and cry against that great city Nineveh; but instead of obeying, he fled from the presence of the Lord. He himself tells us why he fled — he knew Jehovah was gracious: if he foretold the destruction of the city, and God spared it, he would lose his reputation. Jonah 4:2.  It was the same with Israel: they could not bear grace being shown to the Gentiles: cf. Acts 13:45; 1 Thess. 2:16. Jonah was God's servant, but unfaithful: his unfaithfulness brought him into the depths of judgement, but he then embodied in his own person the truth of the testimony he proclaimed, and yet while proclaiming the judgement, he was unprepared for the extension of mercy to the Gentiles. God stopped him in his course, and though he slept, the sailors called him to account. After praying to their gods, they drew lots and the lot fell on Jonah. He had to confess he was fleeing from Jehovah, the God of heaven who made the sea and the dry land. Thus Jehovah was made known to those Gentile seamen. They cried unto Him not to lay the blood of Jonah upon them, and they cast him into the sea. They feared Jehovah exceedingly, offered a sacrifice to Him and made vows. In like manner the obduracy of the Jews only opened the door wider for grace to go to the Gentiles.

Jonah 2.  God prepared a great fish to swallow Jonah, for he was His servant. When in the depths he cried to Jehovah, "out of the belly of Sheol:" as the remnant of Israel will plead when they feel that the sentence of death is passed upon them. Salvation is of the Lord.  Jonah was raised out of death, as the Lord was raised after being in the grave; and as Israel will arise out of the dust of the earth: cf. Dan. 12:2.

Jonah 3.  A second time Jonah receives his commission. God will not set His purpose aside because of the failure of His servant. Jonah now obeyed, and proclaimed "Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be overthrown." The king called for a fast, put on sackcloth, and ordered all to do the same, and even to clothe the beasts with sackcloth, and he commanded all to turn away from their evil ways. God saw that the repentance was real, and He turned from the destruction that was predicted.  See NINEVEH.

Jonah 4.  God's clemency greatly displeased Jonah, and he was very angry; what would become of his reputation? In his prayer he repeated what he had at first said to himself about the grace of God. He asked God to take away his life: how could he be a prophet to such a God? Alas, he was filled with his own importance. As he watched to see what would become of the city, God prepared a gourd to give him shade from the heat of the sun, and he rejoiced over the gourd; but the next day it withered, and under the power of the sun and the east wind he fainted, and again asked to die. He said to God that he did well to be angry about the gourd, but God condescended to reason with him, saying that as Jonah had had pity on the gourd which cost him nothing; so God had had pity on Nineveh, a city with more than 120,000 inhabitants who knew not their right hand from their left, besides very much cattle.

We may hope that Jonah humbled himself ere being used by the Spirit to write his own history — a history which shows what the heart of even a servant of God was, and the means employed by God to teach him. Jonah is once spoken of elsewhere as having prophesied of events which came to pass in the days of Jeroboam 2.  This places Jonah as one of the earliest of the Minor Prophets. 2 Kings 14:25. He is called JONAS in the N.T. where a contrast is drawn between the Ninevites repenting at the preaching of Jonah, and the Jews not repenting though a greater than Jonah was then among them. Allusion is also made to Jonah being in the fish's belly as a type of the Lord's burial 'in the heart of the earth.' Matt. 12:39-41; Matt. 16:4; Luke 11:29-32.

Jonan. [Jo'nan]

Son of Eliakim in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:30.

Jonas, [Jo'nas] Jona. [Jo'na]

1.  The Greek form of JONAH, q.v.

2.  The father of Peter. John 1:42; John 21:15, 17.

Jonathan. [Jon'athan]

1.  Son of Gershom and grandson of Moses or Manasseh, q.v.  Though only a Levite he acted as priest in the house of Micah, who had a graven image, an ephod, and teraphim. He afterwards became priest to the tribe of Dan. He inquired of the Lord for them, and gave a reply as if God had answered him. Judges 17:7-13; Judges 18:1-30. He was called 'a young man out of Beth-lehem-judah, of the family of Judah.'  This may mean that he had merely resided there. Bethlehem was not a Levitical city. He had been sojourning where he could in those troublous times.

2.  Son of Saul and friend of David. Jonathan was a valiant man, and a man of faith. He slew the garrison of the Philistines in Geba. 1 Sam. 13:2-3.  This caused the Philistines to gather together their armies; and Jonathan went secretly and alone with his armour-bearer, but in reliance on the Lord, up to their garrison, and the Philistines were smitten. But Jonathan, in pursuing them, tasted a little wild honey, not knowing that his father had pronounced a curse upon any that should taste food until evening. Desiring to follow up the victory, Saul inquired of God but received no reply, therefore lots were cast to discover why God would not answer — the lot fell on Jonathan and his father said he must die; but the army rescued him. 1 Sam. 14:1-46.

On David's slaying Goliath, Jonathan made a covenant with him because he 'loved him as his own soul,' and gave to David his robe and his weapons. 1 Sam. 18:1-4. He afterwards sheltered David from the malice of Saul, and gave proof of his love in that though he was heir to the throne, he agreed that David should be king, and he would be next to him. 1 Sam. 19:1-7; 1 Sam. 20:1-42; 1 Sam. 23:16-18. Nevertheless Jonathan remained with his father, rather than with the one who was anointed by God to be His king, and with his father he perished. In this he was a type of the future remnant, who, having left the true David, will go through the tribulation. 1 Sam. 31:2.

3.  Son of Abiathar the high priest. 2 Sam. 15:27, 36; 2 Sam. 17:17, 20; 1 Kings 1:42-43.

4.  Son of Shimeah, David's brother. He killed the giant who had twelve fingers and twelve toes. 2 Sam. 21:21; 1 Chr. 20:7.

5, 6.  Two of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:32:1 Chr. 11:34.

7.  Son of Jada, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:32-33.

8.  Uncle of David: his counsellor and secretary 1 Chr. 27:32.

9.  Ancestor of some who returned from exile. Ezra 8:6.

10.  Son of Asahel: he superintended the separation of the Jews from their strange wives. Ezra 10:15.

11.  Son of Joiada, a priest. Neh. 12:11.

12.  Priest 'of Melicu.' Neh. 12:14.

13.  Son of Shemaiah, a priest. Neh. 12:35. Apparently called JEHONATHAN in Neh. 12:18.

14.  The scribe in whose house Jeremiah was imprisoned. Jer. 37:15, 20; Jer. 38:26.

15.  Son of Kareah. Jer. 40:8.

Jonathelemrechokim.  [Jonath-elem-rechokim]

Words signifying "dove of silence in far-off lands," found only in the title of Ps. 51: its allusion is not known.

Joppa. [Jop'pa]

Town and sea-port in the tribe of Dan. It was the port of Jerusalem. Timber was cut in Lebanon and brought in 'floats' by sea to Joppa, for the temple at Jerusalem. 2 Chr. 2:16; Ezra 3:7. It was the port from which Jonah took ship to go to Tarshish. Jonah 1:3. It was where Dorcas was restored to life, and where Peter had the vision of the sheet from heaven, with instructions to visit Cornelius. Acts 9:36-43; Acts 10:5-33; Acts 11:5, 13.  It was originally called JAPHO, Joshua 19:46; and is now called Jaffa or Yafa, 32 3' N, 34 45' E.

It has been destroyed many times, but now it is part of Tel Aviv, the major city and port of Israel. In its vicinity fine palms, oranges, pomegranates, figs, bananas, and water-melons are grown and exported.

Joppa, [Jop'pa] Sea of.

In Ezra 3:7, the meaning is 'the sea at Joppa.'

Jorah. [Jo'rah]

Ancestor of some who returned from exile, Ezra 2:18.  Apparently called HARIPH in Neh. 7:24.

Jorai. [Jo'rai]

Head of a family of Gad. 1 Chr. 5:13.

Joram, [Jo'ram] Jehoram.

1.  Son and successor of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah: he reigned eight years, B.C. 892-885. He, as of the seed of David, formed an unholy alliance by marrying Athaliah, daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. He put to death his six brothers, and established Baal worship at Jerusalem. He was punished by the Philistines and Arabians taking possession of his treasures, and carrying his wives and children into captivity. He was warned as to his course by 'a writing' from the prophet Elijah (which was doubtless written some time before, 2 Chr. 21:12), foretelling that God would smite His people with a great plague; the king's disease should be such that his bowels should fall out; and it was thus that he miserably died. 1 Kings 22:50; 2 Kings 1:17; 2 Kings 8:16-29; 2 Kings 11:2; 2 Kings 12:18; 1 Chr. 3:11; 2 Chr. 21:1-20; 2 Chr. 22:1, 11; Matt. 1:8.

2.  Son of Ahab and Jezebel. He succeeded his brother Ahaziah, king of Israel, and reigned twelve years, B.C. 896-884. He wrought evil in the sight of the Lord, but put away the image of Baal that his father had made. The king of Moab revolted against him, and he asked Jehoshaphat king of Judah to go with him to punish the Moabites. These two kings, with the king of Edom, assembled their armies, but there was no water to drink. They then appealed to Elisha for help, but he said that except Jehoshaphat had been there he would not have looked upon Joram. A miracle was wrought and there was abundance of water. God also gave them a great victory over the Moabites, which led the king of Moab to offer his eldest son as a burnt offering to his god, and the Israelites departed.

The time however was approaching for God's judgement on the house of Ahab. Joram and Ahaziah king of Judah went against the Syrians in Ramoth-gilead. There Joram was wounded, and he returned to Jezreel to be healed, leaving his army at Ramoth-gilead. In the meantime a prophet, sent by Elisha, visited the camp and anointed Jehu to be king of Israel, with instructions to smite the house of Ahab totally. Jehu being proclaimed king, he hastily drove to Jezreel to fulfil his mission and Joram, as he fled before Jehu, was killed by an arrow. 2 Kings 1:17; 2 Kings 3:1-25; 2 Kings 8:16-29; 2 Kings 9:14-26, 29; 2 Chr. 22:5-7.

3.  Son of Toi king of Hamath. 2 Sam. 8:10. Apparently the same as HADORAM in 1 Chr. 18:10.

4.  Son of Jeshaiah, a Levite. 1 Chr. 26:25.

5.  Priest, who was sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the people. 2 Chr. 17:8.

Jordan. [Jor'dan]

The river of Palestine is first referred to when Lot chose the plain of Jordan, because it was well watered, as the garden of the Lord. Gen. 13:10. The first great event at the river was when the waters from above were driven back, and those below failed and were cut off, and Israel marched over on dry land. They had previously passed through the Red Sea, but the details of the two passages are quite different. At the Red Sea Moses lifted up his rod and the waters divided; but at the Jordan it was when the feet of the priests bearing the ark were dipped in the water that it divided. The ark also remained in the river until all had passed over. Twelve stones were taken out of the river to form a cairn on the land, and twelve stones were placed in the bed of the river to be covered by the water. The waters were piled up at Adam, some twenty miles from where the Israelites crossed; but at the Red Sea the water was as a wall on each side. Joshua 3:8-17; Joshua 4:1-24. (The waters being piled up 'at Adam' [Joshua 3:16] is according to the Hebrew text [see also R.V. and Mr. Darby's Trans.]; the reading 'from Adam' is according to the Keri.)

All this was typical: the passage of the Red Sea typified Christ dying for the believer (by which the believer escapes death and judgement); the passage of the Jordan typified the believer dying with Christ, and being raised with Him (the path of death becomes the path of life), according to Col. 2:20; Col.3:1. The waters of the river overflowing its banks at that time typified that the full power of death was met, and overcome by the death and resurrection of Christ. The Jordan itself has often been taken as a type of death having to be passed in order to enter heaven; but it is rather a figure of the entrance, while on earth, through death with Christ to the heavenly position of the Christian, where he has to stand for the Lord in conflict with spiritual powers of wickedness (cf. Eph. 6:10-18), as Israel had to fight the Canaanites, and so make good the Lord's possession through them of the promised land.

The Jordan may further be regarded as the boundary of the promised land, so that the two and a half tribes who stayed on the east of the Jordan stopped short of their privileges. They are a type of many Christians who do not in faith accept the heavenly portion, through death and resurrection, that God intends for them. They are thus more exposed to the attacks of the enemy, as were the two and a half tribes who were the first to be carried into captivity.

The 'SWELLING' OF JORDAN is alluded to as causing dangers or difficulties. It not only prevented persons crossing at the usual fords, but it disturbed the wild beasts in their lairs on its banks, as is thrice alluded to. Jer. 12:5; Jer. 49:19; Jer. 50:44. Various incidents and conflicts occurred at the river or on its banks which do not call for remark. In the N.T. it was where John baptized.

The Jordan is like no other river in the world. The Hebrew name for it, Yarden, always has the article, and signifies 'the Descender.' It is remarkable for the great fall it has from its source to the Dead Sea. It may be said to have three sources: the highest near Hasbeiya, between Hermon and Lebanon, some 3000 feet above the level of the sea; the second, near the ruins of Banyas, the ancient Caesarea-Philippi; and the third near Tell el Kady, the ancient Dan. The three streams unite with other smaller ones (the Iyon River is now considered to be another source) and entered the lake of Huleh, which was also called 'the waters of Merom.' This is estimated to be seven feet above the level of the sea, this lake was drained in 1957. The Jordan falls from here in a stream about a hundred feet wide, running south. About two miles from the lake is a bridge called Jisr Benat Yakub, 'Bridge of Jacob's Daughters,' where Jacob is supposed to have crossed. Its banks from this point contract, and the stream rushes violently down a rocky bed, but gets more gentle before it reaches the Lake of Gennesaret. The distance from lake to lake is about ten miles, but the windings of the river make its length about thirteen miles. The Lake of Gennesaret is 682 feet below the level of the sea, giving a fall of 689 feet in the thirteen miles.

The river leaves this lake about a hundred feet wide and soon passes the remains of a Roman bridge. Some six miles from the lake is a bridge called Jisr el Mujamia. The river here was deep and rapid but much water is now extracted for irrigation; about fifteen miles farther south an island divides the river and there it is often fordable, as it is also near Jericho, and at low water in many other places. Another bridge is called Jisr ed Damieh, about 32 6' N, 35 32' E. The river's greatest width is mentioned as 180 yards and it is about three feet deep in entering the Dead Sea. This is 1292 feet below the level of the sea, being 610 below the Lake of Gennesaret; the distance is about 65 miles, but the water-way has been estimated to be as much as 200 miles: during its course it has 27 rapids. There are several streams that run into the Jordan both on the east and the west. The two principal ones are on the east: the Yarmuk or Wady Hieromax and the Jabbok, now called Wady Zerka. They are both at times called rivers.

The valley in which the Jordan runs is called the Ghor. On the east it is bounded by a high table land and on the west by high hills. In the valley is a terrace of vegetation, and in the middle of this are the true banks of the river, having in places a jungle of willows, reeds, canes, etc.  See SALT SEA.

Jorim. [Jo'rim]

Son of Matthat in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:29.

Jorkoam. [Jo'rkoam]

Son of Raham, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:44.

Josabad. [Jo'sabad]

The Gederathite who resorted to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:4.

Josaphat. [Jo'saphat]

Another form of Jehoshaphat. Matt. 1:8.

Jose. [Jo'se]

Son of Eliezer in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:29.

Josedech. [Jo'sedech]

Father of Joshua, or Jeshua, the priest, who returned from exile, and superintended the rebuilding of the temple. Hag. 1:1, 12, 14; Hag. 2:2, 4; Zech. 6:11. He is called JOZADAK in Ezra 3:2, 8; Ezra 5:2; Ezra 10:18; Neh. 12:26. Perhaps the same as JEHOZADAK in 1 Chr. 6:14-15.

Joseph. [Jo'seph]

Eleventh son of Jacob and first of Rachel. The interesting history of Joseph is too well known to need being given in its detail, but attention should be given to the many respects in which Joseph was a striking type of the Lord Jesus. He was the beloved one of his father: this with the intimations given to him of his future position, destined for him by God in the midst of his family, stirred up the envy of his brethren and resulted in his being sold to the Gentiles: as the Lord was hated by His brethren the Jews, and sold by one of them. Joseph was accounted as dead. He was brought very low, being cast into prison, under a false accusation against him because he would not sin: his feet were 'made fast in the stocks,' and the iron entered his soul: in all these circumstances he was foreshadowing the Lord in His humiliation.

On the elevation of Joseph to power he was unknown to his brethren, as the Lord in exaltation is now to His brethren after the flesh. During this time he had a Gentile wife and children and became 'fruitful': so while the Lord is rejected by the Jews, God is gathering from the nations a people for His name. Joseph ruled over the Gentiles, as the Lord will do. Then all Joseph's brethren bowed down to him, as eventually all the twelve tribes will bow down to the Lord. This is followed by all the descendants of Jacob being placed in a fruitful part of the country, as the nation will be gathered to the pleasant land in the millennium.

The beautiful and touching way in which Joseph dealt with his brethren, will be repeated in a magnified way by the Lord's tender and loving dealing with the remnant of Judah when they come to speak to Him about the wounds in His hands, and to mourn over the way He was treated by them. They will then see that, notwithstanding their hatred, He laid the foundation in His death for their future blessing.

When Jacob prophetically blessed His sons, Joseph had a prominent place. Gen. 49:22-26. He was to be very fruitful, with branches running over the wall: so the blessing of Israel through Christ extends to the Gentiles. He was sorely grieved, hated, and shot at, as was the Lord; but his bow abode in strength, and from him was the shepherd, the stone of Israel (two titles of the Lord). Then the blessings of heaven and of the deep, of the breasts and of the womb, are multiplied on the head and on the crown of Joseph, as the one separated from his brethren: all foreshadowing, though to be far exceeded by, the many crowns and the glory in heaven and on earth of the true Nazarite, now sanctified in heavenly glory, the Lord Jesus. For the blessing by Moses cf. Deut. 33:13-17. Joseph, when about to die, had faith that God would surely deliver Israel from Egypt and gave directions concerning his bones. Gen. 37 — Gen. 50; Ex. 13:19.  For the Egyptian king under whom it is supposed that Joseph lived, see EGYPT.

2.  Father of Igal, of Issachar. Num. 13:7.

3.  Son of Asaph: appointed to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:2, 9.

4.  One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:42.

5.  Priest 'of Shebaniah' who returned from exile. Neh. 12:14.

6.  Husband of Mary the mother of Jesus. He was 'a just man,' and was obedient to the instructions he received from God as to his wife, and in protecting the infant Jesus. He was of the house and lineage of David, his genealogy being given in Matt. 1 and perhaps in Luke 3.  The visit to Jerusalem, when the Lord was twelve years old, is the last incident recorded of him. He is once called 'the carpenter,' Matt. 13:55, as is the Lord also in Mark 6:3. It was a custom for all Jews to learn a trade. Matt. 1:16-25; Matt. 2:13, 19; Luke 1:27; Luke 2:4-43; Luke 3:23; Luke 4:22; John 1:45; John 6:42.

7.  Joseph of Arimathaea, an honourable counsellor, and a rich man. He was a secret disciple of Jesus, and had not consented to the action of the Sanhedrim in condemning the Lord.  He boldly asked for the body of Jesus, and interred it in his own new tomb, thus fulfilling Isa. 53:9; Matt. 27:57, 59; Mark 15:43; Luke 23:50; John 19:38.

8-10.   Son of Mattathias; son of Juda; and son of Jonan — three in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:24, 26, 30.

11.  Disciple, also called BARSABAS, surnamed JUSTUS, who, with Matthias, was selected as fit to take the place of Judas, but the lot fell on Matthias. Acts 1:23.

Joses. [Jo'ses]

1.  One of the brethren of the Lord. Matt. 13:55; Mark 6:3.

2.  Son of a Mary who beheld the crucifixion. Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40, 47.  See MARY, WIFE OF CLEOPHAS.

3.  A Levite of Cyprus, named also BARNABAS, 'son of consolation,' who sold his land, and laid the proceeds at the apostles' feet. Acts 4:36.  See BARNABAS.

Joshah. [Jo'shah]

Son of Amaziah, a descendant of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:34.


The Mithnite, one of David's valiant men. 1 Chr. 11:43.

Joshaviah. [Joshavi'ah]

Son of Elnaam and one of David's valiant men. 1 Chr. 11:46.

Joshbekashah. [Joshbeka'shah]

Son of Heman: appointed to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:4, 24.

Joshua. [Josh'ua]

1.  Son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim. His name was originally OSHEA, or HOSHEA, but it was changed by Moses into Jehoshua, and this was contracted into Joshua, which is the same as JESUS in the Greek, and signifies 'Jehovah the saviour.' Joshua was one of the twelve spies, and he with Caleb brought up a true report of the land, and was one of the two survivors of the men who came out of Egypt that entered the land. The first notice of Joshua is when he led the army against the Amalekites and overcame them while Moses' hands were held up. Ex. 17:9. He is afterwards called the 'minister' of Moses, and as such he went up with him into the mount of God. Ex. 24:13; Ex. 32:17. Joshua was appointed the successor of Moses, not as law-giver, but as leader. He had 'the spirit,' and some of the honour of Moses was put upon him. Num. 27:18-23; Deut. 1:38; Deut. 3:28.

The principal work of Joshua was to lead the Israelites into the land of promise, not on the ground of their righteousness, but of the promises made to the fathers; the subjugation of the former inhabitants, and dividing the land as a possession for the twelve tribes, and these things are recorded in the BOOK OF JOSHUA. In these points Joshua was a type of Christ as leader or Captain of His saints. He is once called JESHUA. Neh. 8:17.

2.  A Beth-shemite in whose field the cows stopped when they brought up the ark from the Philistines. 1 Sam. 6:14, 18.

3.  Governor of the city of Jerusalem in the days of Josiah. 2 Kings 23:8.

4.  Son of Josedech: high priest, who on the return from exile was called upon to be strong in building the temple. Hag. 1:1, 12, 14; Hag. 2:2, 4. He is also referred to as representing the people, clothed with filthy garments, and Satan standing as his enemy. Jehovah rebuked Satan, for He had chosen Jerusalem. Joshua could not make himself fit, but the filthy garments were taken away and he was clothed, and had a fair mitre placed upon his head. His experience represents how God will bring Israel into blessing under Christ the Branch, though it may be applied to the salvation of a sinner now. Zech. 3:1-9; Zech. 6:11. He is called JESHUA in Ezra and Nehemiah. See JESHUA, No. 3.