Bible Dictionary M 1

Machpelah. [Machpe'lah]

Both a field and a cave which Abraham bought of the children of Heth for a burying place. It was near Hebron; Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rebekah, Jacob and Leah were buried there. Gen. 23:9, 17, 19; Gen. 25:9; Gen. 49:30, 31; Gen. 50:13. The manner in which the purchase was accomplished is exactly the way bargains are to this day arranged in the East by the Bedouins. See HEBRON.

Madai. [Ma'dai]

Son of Japheth and progenitor of the MEDES, q.v. Gen. 10:2; 1 Chr. 1:5. The Hebrew for Madai and Medes is the same.

Madian. [Ma'dian]

The Greek form of MIDIAN. Acts 7:29.

Madmannah. [Madman'nah]

1.  City of Judah near Ziklag. Joshua 15:31. Identified by some with Umm Deimneh , 31 23' N, 34 56' E.

2.  Son of (or town founded by) Shaaph. 1 Chr. 2:49.

Madmen. [Mad'men]

A doomed city of Moab. Jer. 48:2.

Madmenah. [Madmen'ah]

A city, apparently, by the other places mentioned, near Jerusalem. Isa. 10:31. Not identified.

Madon. [Mad'on]

Canaanitish city in the north. Its king joined with others to oppose Joshua and was slain. Joshua 11:1; Joshua 12:19. Identified by some with ruins at Madin, 32 48' N, 35 27' E.

Magbish. [Mag'bish]

Ancestor of some who returned from exile. Ezra 2:30.

Magdala. [Mag'dala]

City on the west of the Lake of Tiberias. Only once mentioned (Matt. 15:39, where some MSS read Magadan), except as the birth-place of Mary Magdalene. Identified with el Mejdel, 32 50' N, 35 31' E.

Magdalene. [Mag'dalene]

Designation of a woman named Mary, 'out of whom went seven demons,' to signify that she was a native of Magdala. There is nothing in the name, nor in the character of Mary, to associate her with the modern signification of the word Magdalen. See MARY.

Magdiel. [Magdi'el]

A descendant of Esau, and a duke of Edom. Gen. 36:43; 1 Chr. 1:54.

Magi. [Ma'gi]

This is the Greek word in Matt. 2:1-16 which is translated 'wise men' in the A.V. They had come from the East, and inquired for one who was born King of the Jews, for they had seen His star in the East, and had come with their gifts to do Him homage. Though magicians and magi are often classed together, they are not necessarily the same. Philo describes the magi as "men who gave themselves to the study of nature and contemplation of the divine perfections, worthy of being the counsellors of kings." In this sense Daniel was called master of the 'magicians,' but which others translate as 'scribes.' Dan, 4:9. How the magi connected the star with 'the King of the Jews' is not known. By the scattering of the Jews they may have heard of the prophecy of Balaam (Num. 24:17) or of Daniel's prophecy. God who warned them in a dream not to return to Herod, may have in the same way led them to associate the above prophecies with the appearance of the star . See STAR IN THE EAST. God thus raised up from the Gentiles a testimony as to the 'holy child' in the midst of Jerusalem, though all there were troubled at the announcement.

Magician.

See DIVINATION.

Magnifical.

Simply 'magnificent, great.' 1 Chr. 22:5.

Magog. [Ma'gog]

See GOG.

Magormissabib. [Ma'gor-mis'sabib]

Symbolical name given by God through Jeremiah to Pashur the priest who had beaten him and placed him in the stocks. Jer. 20:1-3. In the margin it is 'fear round about.' The same Hebrew is translated 'fear on every side' in Jer. 20:10. God would make Pashur a terror to himself and to all his friends. He had prophesied lies, and should die in Babylon. Jer. 20:6.

Magpiash. [Mag'piash]

One who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:20.

Mahalah. [Mah'alah]

Son or daughter of Hammoleketh. 1 Chr. 7:18.

Mahalaleel. [Mahalal'eel]

1.  Son of Cainan, the grandson of Seth. Gen. 5:12-17; 1 Chr. 1:2. Called MALELEEL in Luke 3:37.

2.  Ancestor of Athaiah who returned from exile. Neh. 11:4.

Mahalath. [Mah'alath]

1.  Daughter of Ishmael and wife of Esau. Gen. 28:9. See BASHEMATH.

2.  Daughter of Jerimoth and wife of Rehoboam. 2 Chr. 11:18.

3.  Name in the title of Ps. 53. Its meaning is not known. Some suppose that a mournful tune is referred to, or that it was written for a time of sorrow. Gesenius takes it as a harp or stringed instrument.

Mahalath Leannoth.  [Mah'alath Lean'noth]

This occurs in the title of Ps. 88. The psalm is very solemn, and these words are supposed to appoint it to be sung to a mournful strain.

Mahali. [Mah'ali]

See MAHLI.

Mahanaim. [Mahana'im]

The spot on the east of the Jordan where Jacob met 'the angels of God.' He exclaimed 'This is God's host,' and named the place Mahanaim, 'two hosts or camps.' It is mentioned as on the border of both Gad and Manasseh, which connects it with the brook Jabbok. It fell to the lot of Gad, and a city was built there which was given to the Levites. It was where Ish-bosheth was made king, and where he was murdered. David fled to this city when Absalom revolted, and remained there till his son's death. Gen. 32:2; Joshua 13:26, 30; Joshua 21:38; 2 Sam. 2:8, 12, 29; 2 Sam. 17:24, 27; 2 Sam. 19:32; 1 Kings 2:8; 1 Kings 4:14; 1 Chr. 6:80. Identified by some with ruins at Mahneh, 32 23' N, 35 42' E; but this is far from the Jabbok, and could scarcely have been in the lot of Gad. In the monument of Shishak at Karnak occurs the name of Ma-ha-n-ma, which is judged to refer to Mahanaim. It is mentioned with Beth-shean, etc.

Mahanehdan.  [Ma'haneh-dan]

'The camp of Dan,' the place where six hundred men of Dan encamped 'behind' Kirjath-jearim on their march towards Laish.  Judges 18:12: cf. Judges 13:25.  Identified with Wady el Mutluk, 31 46' N, 35 E.

Maharai. [Mahara'i]

The Netophathite, one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:28; 1 Chr. 11:30; 1 Chr. 27:13

Mahath. [Ma'hath]

1.  Son of Amasai, a Kohathite. 1 Chr. 6:35.

2.  Son of Amasai, a Kohathite, in the time of Hezekiah. 2 Chr. 29:12; 2 Chr. 31:13.

Mahavite. [Ma'havite]

Designation of Eliel, one of David's mighty men. Its signification is unknown. 1 Chr. 11:46.

Mahazioth. [Mahazi'oth]

Son of Heman: appointed to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:4, 30.

Mahershalalhashbaz.  [Ma'her-sha'lal-hash'-baz]

Symbolical name given to one of Isaiah's sons. Isa. 8:1-4. It signifies 'swift for spoil, hasty for prey.' The child was to be so called because before he should "have knowledge to cry, My father, and my mother, the riches of Damascus and the spoil of Samaria" should be taken away before the king of Assyria. See 2 Kings 15:29; 2 Kings 16:9.

Mahlah. [Mah'lah]

Eldest of Zelophehad's five daughters who had a possession assigned them because their father had no sons. Num. 26:33; Num. 27:1; Num. 36:11; Joshua 17:3.

Mahli. [Mah'li]

1.  Son of Merari. Num. 3:20; 1 Chr. 6:19, 29; 1 Chr. 23:21; 1 Chr. 24:26, 28; Ezra 8:18. He is called MAHALI in Ex. 6:19.

2.  Son of Mushi, and nephew of No. 1.  1 Chr. 6:47; 1 Chr. 23:23; 1 Chr. 24:30.

Mahlites. [Mah'lites]

Descendants of Mahli, son of Merari. Num. 3:33; Num. 26:58.

Mahlon. [Mah'lon]

Son of Elimelech and Naomi, and husband of Ruth. Ruth 1:2, 5; Ruth 4:9, 10.

Mahol. [Ma'hol]

A man whose sons were renowned for their wisdom, but whose wisdom was excelled by that of Solomon. 1 Kings 4:31. Four men with similar names are in 1 Chr. 2:6, said to be sons of Zerah. These four are possibly the same persons, the word 'son' signifying grandson in one of the passages.

Makaz. [Ma'kaz]

Station of one of Solomon's commissariat officers. 1 Kings 4:9.

Makheloth. [Makhe'loth]

One of the halting places of Israel. Num. 33:25, 26.

Makkedah. [Makke'dah]

Canaanitish city, connected with which was a cave in which the five Amorite kings took refuge on the day of Joshua's victory at Gibeon and Beth-horon. They were hanged on trees and then buried in the cave under a heap of stones. The city was taken and destroyed. Joshua 10:10-29; Joshua 12:16; Joshua 15:41. Identified by some with el Mughar, 31 51' N, 34 47' E.

Maktesh. [Mak'tesh]

District in or near Jerusalem where merchants traded. Zeph. 1:11. The Targum associates it with the Kedron valley.

Malachi. [Mal'achi]

The last of the minor prophets. Nothing is recorded of the prophet's personal history, he is named once only. He was prophet near the time of Nehemiah's return to the land, and the prophecy reveals the moral condition of the people. The first chapter, while it shows their insensibility, shows also the sovereign love of Jehovah to them, a love on which His purpose depended. When charged with their sins, they asked wherein had they sinned. The answer is that they brought to the Lord that which was torn, the lame, and the sick, and had offered polluted bread upon Jehovah's altar: in effect saying, "The table of the Lord is polluted; and the fruit thereof, even his meat, is contemptible." This brought judgement upon those who were insensible to what was due to the Lord. Yet Jehovah should be magnified beyond the border of Israel, and His name be great among the Gentiles.

Mal. 2.  The priests who ought to have been guides to the people, are called to account. Judah had intimate fellowship with idolatry; had symbolically married the daughter of a strange god; and had associated this with the worship of Jehovah. Israel had also dealt treacherously with the wife of their youth: this was but the discovery of a treacherous principle in them. God hated putting away: notwithstanding all this, they were apathetic, and asked wherein had they wearied God.

Mal. 3  opens with the announcement of the Lord's messenger, which was fulfilled in John the Baptist. But the first coming of the Lord is here connected with His second coming, when He will sit as a refiner, and will purge away the dross, and then shall the sons of Levi offer an offering in righteousness.

God challenged the returned Jews to be faithful to Him, and they should have such a blessing that they would not have room enough to contain it. When called upon to return to Jehovah they are still unconscious of their condition, and ask, "Wherein shall we return?" and "Wherein have we robbed thee?"  "What have we spoken so much against thee?"  They had said it was in vain to serve the Lord; they had called the proud happy; the wicked were built up, and they that tempted God were delivered.

Yet God's purpose should stand: their land should be a delightsome land, and all nations should call them blessed. In the meantime the remnant are spoken of as those that feared the Lord and thought upon His name: they communed often one with another. God had a book of remembrance of such: they shall be remembered when the Lord of hosts makes up His jewels, and shall be spared when He comes in judgement.

Mal. 4.  A day of great judgement is coming when the wicked shall be consumed. But to them that fear His name the Sun of righteousness shall arise with healing in His wings (not the morning star here, as for the church). There will be judgement for the disobedient, as was indeed fully shown in the law at the beginning of the covenant with them.

But Elijah will come as Christ's forerunner, to call them to repentance before the great and dreadful day of the Lord. John the Baptist would have fulfilled this mission had they received him; but, except a few, they did not, and therefore when asked if he was Elias, he said, No.  He fulfilled the prophecy in the first clause of Mal. 3:1; but not that of Mal. 4:5, 6; the people did not repent. Elijah will still come. There will be judgement first, but great blessing in the end to those that are spared.

Malcham. [Mal'cham]

1.  Son of Shaharaim, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:9.

2.  An idol worshipped by some Jews who also professed to worship Jehovah. Zeph. 1:5. Some judge it to have been the same as Molech.

Malchiah, [Malchi'ah] Malchijah. [Malchi'jah]

1.  Son of Ethni, a Gershonite. 1 Chr. 6:40.

2.  A priest, father of Pashur. 1 Chr. 9:12; Neh. 11:12; Jer. 38:1. Called MELCHIAH in Jer. 21:1.

3.  Head of the fifth course of priests. 1 Chr. 24:9.

4-6.  Three who had taken strange wives. Ezra 10:25, 31.

7-9.  Three who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:11, 14, 31.

10.  One who stood by Ezra when he read the law. Neh. 8:4.

11.  Priest who sealed the covenant; and probably the same that assisted in the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 10:3; Neh. 12:42.

12.  Son of Hammelech, into whose dungeon Jeremiah was cast. Jer. 38:6.

Malchiel, [Malchi'el] Malchielites. [Malchi'elites]

Son of Beriah, and his descendants. Gen. 46:17; Num. 26:45; 1 Chr. 7:31.

Malchijah. [Malchi'jah]

See MALCHIAH.

Malchiram. [Malchi'ram]

Son of king Jeconiah, or Jehoiachin. 1 Chr. 3:18.

Malchishua,  [Mal'chi-shua] Melchishua. [Mel'chi-shua]

Son of king Saul: he was killed in battle with his father. 1 Sam. 14:49; 1 Sam. 31:2; 1 Chr. 8:33; 1 Chr. 9:39; 1 Chr. 10:2.

Malchus. [Mal'chus]

The high priest's servant whose ear Peter cut off, but who was healed by the Lord. John 18:10.

Maleleel. [Mal'eleel]

See MAHALALEEL.

Mallothi. [Mallo'thi]

Son of Heman, and one appointed to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:4, 26.

Mallows,

malluach. Some common herb which the poor would eat to satisfy their hunger. Job 30:4. The R.V. has 'salt-wort.' Several have judged the herb to be the Atriplex halimus which has a sour taste, but not sufficiently so to prevent its being eaten.

Malluch. [Mall'uch]

1.  Son of Hashabiah, a Merarite. 1 Chr. 6:44.

2, 3.  Two who had married strange wives. Ezra 10:29, 32.

4, 5.  A priest and one of the people who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:4, 27.

6.  Priest who returned with Zerubbabel. Neh. 12:2.

Mammon. [Mam'mon]

An Aramaic word signifying 'riches.' It is personified as a 'master' in Matt. 6:24; Luke 16:13; "Ye cannot serve God and mammon." In Luke 16:9, it is called 'unrighteous mammon' (as appertaining to this world in which the rights of God to all have been refused) in opposition to true riches, which appertain to the world to come.

Mamre. [Mam're]

1.  An Amorite chieftain, who, with his brothers Aner and Eshcol, was confederate with Abram. Gen. 14:13, 24.

2.  Place connected with Machpelah and Hebron, the name of which is derived from the above chief. Gen. 13:18; Gen. 18:1; Gen. 23:17, 19; Gen. 35:27; Gen. 49:30.

Man.

Various Hebrew words are frequently translated 'man.'

1.  Adam, 'man,' a generic term for man, mankind. Gen. 1:26, 27.

2. ish, ' man,' implying 'strength and vigour' of mind and body, 1 Sam. 4:2; 1 Sam. 26:15; also signifying 'husband' in contra-distinction to 'wife.' Gen. 2:23; Gen. 3:6.

3.  enosh, 'subject to corruption, mortal;' not used for man till after the fall. Gen. 6:4; Gen. 12:20; Ps. 103:15.

4.  ben, 'son,' with words conjoined, 'son of valour,' or valiant man; 'son of strength,' or strong man. 2 Kings 2:16, etc.

5.  baal, 'master, lord.' Gen. 20:3; Ex. 24:14.

6.  geber, 'mighty, war-like.' Ex. 10:11; Ex. 12:37.

In some passages these different Hebrew words are used in contrast: as in Gen. 6:4, "The sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, [1] and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men (gibbor) which were of old, men [3] of renown." In Ps. 8:4; "What is man, [3] that thou art mindful of him? and the son of man, [1] that thou visitest him?"  "God is not a man [2] that he should lie." Num. 23:19.

Man was God's crowning work of creation (see ADAM), and He set him in dominion over the sphere in which he was placed. It is impossible that man could by evolution have arisen from any of the lower forms of created life. God breathed into Adam's nostrils the breath of life, and man is responsible to Him as his Creator; and for this reason he will be called to account, which is not the case with any of the animals. "It is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgement." Heb. 9:27. All have descended from Adam and Eve: God "hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation; that they should seek the Lord [or God]." Acts 17:26, 27.

The soul of man being immortal, he still exists after death, and it is revealed in scripture that his body will be raised, and he will either be in eternity away from God in punishment for the sins he has committed; or, by the grace of God, be in an eternity of happiness with the Lord Jesus through His atoning work on the cross.

In the N.T. the principal words are

1.  ἄνθρωπος, man in the sense of 'humanity,' irrespective of sex. "Man shall not live by bread alone." Matt. 4:4. In a few places it is used in a stricter sense in contrast to a woman: as "Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife?" Matt. 19:3.

2.  ἀνήρ, man as distinguished from a woman. "The head of the woman is the man." 1 Cor. 11:3. It is thus the common word used for 'husband:' a woman's man is her husband. "Joseph the husband of Mary." Matt. 1:16, 19.  The words τις, μηδείς, οὐδείς, are often translated 'man,'  'no man,' 'any man,' which would be more correctly translated 'one,'  'no one,'  'any one.'  In 'men [and] brethren,' Acts 1:16; Acts 2:29, etc., there are not two classes alluded to, but 'men who are brethren,' or, in our idiom, simply 'brethren.'  So in Acts 7:2; Acts 22:1, not three classes, but two: 'men who are brethren, and fathers.' See NEW MAN and OLD MAN.

Man of Sin.

See ANTICHRIST.

Man, The Second.

See ADAM, THE LAST.

Manaen. [Man'aen]

One of the prophets or teachers at Antioch who had been 'brought up' with Herod Antipas, that is, was his foster brother, as in the R.V. Acts 13:1.

Manahath. [Ma'nahath]

1.  Son of Shobal, a son of Seir the Horite. Gen. 36:23; 1 Chr. 1:40.

2.  City in Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:6. Identified with Malhah, 31 46' N, 35 11' E.

Manahethites. [Ma'nahethites]

Families descended from Shobal and Salma, sons of Caleb. 1 Chr. 2:52, 54. The Hebrew is different in the two verses: in 1 Chr. 2:52 the R.V. has ' Menuhoth.' Mr. Darby treats 'half of' as part of the proper name, giving Hazi-Hammenuhoth in 1 Chr. 2:52, and Hazi-Hammanahethites in 1 Chr. 2:54.

Manasseh. [Manas'seh]

1.  Eldest son of Joseph and Asenath, and head of one of the tribes of Israel. When Jacob blessed the two sons of Joseph he crossed his hands so that Ephraim the younger son should have the chief blessing. And when Moses blessed the twelve tribes he spoke of the ten thousands of Ephraim, but the thousands of Manasseh. Nothing personally is recorded of Manasseh. Gen. 41:51: Gen. 48:1-20; Gen. 50:23.

The tribe numbered at the first census 32,200 and forty years later they were 52,700. Being a numerous tribe they had a large possession in the north on the east of the upper Jordan and of the Sea of Galilee. They conquered the mountaineers of Gilead, Bashan, and Argob; but with the Reubenites and Gadites were the first to be carried away captive by Pul and Tiglath-pileser. 1 Chr. 5:18-26. Those on the east of the Jordan are often called the half-tribe of Manasseh; the other half were on the west of the Jordan, about the centre of the land, between Ephraim and Issachar.

When Hezekiah invited the twelve tribes to join him in keeping a passover to Jehovah, certain of the tribe of Manasseh humbled themselves and went to Jerusalem. 2 Chr. 30:11. In Ps. 80:2 we read, "Before Ephraim and Benjamin and Manasseh stir up thy strength, and come and save us," in allusion to these three being the tribes that immediately followed the ark of God in the wilderness. Num. 2:17-22. The tribe is called MANASSES in Rev. 7:6.

2.  King of Judah: he was son of Hezekiah and father of Amon. He began to reign when twelve years of age, and reigned 55 years: B.C. 698-643. The records concerning him are few, but very sad. He worshipped the host of heaven and built altars for them in the courts of the house of the Lord. He made his son to pass through the fire, and dealt with familiar spirits. Of him it is said that he exceeded the heathen in wickedness! and shed much innocent blood. He was warned by God's prophets, but ceased not to do evil. As he began to reign when young, it is probable that he had not been under good instructors.

God brought the king of Assyria against Manasseh, who took him 'among the thorns,' or 'bound him with chains of brass,' and carried him to Babylon. There Manasseh, in his affliction, greatly humbled himself, and prayed to the Lord his God. His prayer was heard, and he was restored to Jerusalem. Then he knew that Jehovah was God. He removed the idols, repaired the altar of the Lord, and sacrificed to Him. He commanded Judah to serve Jehovah the God of Israel. Thus God gave repentance to this wicked king, for His mercy endureth for ever. He is often held up as a trophy of God's marvellous grace in Old Testament times, as Saul of Tarsus and the thief on the cross are given under the New Testament dispensation. 2 Kings 20:21; 2 Kings 21:1-20; 2 Kings 23:12, 26; 2 Chr. 33; Jer. 15:4.  He is called MANASSES in Matt. 1:10.

3.  Father of Gershom, the father of Jonathan, the idolatrous priest in the tribe of Dan.  Judges 18:30. Jerome, the Vulgate, three Hebrew MSS, and two or three ancient copies of the LXX read Moses instead of Manasseh. In many Hebrew MSS the letter nun (N) is written over or between the letters mem (M) and shin (S), so as to alter the name of Moses to Manasseh. The reason alleged by the Rabbis for the supposed correction is that the copyists desired to clear the name of Moses from the obloquy of having a descendant among idolaters in Israel. We have no other trace of a Gershom being the son of Manasseh; but there was one well known as the son of Moses. Doubtless Moses should be read instead of Manasseh.

4, 5. Two who had married strange wives. Ezra 10:30, 33.

Manasses. [Manas'ses]

See MANASSEH.

Manassites. [Manas'sites]

Descendants of Manasseh, son of Joseph. Deut. 4:43, Judges 12:4; 2 Kings 10:33.

Mandrakes,

dudaim.  Some strong-smelling plant found in the fields of Palestine. Many opinions have been expressed as to what herb is referred to. It is possibly the Mandragora officinarum, called the 'love apple,' a relative to the 'apple of Sodom.'  The Atropa mandragora is another species. Gen. 30:14-16; Cant. 7:13.

Maneh.

See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

Manger.

The interest attached to this word is in connection with the birth of Christ. Luke 2:7-16. The word is φάτνη, which in classical Greek is used for a 'manger' or 'feeding trough;' but it has been doubted whether the modern manger was introduced into Palestine so early. Schleusner contends that the word implies in scripture "any enclosure, but especially a vestibule to the house, where the cattle were, not enclosed with walls, but wooden hurdles." With this agrees the Vulgate praesepe and the Peshito-Syriac. The word φάτνη occurs in the LXX in 2 Chr. 32:28; Job 6:5; Job 39:9; Prov. 14:4; Isa. 1:3; Joel 1:17: Hab. 3:17.

Manna.

The food miraculously supplied from heaven to the Israelites during the forty years of their wanderings. Its name signifies 'what is it?' for they knew not what it was. It fell every morning except on the Sabbath, and had to be gathered early, or it melted. If kept till the second day it bred worms, except the double quantity gathered on the day before the Sabbath, which was good on the second day. The quantity to be gathered was on an average an omer (about 4 pints) for every man. Some gathered more and some less, and when they measured it with an omer "he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack; they gathered every man according to his eating."

The explanation given by the Rabbis is that though several in a family went out to gather the manna, when it was brought home and measured it was found to be just an omer for each of them. The more probable explanation is that though on an average an omer was the portion for each, some needed more and others less, and therefore every one gathered 'according to his eating,' according to what he knew he would require, and thus every one had enough and there was nothing wasted. The former part of the passage is quoted in 2 Cor. 8:15, to show that in making a collection for the poor saints there should be the carrying out of this divine principle of 'equality,' the abundance of some contributing to the need of others.

The manna ceased as soon as the Israelites had crossed the Jordan, and eaten of the old corn of the promised land. The manna is described as being like coriander seed, of the colour of bdellium. It was ground in mills, or pounded in a mortar, and baked in pans, or made into cakes. It tasted like wafers made with honey, Ex. 16:31; but afterwards, when the people had lost their relish for it, like fresh oil. Num. 11:6-9. The people, alas, murmured because they had nothing to eat but the manna.

The manna is typical of Christ Himself, the vessel of God's good pleasure, and of heavenly grace here on earth — the heavenly One in the midst of earthly circumstances. He is this heavenly grace now for His own, so that grace is ministered to them for the wilderness journey. When they are viewed as in the land, that is, as made to sit in heavenly places in Christ, and entering in spirit upon their heavenly and eternal portion, then Christ in glory, the centre of all the Father's counsels, is their food, as the 'old corn' of the promised land. The Christian, whose heart is not set for God's purpose, gets tired of the manna, and longs, alas, for other food, as the Israelites did. Ex. 16:15-35; Deut. 8:3, 16; Joshua 5:12; Neh. 9:20; Ps. 78:24; Heb. 9:4.  In Rev. 2:17 the Lord promises to give to the overcomer in the church in Pergamos to eat of the HIDDEN MANNA, that is, some sweet secret communion with Himself, known in the glory as the One who suffered here.

Manoah. [Mano'ah]

Danite of Zorah and father of Samson. An angel had appeared to his wife and announced the birth of Samson, and Manoah besought God that 'the man of God' might be sent again. God listened to him, and the angel came, to whom Manoah spoke of the promised son. He offered a kid as a burnt offering and the angel ascended in the flame of the altar. Manoah then feared they would die, for they had seen God; but his wife in faith said that could not be, for God had accepted the offering, and He had in fact spoken to them of life, not of death. Judges 13:2-22; Judges 16:31.

Man-slayer.

See AVENGER.

Mantle.

See GARMENTS.

Maoch. [Ma'och]

Father of Achish king of Gath. 1 Sam. 27:2.

Maon. [Ma'on]

1.  City in the highlands of Judah, to the 'wilderness' of which David and his men resorted when pursued by Saul. Joshua 15:55; 1 Sam. 23:24, 25; 1 Sam. 25:2. Identified with ruins at Main, 31 25' N, 35 7 E.

2.  Son of Shammai, a descendant of Caleb. 1 Chr. 2:45.

Maonites. [Ma'onites]

A people who had oppressed Israel. Judges 10:12. The LXX reads MADIAM, but they were probably the original inhabitants of Maon.

Mara. [Ma'ra]

An appellation which signifies 'bitter,' assumed by Naomi because of her sorrow. Ruth 1:20.

Marah. [Ma'rah]

One of the early stations of the Israelites, so called because the waters there were bitter, but which were made sweet by casting in a tree. Ex. 15:23; Num. 33:8, 9. It is typical of the Christian's acceptance of death (Rom. 6:11; John 6:53, etc.), in order to live unto God. It is the love of Christ, expressed in His going into death to make a way out for us, that sweetens the bitterness.

Maralah. [Mar'alah]

Border city in Zebulun. Joshua 19:11. Identified by some with Malul, 32 42' N, 35 14' E.

Maranatha. [Maran-atha]

Two Aramaic words signifying, 'the Lord cometh,' added (perhaps as a kind of watchword) after the word Anathema, 'let him be accursed,' applied to those who love not the Lord Jesus. 1 Cor. 16:22.

Marble.

The well-known stone that takes a high polish. It was used in Solomon's temple, and there were pillars of marble in the Persian palace. Babylon, or Papal Rome, in her luxury imported marble. 1 Chr. 29:2; Esther 1:6; Cant. 5:15; Rev. 18:12.

Marcus. [Mar'cus]

See MARK.

Mareshah. [Mare'shah]

1.  Fortified city in the lowlands of Judah. Joshua 15:44; 2 Chr. 11:8; 2 Chr. 14:9, 10; 2 Chr. 20:37; Micah 1:15. Identified with ruins at Merash, 31 36' N, 34 53' E.

2.  Father of Hebron. 1 Chr. 2:42.

3.  Son of Laadah of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:21.

Marishes.

Marshy places, which shall not be healed when healing waters issue out of the future temple in Palestine. It may signify that these places will be left for the production of salt. Ezek. 47:11.

Mark, Marcus. [Mar'cus]

A disciple described as 'JOHN, whose surname was Mark,' and as 'sister's son to Barnabas.' When Peter was miraculously delivered from prison he resorted to the house of Mary, who was Mark's mother. Peter may have been the means of his conversion, for he calls him his 'son.' 1 Peter 5:13. He accompanied Paul and Barnabas on their first missionary journey, but left them at Perga. When the second journey was proposed, Paul did not think it right to take Mark with them; but on Barnabas pressing this, they separated, and Barnabas took Mark with him and sailed to Cyprus. Acts 12:12, 25; Acts 13:5, 13; Acts 15:37, 39. Paul and Mark were afterwards reconciled; he was with Paul at Rome and was commended to the Colossians. Col. 4:10; Philemon 24. He was with Peter at Babylon, and when Paul was a second time a prisoner at Rome, he asked for Mark, saying he was serviceable for the ministry. 2 Tim. 4:11. Doubtless this Mark was God's instrument in writing the Gospel bearing his name.

Mark, Gospel by.

Each Gospel has its peculiar characteristics, as may be seen under the heading GOSPELS. In Mark the Lord Jesus is more particularly in view as the Servant — Prophet, and 'the gospel' or 'glad tidings' has a prominent place. As with some of the prophets in the O.T. we have no information as to their genealogy, so here we have no human genealogy of the Lord, as is given in Matthew and Luke. The narrative abruptly introduces "the beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God." John the Baptist's ministry is shortly described to pave the way for that of Christ, which He entered on after being baptised. There are no details here of the temptation: simply the fact stated that Jesus was tempted of Satan forty days, and was with the wild beasts, and the angels ministered unto Him. As soon as John was cast into prison the Lord began His unceasing work, taking up the testimony that the kingdom of God was at hand.

In the first two chapters are presented the various proofs which the Lord gave of His mission, which were as a testimony to the leaders in Israel.

In Mark 3 we see the break with the existing unbelieving generation, the calling of the apostles, and the consequent disowning of His kindred in the flesh.

Mark 4 and Mark 5 give an epitome of His personal service, carrying us on to the raising up of Israel in the future, figuratively presented in the ruler's daughter. This closes that view of the Lord's personal service.

In Mark 6 the service of the apostles comes into view: the Lord begins to send them forth two and two. For Himself ( Mark 7 ) He retired to the north-west into the district of Tyre and Sidon, and healed the daughter of the Syrophenician woman — His grace thus going out to the Gentiles. After returning through Decapolis, and ( Mark 8 ) feeding the four thousand at Gennesaret, He went to the north-east, and ( Mark 9 ) was transfigured before His three disciples; it was probably on Mount Hermon. From this time we find the Lord repeatedly bringing before His disciples the truth of His approaching death and resurrection, and the consequences flowing therefrom.

The visit of the Lord to Jerusalem at the Feast of Tabernacles, and His discourses there, are not given in this gospel: nor the mission of the seventy: nor His visit to Jerusalem at the Feast of Dedication: nor the death and raising of Lazarus.

Mark 10 opens with the Lord on the other side of Jordan on His last visit to Jerusalem. On the way He tells His disciples again of the ill-treatment and death that awaited Him there; but James and John seek a grant from Him, that they might sit on His right hand and on His left in the glory. Sight is restored to blind Bartimaeus (who called Him 'Son of David') at Jericho, the city of the curse.

Mark 11. There followed the triumphal entry into Jerusalem. The exclamations here do not speak of Him as king, but as of their 'father David:'  "Hosanna; blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord: blessed be the kingdom of our father David that cometh in the name of the Lord: Hosanna in the highest." Thus the Lord's connection with Israel as Son of David is proclaimed in this gospel, which has been mostly occupied with His labours in Galilee of the Gentiles.

Of the discourses that followed the Lord's entry into Jerusalem, the parables of the Two Sons and the Marriage of the King's Son are not found in this gospel; nor the parables of the Ten Virgins, the Talents, and the Sheep and the Goats.

For the prophecies given in Mark 13 refer to MATTHEW, Matt. 14

The solemn events of the Lord's agony in the garden, the trial, condemnation and crucifixion follow. Of the Lord's utterances on the cross, His asking forgiveness for His murderers; His promise to the repentant thief; His commending His mother to John; His saying, 'I thirst;' 'It is finished;' and His commending His Spirit unto the Father, are not recorded here. His commission to the eleven was "Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptised shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be condemned." Signs should follow them that believe. After the ascension, they went forth and preached everywhere, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following. Thus the narrative closes with a commission, which is viewed as having been carried out by the apostles. Briefly the gospel may be said to present to us the personal service of Christ and of His apostles.

It is believed that in Mark's gospel chronological order has been preserved more than in any other. What is peculiar to this gospel are the many details and personal touches. We see too how immediately that one thing was done the Lord was occupied with another, as a diligent and devoted servant. All praise to His holy name!  For a list of the principal events in the gospel history see NEW TESTAMENT.

Maroth. [Mar'oth]

Town in the lowlands of Judah. Micah 1:12. Not identified.

Marriage.

This is God's institution: He said it was not good that man should be alone, and He provided a suitable help for Adam in the person of Eve. Adam said, "This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman (isha), because she was taken out of Man (ish). Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh." Gen. 2:23, 24. This declaration of union was confirmed by the Lord, who, in quoting the above, added, "Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder." Matt. 19:5, 6; Mark 10:7-9. It is confirmed also by being taken as a type of the sacred union of the Lord with the church: "We are members of his body, of his flesh and of his bones. For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall be joined unto his wife, and they two shall be one flesh. This is a great mystery: but I speak concerning Christ and the church." Eph. 5:30-32.

All this shows that God's institution of marriage was the union of one man and one woman, the two and only two, becoming one. What is more than this is not of God, but is of human lust. This order was first broken through by Lamech, the sixth from Adam, who had two wives. Long after this instances are recorded of wives, on account of their great desire for children, giving their maid servants to their husbands: an act that would now be judged as most unnatural in a wife. Sarai gave her Egyptian handmaid to Abram 'to be his wife' (the same word for 'wife' being used for both Sarai and Hagar), and God said He would make of Ishmael a great nation. Jacob's two wives gave their handmaids to their husband, and thus he had four wives. God reckoned the twelve sons of these four women equally as sons of Jacob, and they became the heads of the twelve tribes. It might have been thought that God would not have blessed the issue of these unions, but He did: there is no record of any law having been given on this subject.

In early times marriages were also contracted between near relatives. This was altered by the law of Moses as well as restrictions introduced as to divorce, though even under the law, because of the hardness of their hearts, Moses allowed them to put away their wives for any cause, "but from the beginning it was not so," and from the time the Lord was on earth it was not to be so any longer. Matt. 19:5-9. The choice of persons to be appointed as bishops and deacons in the church, was restricted to those who were the husbands of 'one wife.' 1 Tim. 3:2, 12; Titus 1:6. God has providentially so ordered it in all countries called christian that a man is allowed to have but one wife; and in the best of those countries a man cannot divorce his wife except when she herself has already broken the marriage bond. Instruction is given in the Epistles to both: the wives are to be in subjection to their husbands, and the husbands are to love and cherish their wives, even as Christ the church. Eph. 5:28, 29.

It is not now known how the negotiations were conducted that led to a man and woman being betrothed, or espoused, or what were the ceremonies usually attending it. The betrothed couple were at once looked upon as husband and wife, as seen in the case of Joseph, who thought of divorcing his espoused wife Mary. Matt. 1:18, 19. In the East a man does not usually see his espoused wife until they are married (as Isaac did not see Rebecca and had no choice in the matter), the engagement, and the amount of dowry to be paid by the husband to the bride's father, being arranged by the relatives.

Of the ancient marriage ceremonies very little is known. On the night of a marriage the young women went forth with lamps or torches to meet the bridegroom and to escort him to the house of the bride, as in Matt. 25. Such processions have been seen in modern times, and the same cry has been heard, "Behold the bridegroom." They had marriage feasts, as in the parable of Matt. 22 (when a special garment was provided for each of the guests), and as the one to which the Lord, His mother, and His disciples were invited at Cana, where the Lord made the water into wine. John 2:1-11.

The assembly has been espoused as a chaste virgin to Christ, 2 Cor. 11:2; and it waits for that glorious time when it will be said, "Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready . . . . arrayed in fine linen, clean and white; for the fine linen is the righteousnesses of saints . . . . Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb." Rev. 19:7-9. The Lord will also have an earthly bride during the kingdom. Hosea 2:7. See also the Canticles.

Marsena. [Mar'sena]

One of the seven princes of Persia. Esther 1:14.

Mars' Hill.

See AREOPAGUS.

Martha. [Mar'tha]

A disciple whom Jesus loved: she was apparently the head of the household at Bethany, which Jesus at times visited. Martha was probably the widow of Simon a leper (comp. Matt. 26:6-13 with John 12:1-8), and superintended domestic arrangements. She received the Lord into 'her house.' Luke 10:38. Having the Lord for a visitor she was burdened with much service, and begged Him to instruct her sister Mary to help her. A contrast is here drawn between the two sisters: the one occupied with what she could do for the Lord; the other with what He was: self being plainly uppermost in Martha, while the Lord Himself was paramount with Mary. 'That good part' should not be taken from her. But in John 12, when the Lord was again at Bethany, and they made a supper for Him, Martha's service is in no way qualified, the raising up by the Lord of her brother Lazarus, and His dealings with herself, having doubtless taught her the needed lesson. Service in communion with Himself is acceptable to Him.

Martyr.

The Greek word is μάρτυς, and is very frequently translated 'witness;' a martyr is one who meets with death because of the witness he bears. Stephen was a martyr, Acts 22:20; also Antipas, Rev. 2:13. The 'two witnesses ' in Rev. 11 will also be martyrs, and Babylon the Great is charged with being drunken "with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus." Rev. 17:6. The history of the church records the faithfulness of many of these. There can be no doubt that many of the O.T. saints also died as martyrs. Jezebel cut off the prophets of Jehovah. 1 Kings 18:13. The Lord charged the Pharisees with being the children of them which killed the prophets, Matt. 23:31; and in the "cloud of witnesses" spoken of in Heb. 11, were some of whom it is said "others were tortured [lit. broken on the wheel], not accepting deliverance," as many martyrs since then might have saved their lives by denying their faith. Christ Himself was the faithful and true witness, Rev. 1:5; Rev. 3:14; and He said to His persecutors, "Ye seek to kill me, because my word hath no place in you . . . . ye seek to kill me, a man that hath told you the truth." John 8:37, 40. Thus the Lord Jesus was the true Martyr, though His death comprehended much more than dying as a martyr, namely, atonement.

Mary, the Mother of Jesus.

She was the virgin that was prophesied of in the O.T. who was to bear a son. Isa. 7:14. Gabriel was sent from God to announce to her that the Holy Spirit should come upon her, and the power of the Highest should overshadow her, and she should bring forth a Son, and should call His name JESUS. She had asked how it should be, and it being thus explained she piously answered, "Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word." She then went to visit her cousin Elisabeth, who, being filled with the Holy Spirit, pronounced her blessed, and hailed her as 'the mother of my Lord.' Mary also praised God: He had regarded the low estate of His handmaid: all generations would call her blessed. Luke 1:26-56.

An enrolment, or census, decreed by the imperial power of Rome, caused Joseph, to whom Mary had been espoused, to take her to the city of Bethlehem, where, according to prophecy, Jesus was born. Thither came shepherds to whom His birth had been announced by angels, accompanied by a multitude of the heavenly host praising God. Mary kept all these things and pondered them in her heart. When the babe was presented in the temple the pious Simeon blessed Mary, but had to tell her that a sword should pierce through her own soul. Homage was also rendered to Him by the Magi, but, to avoid the murderous intentions of Herod, Joseph was directed to carry Mary and the young child into Egypt. On returning they abode in Nazareth.

Mary is next met with when Jesus remained at Jerusalem after the Passover, and was found among the doctors. This had caused her great anxiety, and she had to hear His mysterious reply as to being about His Father's business. She was with Him and His disciples at the marriage feast at Cana, when He uttered another mysterious sentence: "Woman, what have I to do with thee? mine hour is not yet come." She nevertheless instructed the servants to do whatever He told them, which resulted in their having the best wine at the end (as it will be in the kingdom). Once afterwards Mary came with His 'brethren' desiring to speak with Him; but again a mysterious saying declared that those who did the will of His Father were His brother, and sister, and mother. Matt. 12:46-50.

No doubt Mary subsequently understood the depth of these sayings when she came to learn what His death accomplished. She stood near the cross and saw her Son and her Lord nailed thereto: now the sword must have pierced her soul. She was commended by the Lord to the care of John, who took her to his own home. She was with the eleven at Jerusalem waiting for the gift of the Holy Spirit, and that is the last record we have of her. Christians gladly call her Blessed, for indeed it was a high honour to be the mother of Jesus; but it is not revealed that she held any place of authority or privilege beyond other saints; indeed, the way the Lord spoke to her, and of her, contradicts any such theory. Jesus was called her 'first-born son,' clearly implying that she had other children. The crowds said, "Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joses, and of Juda, and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us?" Mark 6:3, etc.

Mary, Sister of Lazarus and Martha.

The three are spoken of as those whom Jesus loved. They resided at Bethany, where they were privileged to welcome the Lord Jesus as a guest. On one of these visits Mary took her place at the feet of the Lord, feasting upon the words that fell from His lips. Martha wanted her help, but the Lord declared that one thing was needful, and Mary had chosen that good part, which should not be taken away from her. Luke 10:38-42. The heart of Mary was riven at the death of Lazarus. Word had been sent to the Lord that he was sick, and yet He had not come. When Jesus arrived Mary exclaimed, as Martha had done previously, "Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died:" but Mary said it at the feet of the Lord. Jesus wept, and Mary thus learned His sympathy, and had a fresh taste of the good part which death could not take from her. To Martha Jesus said that she should have her brother back, and should see the power of death broken by the One who was "the resurrection and the life;" but Mary had Himself. John 11:1-44.

Afterwards, when they made the Lord a supper, a few days before He suffered, Mary, in full appreciation of her Lord, anointed His head and His feet with costly ointment. Judas and others were indignant at what they called 'waste,' but the Lord defended Mary's action, and said He was being anointed for His burial: this act should be told of her in the whole world. Nothing was too costly to be spent upon such a Lord. John 12:1-8: cf. Matt. 26:6-13; Mark 14:3-9. It should be noted that this is not the same event as that recorded in Luke 7:36-50.

Mary, Wife of Cleophas.

This name occurs but once, John 19:25: it is really 'Clopas;' the word 'wife' which is added in the A.V. is probably correct. By comparing together the following passages, Matt. 27:56, 61; Matt. 28:1; Mark 15:40, 47; Mark 16:1; and Luke 24:10, it appears probable that 'the other Mary,' and 'Mary the mother of James (or James the less) and Joses' allude to the same person, and she may have been the wife of Clopas. In John 19:25 this Mary is said to be the sister of the Lord's mother, if we allow the word 'and' to separate the persons, which is the most obvious sense; and it is natural that as this is the only place where we read of the Lord's mother having a sister, it should say who she was. Thus there would be three Marys mentioned in the verse, and not four. That the Lord's mother should have a sister also called Mary may appear improbable, but the MSS vary, and there may have been a slight difference, as in the two modern names of Mary and Maria.

Mary Magdalene. [Mag'dalene]

First spoken of as one who ministered to the Lord of her substance, to which is added that seven demons had been cast out of her. The two things stand in wonderful contrast; in the one she was completely under the power of Satan, and in the other she was ministering to the Lord Jesus. Luke 8:2, 3. Nothing more is related of Mary until the crucifixion, when she is mentioned by name as being with the other women, gazing at the One she loved on the cross. She waited to see where the body was laid, then rested during the Sabbath, and on Saturday evening she bought spices with which to embalm the Lord's body, but early the next morning she found the tomb empty. She ran with the news to Peter and John; who came and verified her statement, but went away again to their own home. Mary however could not leave the spot; and looking again into the tomb, she saw two angels there, to whom she lamented the loss of the body. The Lord revealed Himself to her, and comforted her broken heart by speaking her name 'Mary,' to which she replied, 'Rabboni,' or teacher. He sent her to His disciples with the wonderful message, "I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God." This would be as true of her as of them. Her deep love was thus rewarded. Matt. 27:56; John 19:25; John 20:1-18. She is really called 'Mary of Magdala,' a town near the Sea of Galilee: her name and her character are not in any way connected with the modern term of 'Magdalen.'

Mary.

1.  Mother of Mark. She is only mentioned as having a house at Jerusalem, in which a meeting for prayer was held when Peter was in prison. Acts 12:12.

2.  A Christian at Rome to whom Paul sent greetings: she had bestowed much labour on him and on others. Rom. 16:6.

Maschil. [Mas'chil]

A Hebrew word occurring in the headings of several of the Psalms, Ps. 32, Ps. 42, Ps. 44, Ps. 45, Ps. 52 — Ps. 55, Ps. 74, Ps. 78, Ps. 88, Ps. 89 and Ps. 142.  The word signifies 'instruction,' and these Psalms convey instruction to the remnant, which they will understand. The same word in the plural (maschilim) signifies 'the wise, or the instructed ones.' See Dan. 11:33, 35; Dan. 12:3, 10. In the N.T. Christians are exhorted to be "teaching and admonishing one another in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord." Col. 3:16.

Mash.

Son of Aram, and grandson of Shem. Gen. 10:23: called MESHECH, 1 Chr. 1:17.

Mashal. [Mash'al]

Levitical city in Asher. 1 Chr. 6:74. Called MISHEAL in Joshua 19:26; and MISHAL in Joshua 21:30. Not identified.

Masons.

These must have had much to do with the building of the temple, and it may be that some of their handiwork is still to be seen in the foundations of the large level place in Jerusalem, called the Mosque enclosure, or the Temple area. It is generally supposed that the temple was built on some part of this enclosure, which had to be erected on the sides of the rock, the lower stones being let into the rock, and stones built upon them until the whole, except the summit of the rock, was a level plain. These stones formed no part of the temple, so that the temple could be destroyed without disturbing them.

There are such stones in situ, which are beautifully shaped and squared, fitting so closely that the blade of a pen-knife cannot be inserted, though there is no mortar between, showing the work of the 'stone-squarers.' For such large stones this shows great skill on the part of the masons. Many of the stones have a narrow chiselled draft round the margins. The arches in the cellars, the aqueducts, cisterns, etc. in Palestine, show various different styles of finishing, by which the period in which they were erected may be approximately ascertained. 2 Sam. 5:11; 2 Kings 12:12; 2 Kings 22:6; 1 Chr. 14:1; 1 Chr. 22:2; 2 Chr. 24:12; Ezra 3:7. In the quarry underneath Jerusalem there is evidence by the small chips lying about that many stones were dressed there, ready for their appointed place: cf. 1 Kings 6:7.

Masrekah. [Masre'kah]

City or place of Samlah, an ancient king of Edom. Gen. 36:36; 1 Chr. 1:47. Not identified.

Massa. [Mas'sa]

One of the sons of Ishmael. Gen. 25:14; 1 Chr. 1:30.

Massah. [Mas'sah]

A name signifying 'temptation,' given, along with the name of MERIBAH, to the place where the Israelites tempted God when they were in want of water. Ex. 17:7; Deut. 6:16; Deut. 9:22; Deut. 33:8. See KADESH.

Master.

1.  In the O.T. there are five words so translated, but only one that occurs frequently, adon, which is often rendered 'Lord,' and signifies 'master' either as owner or ruler. In the N.T. there is κύριος, often translated 'Lord:' this is rendered 'master' in reference to God in Eph. 6:9; Col. 4:1; and is often used as between master and servants.

2.  διδάσκαλος, 'teacher.' This is often translated 'master' in the gospels in application to the Lord. Matt. 8:19; Mark 4:38; Luke 3:12; John 1:38, etc. It is the same word in James 3:1, "Be not many teachers."

3.  δεσπότης, master in the sense of 'owner,' as of slaves. 1 Tim. 6:1, 2; 2 Tim. 2:21; Titus 2:9; 1 Peter 2:18.

4.  ἐπιστάτης, 'superintendent, overseer.' Luke 5:5; Luke 8:24, 45; Luke 9:33, 49; Luke 17:13.

5.  καθηγητής, 'leader.' Matt. 23:8, 10.

6.  ῥαββί, 'Rabbi,' a Jewish title. Matt. 26:25, 49; Mark 9:5; Mark 11:21; Mark 14:45; John 4:31, John 9:2; John 11:8.

7.  κυβερνήτης, 'ship-master.' Acts 27:11; Rev. 18:17.

Master-builder.

'Architect.' Paul was such, and laid the foundation of God's building at Corinth. 1 Cor. 3:10.

Mathusala. [Mathusa'la]

See METHUSELAH.

Matred.

Mother of Mehetabel the wife of Hadad, or Hadar, king of Edom. Gen. 36:39; 1 Chr. 1:50.

Matri. [Mat'ri]

A family in the tribe of Benjamin. 1 Sam. 10:21.

Matrix.

'The womb.' Ex. 13:12, 15; Ex. 34:19; Num. 3:12; Num. 18:15.

Mattan. [Mat'tan]

1.  Priest of Baal, slain in the time of Jehoiada. 2 Kings 11:18; 2 Chr. 23:17.

2.  Father of Shephatiah. Jer. 38:1.

Mattanah. [Matta'nah]

Halting place of Israel near Moab. Num. 21:18, 19.

Mattaniah. [Mattani'ah]

1.  Original name of Zedekiah king of Judah. 2 Kings 24:17.

2.  Son of Micah, a Levite. 1 Chr. 9:15; Neh. 11:17, 22; Neh. 12:8, 25, 35.

3.  Son of Heman: engaged in the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:4, 16.

4.  Descendant of Asaph. 2 Chr. 20:14.

5.  Descendant of Asaph in the time of Hezekiah. 2 Chr. 29:13.

6-9.  Four who had married strange wives. Ezra 10:26, 27, 30, 37.

10.  Ancestor of Hanan, who assisted Nehemiah. Neh. 13:13.

Mattatha. [Mat'tatha]

Son of Nathan, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus, Luke 3:31.

Mattathah. [Mat'tathah]

One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:33.

Mattathias. [Mattathi'as]

1, 2.  Son of Amos, and son of Semei, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:25, 26.

Mattenai. [Mattena'i]

1, 2.  Two who had married strange wives. Ezra 10:33, 37.

3.  Priest of the family of Joiarib. Neh. 12:19.

Mat'than.

Son of Eleazar, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Matt. 15.

Matthat. [Mat'that]

1, 2. Son of Levi, and son of another Levi, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:24, 29.

Matthew. [Mat'thew]

The son of Alphaeus and one of the twelve apostles. He was a tax-collector for the Romans, called 'publican' in the A.V. He left his office immediately he was called by the Lord and entertained Him at a feast. No other incidents are recorded of him apart from the other apostles. He is universally believed to have written the gospel bearing his name. Matt. 9:9; Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13. He is called LEVI in Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27, 29.

Matthew, Gospel by.

In this gospel Christ is more especially presented as the Messiah, the son of Abraham, and son of David. See GOSPELS. The genealogy here starts with Abraham, in contrast with that in Luke, which goes back to Adam because in that gospel the Lord is viewed as connected with man, i.e., the seed of the woman. Here we read, He "shall save his people from their sins," and in this gospel only is quoted the prophetic name IMMANUEL, 'God with us.' Here only is the account given of the Magi inquiring for the 'King of the Jews,' with the flight into Egypt, and the massacre of the infants. (The Magi did not come 'when Jesus was born' [ Matt. 2:1 ] but several months afterwards. It is better translated 'Jesus having been born.') Christ is called out of Egypt, taking part thus in the history of Israel, God's first-born son. Ex. 4:22. The Messiah being rejected, the remnant comes into weeping. Matt. 2:17, 18.

Matt. 3, Matt. 4.  The remnant are separated by the preaching of John. Messiah takes His place with them in Jordan according to divine order. His Person is attested by a voice from heaven, and the full revelation of God in connection with the Son upon earth. Led of the Spirit, He overcomes Satan, and then calls the remnant around Himself.

In Matt. 5 — Matt. 7  the principles of Christ's doctrine are unfolded largely, in contrast with that of 'them of old time.' It goes to the springs of evil, and condemns the principles of violence and corruption; and the character of God Himself becomes the standard of practice for man here. The gate was strait and the way narrow which led to life, and there were but few (the remnant) who found it.

Matt. 8: and Matt. 9  present Jehovah's servant, verifying Isa. 53:1 and Ps. 103:3, and His service, ending with the typical raising up of Israel in the ruler's daughter.

Christ goes on with His patient work of preaching the gospel of the kingdom, teaching in the synagogues, healing the sick, casting out demons, and exposing all the false pretensions that were in the leaders of the Jews.

In Matt. 10  Jesus takes the place of administrator, as Lord of the harvest, and sends out the twelve with a commission limited to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.

In Matt. 11  Christ shows the superiority of the kingdom of heaven to the prophetic ministry, ending in John the Baptist; and of the revelation of the Father to His own mighty works, which had not produced repentance; and

In Matt. 12  He breaks the special links which had been formed in His coming after the flesh.

In Matt. 13  Christ reveals Himself as the Sower, in which character He had all along been acting. He gives a series of parables showing the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven. First, how 'the word of the kingdom' was received, and the various obstacles in the world calculated to oppose and hinder its growth. Then, how, through the work of the enemy, false professors would spring up in the kingdom, and how evil principles would be introduced into it, which would work insidiously. The first four parables were spoken to the people — that of the Tares being peculiar to this gospel. The Lord in explaining (in the house) the parable of the Tares, speaks of the completion of the age, and of the judgement by which the Son of man by angelic agency shall purge "out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity." The last three parables were spoken to the disciples in private, and are peculiar to this gospel. They speak of the secret purpose of the kingdom. Christ buys the field in view of the treasure hidden there, and also buys the pearl of great price for its value in His eye. The gospel net gathers good and bad, but at the completion of the age a discriminating judgement will sever the "wicked from among the just," See PARABLES.

Christ continues His work of grace notwithstanding His rejection by the rulers of Israel, and

In Matt. 16  the truth of His person as Son of the living God having been confessed by Peter as the result of the Father's revelation, He announces this as the foundation of the church which He will build, and against which the power of Hades shall not prevail. He gives to Peter the keys of 'the kingdom of heaven' (an expression peculiar to Matthew, turning the eyes of the disciples to heaven as the source of light and authority, in contrast to a kingdom as from an earthly centre, Zion, Rom. 11:26), and speaks of His own coming again in the glory of His Father to give to every man his reward. The parables had dealt with the kingdom in mystery, but some who stood there should at once have a glimpse of the kingdom in glory, which was vouchsafed to them in seeing Jesus transfigured before them on the mount.

In Matt. 18  the Lord furnishes instruction as to the order and ways of the kingdom, including the dealing with an offending brother, and again speaks of 'the church,' and of its voice of authority, though it was then future; and adds the marvellous declaration as to where His presence would be vouchsafed, a place morally distant from the then existing temple and its priesthood: "Where two or three are gathered together unto my name, there am I in the midst of them." The Lord proceeded in the parable of the King that would take account of His servants, to enforce the necessity of His disciples forgiving one another, as otherwise they would come under His Father's hand. Farther on, the parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard maintains the sovereignty of the Lord in dispensing His own things: both of these parables being peculiar to Matthew. The Lord forewarns His disciples of what awaited Him, and gives them instruction to follow His example. Matt. 20:27, 28.

In Matt. 21  the Lord rode triumphantly as Zion's king into Jerusalem, claiming His inheritance, accompanied by a great crowd, which cried, "Hosanna to the Son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest." He cleansed the temple a second time, and put to silence the chief priests, the elders, and all who sought to entangle Him in His talk, enforcing, too, the responsibility of the husbandmen. Notwithstanding their opposition, He spoke of the certainty of the establishment of God's purpose in the parable of the marriage of the King's Son. He foretold the judgements that should fall upon Jerusalem. He would often have gathered them, but they would not. He left them with the solemn words, "Behold, your house is left unto you desolate. For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord." Matt. 23:38, 39.

In Matt. 24  the disciples asked three questions, Matt. 24:3. The Lord did not answer the question as to when the events predicted should take place, and His reply is a further prophecy. Matt. 24:4 to end of Matt. 24:44 are concerning Israel. Matt. 24:4-14 coincide with the first half of Daniel's 70th week; and Matt. 24:15-28 with the last half of that week. Matt. 24:45-51 refer to Christians. This and the following chapter show the whole range and extent of what comes under the judgement of the Son of man, both in His coming and sitting on His throne.

Matt. 25  is peculiar to Matthew; Matt. 25:1-30, the parables of the Ten Virgins and of the Talents, apply to professing Christians. Matt. 25:31-46 refer to the living Gentile nations who will be judged according to how they have treated the Jewish messengers, the brethren of Christ. See JUDGEMENT, SESSIONAL.

The events of the trial, judgement, crucifixion, and resurrection of the Lord Jesus follow. The last scene with the apostles in this gospel is in Galilee, where Jesus had appointed to meet them, thus resuming connection with them as a Jewish remnant. He commissions them to teach all nations, adding, "Lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the age." Compare "God with us" in Matt. 1:23. In a sense He remains with His own: hence the ascension is not here mentioned. Christ will be found again with Israel on earth, and then bless them and the Gentiles through them. The fact that Matthew was present at the ascension, and yet does not mention so important an event, is sufficient evidence that the evangelist had divine guidance as to what he should record: all such differences in the gospels are really by the inspiration of God, and are a profitable study.

Matthias. [Matthi'as]

A disciple chosen by lot to fill up the number of the apostles after the fall of Judas Iseariot. Acts 1:23, 26.

Mattithiah. [Mattithi'ah]

1.  Son of Shallum, a Korahite: he had charge of the 'things that were made in the pans.' 1 Chr. 9:31.

2.  Levite, musician and door-keeper in the time of David. 1 Chr. 15:18, 21; 1 Chr. 16:5.

3.  Son of Jeduthun, and one appointed to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:3, 21.

4.  One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:43.

5.  One who stood beside Ezra when he read the law. Neh. 8:4.

Mattock.

1.  chereb, probably sword or tool. 2 Chr. 34:6; the margin reads 'mauls,'

2.  machareshah, ploughshare, coulter. 1 Sam. 13:20, 21.

3.  mader, probably a hoe or spade. Isa. 7:25.

Maul,

mephits. Mallet or war-club for breaking in pieces or attacking. Prov. 25:18.

Maw,

The rough prickly stomach of ruminating animals. Deut. 18:3. Old expositors considered an animal to consist of three parts, the head, the legs, and the body, and that the priest had a portion of each.

Mazzaroth. [Maz'zaroth]

Probably the twelve signs or constellations of the Zodiac, Job 38:32; see margin. The Hebrew word mazzaloth occurs in 2 Kings 23:5, translated 'planets,' but 'twelve signs, or constellations' in the margin.

Meah. [Me'ah]

A tower in the walls of Jerusalem when rebuilt by Nehemiah. The word signifies 'a hundred;' but what this refers to, or where the tower was situated, is not known. Neh. 3:1; Neh. 12:39. R.V. reads Hammeah.

Mearah. [Mea'rah]

Place in the north of Canaan, mentioned by Joshua as a boundary of the land that had not then been possessed: it is called in the margin 'the cave.' Joshua 13:4. Identified with Mogheiriyeh, 33 38' N, 35 26' E.

Measures.

See WEIGHTS.

Meat.

Several Hebrew and Greek words of various significations are so translated, but scarcely any refer to flesh: the general meaning is food of any sort. Gen. 1:29, 30; Ezek. 47:12; Acts 27:33-36, etc.

Meat Offering.

See OFFERINGS.

Mebunnai. [Mebun'nai]

A Hushathite, one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:27.

Mecherathite. [Mecher'athite]

Designation of Hepher. 1 Chr. 11:36. Perhaps the same as Maachathite in 2 Sam. 23:34.

Medad. [Me'dad]

One of the seventy elders on whom the Spirit rested, and who prophesied. Num. 11:26, 27.

Medan. [Medan']

Son of Abraham and Keturah. Gen. 25:2; 1 Chr. 1:32. His descendants have not been traced.

Medeba. [Me'deba]

Plain and city on the east of the Jordan. It fell to the lot of Reuben, but was possessed at times both by the Amorites and the Moabites. Num. 21:30; Joshua 13:9, 16; 1 Chr. 19:7; Isa. 15:2. Identified with Madeba, 31 43' N, 35 47' E.

Medes, Media. [Me'dia]

The Hebrew is the same for the two words. This powerful race is traced back to Madai the son of Japheth. Gen. 10:2. They occupied a large district, having the Caspian Sea on the north-east; Armenia on the north-west; Parthia on the east; Persia on the south; and Assyria on the west. The boundaries no doubt varied at different times owing to the conflicts of the Medes with their neighbours.

The first mention of them is when Shalmaneser took Samaria and carried away the Israelites, placing some of them 'in the cities of the Medes.' 2 Kings 17:6; 2 Kings 18:11. Under Cyaxares (about B.C. 634) a Median empire was founded. He is called Ahasuerus in Dan. 9:1. He pushed his conquests westward, and was able to overthrow the Assyrian empire. Astyages succeeded Cyaxares, but Cyrus the Persian was rising in power and subdued Astyages, but allowed him to reign as king, and he was probably Darius the Mede of Daniel. The kingdom was called at first that of the 'Medes and Persians,' as in Dan. 5:28; Dan. 6:8, 12, 15; but, at a later period, the Persians had the pre-eminence (cf. Dan. 8:3), and are mentioned first. Esther 1:3, 14, 18. They conquered Babylon and Asia Minor. On the death of Astyages, Cyrus reigned alone. It became the second great empire of the Gentiles. See DANIEL. There were some bearing the name of Medes present at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost. The Medes and Persians are considered to have been branches of the Aryan race and were one in origin, language, religion, etc. Esther 10:2; Isa. 13:17; Isa. 21:2; Jer. 25:25; Jer. 51:11, 28; Dan. 8:20; Acts 2:9. Darius in Dan. 5:31 is called the MEDIAN.

Mediator.

Middle man, one who can stand between two and have intercourse with both. Such was Moses: he conveyed to the people the words of Jehovah, and carried to Jehovah the replies of the people. Again and again he pleaded their cause. The very fact of a mediator acting between two, is used by the apostle to show that God's acting with Abraham was on a different principle. "A mediator is not of one, but God is one," and He made to Abraham personally an unconditional promise. Gal. 3:19, 20. The Lord Jesus is the Mediator — the only mediator — "between God and men" universally. It is through Him that God has been enabled to approach men in a Man with forgiveness of sins, and consequently to Him any poor sinner can go, and will in no wise be cast out. He is the Mediator of the new covenant that will be made with Israel in the future: they will be blessed only through Him, as the saints of God are now blessed through Him and in Him. 1 Tim. 2:5; Heb. 8:6; Heb. 9:15; Heb. 12:24.

Medicine.

On the banks of the future river that will flow from the sanctuary, trees will grow, of which it is said, "The fruit thereof shall be for meat, and the leaf thereof for medicine." Ezek. 47:12. This agrees with Rev. 22:2. The prophet Jeremiah twice observes that when God brings His judgements upon a people, no medicine will cure them. Jer. 30:13; Jer. 46:11. Prov. 17:22 says, "A merry heart doeth good like a medicine," or 'promoteth healing.'

Meet, To be.

In the O.T. there are five Hebrew words so translated, signifying 'to be right, proper, fit,' which do not call for remark. In the N.T. are

1.  δεῖ, often translated 'must' and 'ought.' It 'behoved' the father to make merry when the prodigal son returned. Luke 15:32. Sinners received the punishment that was 'fit.' Rom. 1:27.

2.  ἱκανόω. The Christian is made 'fit' to share the portion of the saints in light. Col. 1:12.

3.  εὔχρηστος. By the Christian separating himself from the vessels to dishonour, he becomes a vessel to honour, sanctified, 'serviceable' to the Master. 2 Tim. 2:21.

Megiddo, [Megid'do] Megiddon. [Megid'don]

City and valley on the borders of Issachar and Manasseh. It was conquered by Joshua. Joshua 12:21. Later it is mentioned among the cities from which Manasseh did not drive out the inhabitants; "the Canaanites would dwell in that land." Joshua 17:11; Judges 1:27. The rout of Sisera's army was in this district; and at Megiddo Josiah fell when he rashly attacked Pharaoh-nechoh. Judges 5:19; 1 Kings 4:12; 1 Kings 9:15; 2 Kings 9:27; 2 Kings 23:29, 30; 1 Chr. 7:29; 2 Chr. 35:22; Zech. 12:11. See ARMAGEDDON. The city is identified by some with el Lejjun, 32 35' N, 35 10' E, but others prefer the ruins at el Mujedda, 32 28' N, 35 27' E. The valley is otherwise known as 'the valley of Jezreel.'  The WATERS of MEGIDDO probably refer to the copious springs found in that district.

Mehetabeel. [Mehe'tabeel]

Ancestor of Shemaiah, an enemy of Nehemiah. Neh. 6:10.

Mehetabel. [Mehe'tabel]

Wife of Hadar, or Hadad, king of Edom. Gen. 36:39; 1 Chr. 1:50.

Mehida. [Mehi'da]

Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra. 2:52; Neh. 7:54.

Mehir. [Mehir']

Son of Chelub, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:11.

Meholathite. [Mehol'athite]

Designation of Adriel and Barzillai. 1 Sam. 18:19; 2 Sam. 21:8. The name signifies 'a man of Meholah,' which may refer to Abel-meholah, the birth-place of Elisha. 1 Kings 19:16.

Mehujael. [Mehu'jael]

Son of Irad, a descendant of Cain. Gen. 4:18.

Mehuman. [Mehu'man]

One of the seven chamberlains of Ahasuerus. Esther 1:10.

Mehunim, [Mehu'nim] Meunim. [Meu'nim]

Ancestor of some Nethinim, who returned from exile. Ezra 2:50; Neh. 7:52.

Mehunims. [Mehu'nims]

A people against whom Uzziah was helped by God. 2 Chr. 26:7.  Perhaps the same as the Maonites mentioned in Judges 10:12.

Mejarkon. [Mejar'kon]

City in Dan. Joshua 19:46. Not identified.

Mekonah. [Meko'nah]

City inhabited on the return from exile. Neh. 11:28. Identified by some with ruins at el Mekenna, 31 47' N, 34 51' E.

Melatiah. [Melati'ah]

A Gibeonite who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:7.

Melchi. [Mel'chi]

1, 2.  Son of Janna, and son of Addi, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:24, 28.

Melchiah. [Melchi'ah]

See MALCHIAH.

Melchisedec, [Melchi'sedec] Melchizedek. [Melchi'zedek]

King of Salem and priest of the most high God. He came forth to meet Abraham after he had rescued Lot and those taken with him. Melchisedec brought forth bread and wine, and blessed Abraham, and Abraham gave to him tithes of all. He was a type of Christ as a royal-priest: "King of righteousness and king of peace," as He will be in the Millennium. Melchisedec was a priest of an entirely different order from that of Aaron, which passed from father to son. There is no mention of his progenitors, nor of any descendant: "without father, without mother, without genealogy; having neither beginning of days nor end of life:" being thus a beautiful type of the Son of God, who has been called by God to be "a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec." Nothing is said of any sacrifice being offered by Melchisedec to God: he rather brought forth from God that which symbolises life and joy (cf. John 6:51; John 2:1-10), and blessed him that had the promises. So when Christ comes it will not be to put away sin by sacrifice; but to refresh and bless His people. Blessing characterises the Melchisedec priesthood of Christ. Gen. 14:18-20; Ps. 110:4; Heb. 5:6, 10; Heb. 6:20; Heb. 7:1-21.

Melchishua.  [Melchi'-shua]

See MALCHI-SHUA.

Melea. [Mel'ea]

Son of Menan, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:31.

Melech. [Mel'ech]

Son of Micah, a descendant of Saul. 1 Chr. 8:35; 1 Chr. 9:41.

Melicu. [Meli'cu]

Priest mentioned in Neh. 12:14. Apparently the same as MALLUCH in Neh. 12:2.

Melita. [Mel'ita]

The island on which Paul was shipwrecked. He and the whole of the ship's company were received kindly by the inhabitants. Paul cured the father of the chief man and many others. They stayed there three months, and were bountifully supplied when they left. Acts 28:1-11. It is the well-known island of Malta in the Mediterranean.

Melons,

abattichim. The similar Arabic word batekh is a generic name for melons, etc., and would include different species. The common melon in the East is the cucumis melo, and the water melon the cucurbita citrullus. The melon was one of the fruits the Israelites had eaten in Egypt, and for which they longed in the wilderness. Num. 11:5. Kitto long remembered the gratitude with which he received a slice of melon when travelling in a hot and dry plain in the East.

Melzar. [Mel'zar]

One under whom Daniel and his companions were placed in Babylon. Dan. 1:11-16. The Hebrew has the article, and it is supposed to be a title, as 'the steward,' rather than a proper name.

Memphis. [Mem'phis]

The Hebrew of this is Moph, Hosea 9:6, and is judged to be the capital of lower or northern Egypt. It is called NOPH in Jeremiah and Ezekiel. It was denounced in the prophets and given over to destruction. Isa. 19:13; Jer. 2:16; Jer. 44:1; Jer. 46:14, 19; Ezek. 30:13, 16.

Memphis was one of the earliest cities of Egypt, and was in the district where some of the largest works were raised. In hieroglyphics it was styled Men-nofre, interpreted 'abode of the good,' etc. Some of the early dynasties were Memphian, during which the city rose to eminence. Its downfall was predicted by Ezekiel, "Thus saith the Lord God: I will also destroy the idols, and I will cause their images to cease out of Noph; and there shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt." Ezek. 30:13. This was uttered about B.C. 570, and it was about B.C. 526 that Cambyses conquered Egypt. Enraged by the opposition he had encountered at Memphis, according to Herodotus, he committed great ravages in the city, scourged the priests, made sport of their gods, and burnt them. Memphis did not recover this attack, and its site was for a long while unknown. It is now held to have been on the west of the Nile, about 29 53' N, 31 17' E where a few relics have been discovered.

Memucan. [Memu'can]

One of the seven princes of Persia. Esther 1:14, 16, 21.

Menahem. [Menahem']

Son of Gadi: he conspired and slew Shallum king of Israel, and reigned in his stead. He was a cruel and idolatrous ruler. To avert an Assyrian invasion he paid a thousand talents of silver, which he exacted from the people. He reigned ten years, B.C. 772-761. 2 Kings 15:14-23.

Menan. [Me'nan]

Son of Mattatha, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:31.

Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin.

The words written on the wall at Belshazzar's feast. Dan. 5:25. There are two things said of the king's wise men: they could not read the writing, nor make known to the king its interpretation. Dan. 5:8. Various suggestions have been made as to why the wise men could not read the writing. It may have been because the letters were the ancient Hebrew characters, which, though known to Daniel, would be unknown to them. The words and their meanings stand thus ( peres is the singular of upharsin which is plural):

   MENE        MENE       TEKEL     UPHARSIN.

 numbered    numbered    weighed         divided.

It will readily be seen that even if such a sentence had been read, its signification could not have been known apart from the teaching of God. Each word appears to have had a hidden meaning which was revealed to Daniel. Thus the kingdom was 'numbered' and finished. As we say of a person, 'his days are numbered.' The king had been 'weighed' in the balances, and was found wanting, as none can come up to God's standard. The kingdom was 'divided,' and given to the Medes and Persians (Peres). Thus, as always, God alone can interpret what He has caused to be written. The prediction was fulfilled by the city and kingdom being taken that same night.

Meonenim. [Meo'nenim]

Not the 'plain' but the 'oak' of Meonenim, that is, the Enchanter's Oak, or 'the regarders of times' as in the margin. Judges 9:37.

Meonothai. [Meonotha'i]

Son of Othniel, a brother of Caleb. 1 Chr. 4:14.

Mephaath. [Mepha'ath]

Levitical city in Reuben, east of the Jordan. Joshua 13:18; Joshua 21:37; 1 Chr. 6:79; Jer. 48:21. Not identified

Mephibosheth. [Mephib'osheth]

1.  Son of Jonathan, the son of Saul. When five years old he fell from his nurse's arms or shoulder, and became lame on both his feet. When David came into power he inquired if there were any of Saul's descendants to whom he could show the kindness of God for Jonathan's sake, and Mephibosheth was found. All that had been Saul's possessions were given to Mephibosheth under the care of Ziba as his servant, and Mephibosheth was made to sit at the king's table continually. David and Jonathan had made a league together as to their seed. 1 Sam. 20:15, 42. David fully respected this and far exceeded it, for it was true grace in him to bring Mephibosheth to sit at his table.

When Absalom revolted, Ziba brought presents to David, and slandered Mephibosheth, saying that he sought the kingdom. David thereupon gave to Ziba all the possessions of Mephibosheth; but on hearing subsequently Mephibosheth's explanations, David divided the inheritance between them. His doing this, and the way he answered Mephibosheth, "Why speakest thou any more of thy matters? I have said, Thou and Ziba divide the land," makes it doubtful whether David was quite convinced of Mephibosheth's innocence. While the king was away Mephibosheth had not dressed his feet, nor trimmed his beard, nor washed his clothes; and when David decided that the land should be divided, he said, "Yea, let him take all, forasmuch as my lord the king is come again in peace." When Saul's descendants were required for a recompense to the Gibeonites David spared Mephibosheth for Jonathan's sake, nor was he mentioned when the king died. 2 Sam. 4:4; 2 Sam. 9:3-13; 2 Sam. 16:1-4; 2 Sam. 19:24-30; 2 Sam. 21:7.  In 1 Chr. 8:34; 1 Chr. 9:40 he is called MERIB-BAAL, 'Baal contendeth.'

2.  Son of Saul and Rizpah: he and his brother Armoni were among the seven given up to death, on account of the famine that God brought upon the land because Saul's sin against the Gibeonites had not been atoned for. Rizpah protected the bodies by day and by night, until David caused their remains to be buried with those of Saul and Jonathan. 2 Sam. 21:8-14.

Merab. [Mer'ab]

Eldest daughter of Saul: she was promised to David, but was given to Adriel the Meholathite. 1 Sam. 14:49; 1 Sam. 18:17, 19.  See ADRIEL.

Meraiah. [Merai'ah]

Priest 'of Seraiah' in the days of Joiakim. Neh. 12:12.

Meraioth. [Merai'oth]

1.  Son of Zerahiah, a priest. 1 Chr. 6:6, 7, 52; Ezra 7:3.

2.  Son of Ahitub, a priest. 1 Chr. 9:11; Neh. 11:11.

3.  Ancestor of Helkai, a priest in the days of Joiakim. Neh. 12:15.

Merari, [Mera'ri] Merarites. [Mera'rites]

Third son of Levi, and his descendants. He entered into Egypt with his family, but nothing is further recorded of him personally. The MERARITES became a large branch of the Levites. They had charge of the heavier parts of the tabernacle, to carry which they had four wagons and eight oxen. In the land they had twelve cities from among the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Zebulun, including the city of Ramoth-gilead. They shared in the duties devolving on the Levites during the kingdom, a third part of the singers and a third part of the door-keepers being Merarites. Some of their descendants returned from exile. Ex. 6:16, 19; Num. 3:17-37; Num. 4:29-45; Num. 7:8; Num. 10:17; Num. 26:57; Joshua 21:7, 34-40; 1 Chr. 6:1-77; Ezra 8:19, etc.

Merathaim. [Meratha'im]

Symbolical name given to the country of the Chaldeans, signifying 'double rebellion,' perhaps alluding to the double captivity of the Israelites by Chaldea. Jer. 50:21: cf. Jer. 50:25.

Mercurius, [Mercu'rius]

Ἑρμῆς. The god Hermes of the Greeks, identified with Mercurius of the Romans. When a miracle had been wrought by Paul at Lystra the heathen inhabitants supposed this god was visiting them in the person of Paul, and the priest would have sacrificed to him. Acts 14:12.

Mercy.

See GRACE.

Mercy Seat.

This was made of pure gold and covered the ark. Two cherubim were also made of pure gold and were of one piece with the mercy seat. The faces were inwards, towards the covenant that was contained in the ark. God said to Moses, "I will commune with thee from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubim which are upon the ark of the testimony." The place for the mediator to receive divine communications from God, and for the high priest to approach with the blood of atonement, was the mercy seat. It is typical of Christ, the same word being used in the N.T. for the mercy seat in the tabernacle and for the Lord Himself, "whom God hath set forth to be a mercy seat," ἱλαστήριον. Rom. 3:25; Heb. 9:5.

Blood was sprinkled on the mercy seat and before the mercy seat once a year on the day of atonement. This Aaron "offered for himself, and for the errors of the people:" typical of Christ entering into heaven, having obtained eternal redemption for us. Heb. 9:7,12. The veil of the temple being rent, God has come out in grace, and man in the person of Christ has gone in, and the Christian is exhorted to come at all times boldly to the throne of grace that he may find grace to help in time of need. Ex. 25:17-22; Ex. 26:34; Ex. 30:6; Ex. 31:7; Ex. 35:12; Ex. 37:6-9; Ex. 39:35; Ex. 40:20; Lev. 16:2-15; Num. 7:89; 1 Chr. 28:11.

Mered. [Mer'ed]

Son of Ezra, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:17, 18.

Meremoth. [Mere'moth]

1.  Son of Uriah, a priest: he weighed the vessels brought from Babylon, and helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Ezra 8:33; Neh. 3:4, 21.

2.  One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:36.

3.  Priest who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:5.

4.  Priest who returned with Zerubbabel. Neh. 12:3.

Meres. [Mer'es]

One of the seven princes of Persia. Esther 1:14.

Meribah, [Mer'ibah]  Meribahkadesh. [Mer'ibah-ka'desh]

See KADESH.

Meribbaal.  [Merib-ba'al]

See MEPHIBOSHETH

Merodach. [Mero'dach]

An idol of Babylon. Jer. 50:2. It is MARDUK on the monuments.

Merodachbaladan. [Mero'dach-bal'adan]

King of Babylon who sent letters and a present to Hezekiah when he heard that he had been sick. Hezekiah was glad of this, but it was accepting the friendship of the world, to which as a result his posterity would be captives. Isa. 39:1. Doubtless the same occurrence is referred to in 2 Chr. 32:31, though the name of the king of Babylon is not mentioned, where it is stated that one object of the ambassadors being sent was to inquire respecting the "wonder that was done in the land," namely, the shadow going back ten degrees. 2 Kings 20:8-13. Here the king is called BERODACH-BALADAN.

Merom, [Me'rom] Waters of. (See also Jordan, lake of Huleh)

A lake in the north of Palestine. The lake was drained in 1957 to provide fertile agricultural land. It was connected with a large morass on its north side, in which there was an abundance of tall papyrus. The streams forming the Jordan flowed into this morass, and thence into the Merom waters. The open water was about four and a half miles from north to south and three and a half miles at its widest. It lay seven feet above sea level. This was where Joshua defeated the confederate kings of the north. Joshua 11:5-9. Identified with Baheiret el Huleh, 33 4' N, 35 37 E.

Meronothite. [Meron'othite]

Designation of Jehdeiah and Jadon. 1 Chr. 27:30; Neh. 3:7. Its origin is unknown.

Meroz. [Mer'oz]

Some unknown place, the inhabitants of which were to be cursed bitterly because they came not to the aid of Barak. Judges 5:23.

Mesech. [Mes'ech]

Place mentioned in connection with Kedar: probably connected with Gog. The Psalmist was dwelling among quite strange nations. Ps. 120:5. The Hebrew is the same as MESHECH: see No. 1.

Mesha. [Me'sha]

1.  One of the limits of the Joktanites, Gen. 10:30; probably in the S.E.  Perhaps Musa on the Red Sea.

2.  King of Moab, described as a sheep-master: a pastoral prince rich in flocks and herds. He was tributary to Ahab, but rebelled and suffered an entire defeat from Jehoram, Jehoshaphat, and the king of Edom. With 700 men he endeavoured to break through the allied forces but failed. In desperation he offered his eldest son as a sacrifice on the wall. 2 Kings 3:4-27.

3.  Eldest son of Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel. 1 Chr. 2:42.

4.  Son of Shaharaim, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:9.

Meshach. [Me'shach]

Name given by the prince of the eunuchs to Mishael, one of Daniel's companions at Babylon: he was one of the three noble men who, faithful to God in refusing to worship the image set up by the king, were cast into the fiery furnace; but were miraculously preserved by God, there being not even the smell of fire on their garments. Nebuchadnezzar blessed their God, who had thus delivered them, and they were promoted in the province of Babylon. Dan. 1:7; Dan. 2:49; Dan. 3:12-30. Nebuchadnezzar, head of the Gentile power, having been brought into a prominent position by God is compelled to own the God of this captive but faithful remnant, who had shown His power in protecting those who were faithful to Him.

Meshech. [Mesh'ech]

1.  Son of Japheth, and his descendants. Gen. 10:2; 1 Chr. 1:5; Ezek. 27:13; Ezek. 32:26; Ezek. 38:2, 3; Ezek. 39:1. Probably the progenitors of the Moschi and Muscovites.

2.  Grandson of Shem. 1 Chr. 1:17. Called MASH in Gen. 10:23.

Meshelemiah. [Meshelemi'ah]

A Korhite, descendant of Asaph. 1 Chr. 9:21; 1 Chr. 26:1, 2, 9. Apparently the same as SHELEMIAH in 1 Chr. 26:14.

Meshezabeel. [Meshe'zabeel]

1.  Grandfather of Meshullam who helped to rebuild the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:4.

2.  One who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:21.

3.  Father of Pethahiah. Neh. 11:24.

Meshillemith. [Meshille'mith]

Son of Immer, a priest. 1 Chr. 9:12.

Meshille'moth.

1. An Ephraimite, father of Berechiah. 2 Chr. 28:12.

2.  Son of Immer, a priest. Neh. 11:13. Probably the same as MESHIL-LEMITH.

Meshobab. [Mesho'bab]

Descendant of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:34.

Meshullam. [Meshul'lam]

1.  Grandfather of Shaphan the scribe. 2 Kings 22:3.

2.  Son of Zerubbabel. 1 Chr. 3:19.

3.  Head of a Gadite family. 1 Chr. 5:13.

4.  Son of Elpaal, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:17.

5.  Son of Hodaviah, or Joed, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 9:7; Neh. 11:7.

6.  Son of Shephathiah, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 9:8.

7.  Son of Zadok the priest. 1 Chr. 9:11; Neh. 11:11. Probably the same as Shallum, son of Zadok .

8.  Son of Meshillemith, a priest. 1 Chr. 9:12.

9.  Kohathite who superintended the repairs of the temple. 2 Chr. 34:12.

10-12.  Three who assisted Ezra on his return from exile. Ezra 8:16; Ezra 10:15; Neh. 8:4.

13.  One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:29.

14, 15.  Two who assisted in repairing the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:4, 6, 30; Neh. 6:18.

16.  Priest who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:7.

17.  A chief of the people who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:20.

18, 19.  Two mentioned in the succession of priests. Neh. 12:13, 16.

20.  A chief among the Levites. Neh. 12:25.

21.  One who assisted at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:33.