Bible Dictionary M 2

Meshullemeth. [Meshullem'eth]

Wife of Manasseh king of Judah. 2 Kings 21:19.

Mesobaite. [Meso'baite]

Designation of Jasiel, one of David's valiant men. 1 Chr. 11:47. Its signification is unknown.

Mesopotamia. [Mesopota'mia]

This name signifies 'midst of the rivers.' It is the district lying between the rivers Euphrates and the Upper Tigris, especially in the N.W. It is first mentioned as the abode of Nahor and his family. Isaac's wife came from thence, and Jacob served Laban there. Mention is made of but one king of Mesopotamia, Chushanrishathaim, who ruled over Israel — no doubt a part of them — for eight years. Judges 3:8-10. Mesopotamia became absorbed in the great nations, belonging successively to the Assyrians, Medes and Persians, Greeks, and Romans, and then the Turks, it is now Iraq. Gen. 24:10; Deut. 23:4; 1 Chr. 19:6; Acts 2:9; Acts 7:2.  See ARAM-NAHARAIM.

Messiah, [Messi'ah] Messias. [Messi'as]



A rod or line by which lengths could be ascertained: the same word is often translated 'measure.' Lev. 19:35.

Methegammah.  [Meth'eg-am'mah]

Place taken from the Philistines. 2 Sam. 8:1. The corresponding account in 1 Chr. 18:1 has 'Gath and her towns' (lit. daughters). The signification of the name in Samuel is much disputed. Gesenius and Fürst interpret it 'bridle of the mother-city.' This would well agree with 'Gath and her daughter towns.'

Methusael. [Methu'sael]

Son of Mehujael and father of Lamech. Gen. 4:18.

Methuselah. [Methu'selah]

Son of Enoch, and the seventh from Adam: he lived 969 years, longer than any other person, and died in the year of the flood. Gen. 5:21-27; 1 Chr. 1:3. He is called MATHUSALA in Luke 3:37.

Meunim. [Meu'nim]


Mezahab. [Meza'hab]

Grandfather of Mehetabel. Gen. 36:39; 1 Chr. 1:50.

Miamin. [Mia'min]

1.  One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:25.

2.  Priest who returned from exile. Neh. 12:5. Probably the same as MINIAMIN in Neh. 12:17.

Mibhar. [Mib'har]

Son of Haggeri and one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:38.

Mibsam. [Mib'sam]

1.  Son of Ishmael. Gen. 25:13; 1 Chr. 1:29.

2.  A descendant of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:25.

Mibzar. [Mib'zar]

Descendant of Esau and duke of Edom. Gen. 36:42; 1 Chr. 1:53.

Micah. [Mi'cah]

1.  A man of Mount Ephraim, whose history reveals the sad state of private life in Israel, as well as the mixture of idolatry with the name of Jehovah, early in the times of the Judges, Phinehas being still high priest. He had a house of gods, and made an ephod and teraphim, and consecrated one of his sons to act as priest. A wandering son of Levi finding his way to Micah's house was gladly received by him, treated as one of his sons, and became his priest. Then Micah said, "Now know I that the Lord will do me good, seeing I have a Levite to my priest." The Danites however, seeking a larger inheritance, sent spies to the north, who came near Micah's house, and knowing the voice of the Levite, asked him to inquire of God for them. He ventured to reply, "Go in peace: before the Lord is your way wherein ye go." A larger body of Danites afterwards came and carried away the gods of Micah, and the ephod and the teraphim, together with the Levite, and took them to the north, where they established themselves. Micah hastened after them, but could not recover his gods. There was no king in Israel, and every man did that which was right in his own eyes; and God, though nominally owned, was, alas, in reality ignored. Judges 17, Judges 18.

2.  Son of Shimei, a descendant of Reuben. 1 Chr. 5:5.

3.  Son of Merib-baal, or Mephibosheth, the grandson of Saul. 1 Chr. 8:34-35; 1 Chr. 9:40-41. Called MICHA in 2 Sam. 9:12.

4.  Son of Zichri, or Zabdi, or Zaccur, a Levite. 1 Chr. 9:15. Apparently called MICHA in Neh. 11:17, 22; and MICHAIAH in Neh. 12:35.

5.  Son of Uzziel, a Kohathite. 1 Chr. 23:20. Called MICHAH in 1 Chr. 24:24-25.

6.  Father of Abdon. 2 Chr. 34:20. Called MICHAIAH in 2 Kings 22:12.

7.  The Morasthite, the prophet. Jer. 26:18; Micah 1:1.

Micah, [Mi'cah] Book of.

Nothing is known of the prophet personally. He prophesied during the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and was thus contemporary with Isaiah and Hosea. His prophecy was concerning Samaria and Jerusalem. God spoke from His holy temple, and the prophet exclaimed, "Hear, all ye peoples." He spoke to all people saying "Hearken, O earth." All the earth was involved in the judgements that God was going to bring upon His chosen people: a solemn consideration when the people of God, instead of being a testimony for Him, bring the judgements of God down on the world. The time has come that judgement must begin at the house of God. The prophecy seems to divide itself into three sections: the word 'hear' introducing each.

1.  Micah 1, 2;

2.  Micah 3 - 5; and

3.  Micah 6, 7

Micah 1, 2  may be regarded as introductory. Judgements should fall upon Samaria, her wound was incurable; but they should also approach Judah and Jerusalem. The Assyrian is the special instrument of the judgements.

Micah 2.  The prophet speaks of the moral state of the people that called for judgement. Schemes of violence were devised by them to gratify their covetousness. They had turned away from the testimony, and it should be taken from them. Micah 2:6 may be translated "Prophesy ye not, they prophesy. If they do not prophesy to these, the ignominy will not depart." Their wickedness spared neither women nor children. There was a call to arise and depart, for the land of promise was polluted. Nevertheless, God does not renounce His purpose concerning Israel, He will gather them together for blessing in the last days. There shall be a 'breaker' by whom He will remove all obstacles.

Micah 3.  The princes and prophets are denounced because of their iniquity; but the prophet himself was full of power to declare the sin of Israel, consequently Zion should be ploughed as a field, and Jerusalem should become heaps. This prophecy has been literally fulfilled.

Micah 4  turns to the blessing of the last days, when Mount Zion will have the first place, and many nations will approach the mountain of the Lord that they may learn His ways. The people will be judged in righteousness; and there will be peace, safety, and plenty. But before this there would be the loss of the royal power established in Zion, and their captivity in Babylon, but they should be redeemed. Eventually there would be many nations come against Zion, but the daughter of Zion should beat them to pieces, and consecrate their spoils to Jehovah, the Lord of the whole earth: comp. Ps. 83; Isa. 17:12-14; Zech. 14:2.

 Micah 5  Another subject and another Person are introduced before the final blessings of Israel can be brought to them, namely, the MESSIAH, 'the judge of Israel,' whose goings forth had been from of old, from everlasting. Micah 5:2 tells where Christ would be born, and this prophecy was referred to by the religious rulers when Herod inquired of them respecting His birth. If this verse be read as a parenthesis it will make the context clearer. Because the Judge of Israel was smitten on the cheek with a rod, therefore He gave them up until the time of bringing forth, when the remnant of His brethren should return unto the children of Israel; that is, they will no longer be added to the church as in Acts 2:27. "He shall stand and feed in the strength of Jehovah, in the majesty of the name of Jehovah his God; and they shall abide."

The Assyrian will appear at the close, but only to be destroyed; for Jehovah will have renewed His connection with Israel. The remnant of Jacob will then be in power as a lion: horses and chariots will be destroyed; and all graven images and symbols of idolatry. God will execute such vengeance as will not previously have been heard of.

Micah 6  returns to the moral condition of the people, and the judgements that must follow. Jehovah pathetically appeals to His people. He recounts what He has done for them, and asks wherein He had wearied them. Let them testify against Him. He rehearses their sins, and the punishments that must follow.

Micah 7.  The prophet takes the place of intercessor, and pleads with God for the people, lamenting their condition; but in faith he says, "I will look unto Jehovah; I will wait for the God of my salvation: my God will hear me." Those who rejoiced at their tribulation shall be trodden down as mire. The city will be rebuilt and the people brought from far, to the amazement of the nations, who will be confounded to see them in power again. The prophet closes with expressions of faith in and adoration of the God that pardons. He has confidence that God will perform the truth to Jacob, and the mercy to Abraham, which He had sworn to their fathers from the days of old.

Micaiah. [Micai'ah]

Son of Imla. When Ahab was joined by Jehoshaphat, and all Ahab's prophets foretold his success against Ramoth-gilead, Jehoshaphat asked if there was not yet another prophet of Jehovah of whom they could inquire. Then Micaiah was sent for, though Ahab said that he hated him, for he always prophesied evil unto him. At first Micaiah said, "Go ye up, and prosper, and they shall be delivered into your hand." The way in which this was said apparently convinced Ahab that it was spoken in irony, for he said, "How many times shall I adjure thee that thou say nothing but the truth to me in the name of the Lord?" Micaiah at once said that he saw all Israel scattered, having no shepherd. Jehovah said they had no master.

Then he relates that he had seen, probably in a vision, Jehovah sitting on His throne, and asking who would persuade Ahab to go to Ramoth-gilead and fall there. A spirit volunteered to accomplish it by being a lying spirit in the mouth of all Ahab's prophets. This had come to pass. Zedekiah, one of Ahab's prophets, struck Micaiah on the cheek, and said, "Which way went the Spirit of the Lord from me to speak unto thee?" Micaiah replied, "Behold, thou shalt see on that day when thou shalt go into an inner chamber to hide thyself." Ahab disguised himself, but was wounded by an arrow and died. Ahab's four hundred prophets, and Jehovah's one prophet are an instance of the conflict of spirits, which the Christian is now called upon to try. 1 Kings 22:8-28; 2 Chr. 18:7-27.

Micha. [Mi'cha]

1.  Son of Mephibosheth. 2 Sam. 9:12. Called MICAH, 1 Chr. 8:34-35; 1 Chr. 9:40-41.

2.  A Levite, father of MATTANIAH. Neh. 11:17, 22. Called MICAH in 1 Chr. 9:15.

3.  A Levite who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:11.

Michael. [Mi'chael]

1.  An Asherite, father of Sethur. Num. 13:13.

2.  Son of Abihail, a Gadite. 1 Chr. 5:13.

3.  Son of Jeshishai, a Gadite. 1 Chr. 5:14.

4.  Son of Baaseiah, a Gershonite. 1 Chr. 6:40.

5.  Son of Izrahiah, a descendant of Issachar. 1 Chr. 7:3.

6.  Son of Beriah, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:16.

7.  A man of Manasseh, who joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:20.

8.  Father of Omri, a ruler of Issachar. 1 Chr. 27:18.

9.  Son of Jehoshaphat, murdered by his brother Jehoram 2 Chr. 21:2, 4.

10.  Ancestor of some who returned from exile. Ezra 8:8

Michael the Archangel.

In Daniel he is called 'one of the chief princes,'  'your prince,'  'the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people.' He went to the assistance of one (probably an angel) who had been sent with a message to Daniel, but who had been detained twenty-one days by the prince of the kingdom of Persia (doubtless Satan, or one of Satan's angels, who was acting for the kingdom of Persia, as Michael was prince for the children of Israel). Dan. 10:13, 21; Dan. 12:1. It is also said of Michael that when he contended with Satan about the body of Moses, he durst not bring a railing accusation against him, but said, "The Lord rebuke thee." Michael and his angels will however fight with Satan and his angels, and will prevail, and Satan will be cast out of that portion of heaven to which he now has access. Jude 9; Rev. 12:7: cf. Job 1:6; Job 2:1. These are illustrations of the conflict of good and evil spirits in the unseen universe.

Michah. [Mi'chah]

See MICAH, No. 5.

Michaiah. [Michai'ah]

1.  Father of Achbor. 2 Kings 22:12. Called MICAH in 2 Chr. 34:20.

2.  Daughter of Uriel of Gibeah and wife of Rehoboam. 2 Chr. 13:2. Called MAACHAH, daughter of Abishalom, in 1 Kings 15:2; and daughter of Absalom in 2 Chr. 11:20. See MAACHAH.

3.  Prince of Judah sent with priests and Levites to teach the people the law. 2 Chr. 17:7.

4. Son of Zaccur, a descendant of Asaph. Neh. 12:35. Apparently called MICAH in 1 Chr. 9:15; and MICHA in Neh. 11:17, 22.

5. Priest who assisted at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:41.

6. Son of Gemariah and a prince of Judah. Jer. 36:11, 13.

Michal. [Mich'al]

Younger daughter of Saul, and wife of David. She helped David to escape when her father sought his death. When David was being persecuted she was given as wife to Phaltiel; but when David came into power he demanded of Abner that she should be restored to him. She did not share David's zeal for the Lord, for when he brought up the ark and danced in joy before it, she not only despised him in her heart but reproached him for it. On this account she was barren the rest of her days. 1 Sam. 18:20-28; 1 Sam. 19:11-17; 1 Sam. 25:44; 2 Sam. 3:13-14; 2 Sam. 6:16-23. In 2 Sam. 21:8, for 'Michal,' it should probably be read '[the sister of] Michal,' that is, Merab, as in 1 Sam. 18:19. Michal is an instance of how altogether beyond the natural mind are the leadings of the Spirit of God: cf. 1 Cor. 2:14.

Michmas, [Mich'mas] Michmash. [Mich'mash]

City and mountain pass in the tribe of Benjamin. It was where Jonathan smote the garrison of the Philistines, when the victory might have been greater had not Saul distressed the people by his forbidding them to take food until the evening. Men of this town returned from the exile. 1 Sam. 13:2-23; 1 Sam. 14:5, 31; Ezra 2:27; Neh. 7:31; Neh. 11:31; Isa. 10:28. Identified with Mukhmas, 31 53' N, 35 16' E. The Wady is in one place nearly half a mile wide, but elsewhere it is a deep gorge with nearly perpendicular rocks with caverns and fissures. In the winter a deep and rapid torrent rushes through it.

Michmethah. [Mich'methah]

Boundary of Ephraim and Manasseh. Joshua 16:6; Joshua 17:7. Identified by some with Sahel Mukhnah, 32 11' N, 35 17' E.

Michri. [Mich'ri]

Ancestor of Elah, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 9:8.


This word occurs in the headings of Psalms 16; 56 - 60. Its meaning is uncertain. The margin of the A.V. reads 'a golden psalm.' Gesenius and others suppose the word michtam to be equivalent to miktab, which in Isa. 38:9 is translated 'writing,' hence a 'poem, psalm, song.' The LXX translates it 'a writing of David.'

Middin. [Mid'din]

City in the wilderness of Judah. Joshua 15:61.

Middle Wall.

The law which separated the Jews from the Gentiles is called a 'middle wall.' In the cross this was removed for believers, and both were made one, no longer remaining Jews or Gentiles. Christ formed the two into one new man, and thus made peace between them. Eph. 2:14-15.

Midian, [Mid'ian] Midianites. [Mid'ianites]

Son of Abraham and Keturah, and his descendants. Gen. 25:2-4. They were located far south, on the west of the Gulf of Akaba, and east of Mount Horeb. That they extended however much farther north is proved by the intercourse they had with the Israelites when in the land; unless, as some suppose, the term Midianites was not restricted to this tribe. Moses, when he fled from the king of Egypt, found shelter in Midian. Ex. 2:15-22.

The next reference to them is where they joined with Moab in soliciting Balaam to curse Israel when on the border of the land; and it was with the Midianites that Israel committed fornication. Num. 22:4, 7; Num. 25:6-18. Moses was told to make war with them, and we read that the Israelites slew all the males, burnt all their cities and goodly castles, and afterwards put the women to death; on which occasion Balaam also was slain. Num. 31:1-18.

During the time of the judges, because the Israelites had sinned against the Lord, He 'delivered them into the hand of Midian seven years;' but when, being greatly oppressed, they cried unto the Lord, He raised up Gideon and there was a great slaughter of the Midianites, 'so that they lifted up their heads no more' against Israel. Nothing is recorded of them during the time of the kingdom. Num. 10:29; Judges 6 — Judges 8; 1 Kings 11:18; Ps. 83:9-11; Isa. 9:4; Isa. 10:26; Isa. 60:6; Hab. 3:7. Midian is called MADIAN in Acts 7:29.


Those who assist at childbirth. God blessed the Hebrew midwives who would not obey the king of Egypt by killing the male infants. Women fill the same office in the East to this day. Gen. 35:17; Gen. 38:28; Ex. 1:15-21.

Migdalel.  [Mig'dal-el]

Fortified city in Naphtali. Joshua 19:38. Identified with Mujeidil, 33 14' N, 35 21' E

Migdalgad.  [Mig'dal-gad]

City in the lowlands of Judah. Joshua 15:37. Identified with el Mejdel 31 40' N, 34 35' E.

Migdol. [Mig'dol]

Place near to which the Israelites crossed the Red Sea. Ex. 14:2; Num. 33:7. Apparently distinct from another Migdol in the north of Egypt. Jer. 44:1; Jer. 46:14. In Ezek. 29:10, margin, 'from Migdol to Syene' implies from north to south of Egypt.

Migron. [Mig'ron]

Place near Gibeah where Saul encamped. 1 Sam. 14:2. It occurs again in Isa. 10:28, as on the Assyrian's line of march against Jerusalem.

Mijamin. [Mija'min]

1.  Head of the sixth course of priests. 1 Chr. 24:9.

2. Priest who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:7.

Mikloth. [Mik'loth]

1.  Son of Jehiel, father or prince of Gibeon. 1 Chr. 8:32; 1 Chr. 9:37-38.

2. Officer in David's army. 1 Chr. 27:4.

Mikneiah. [Miknei'ah]

Levite, musician and door-keeper. 1 Chr. 15:18, 21.

Milalai. [Milala'i]

One who assisted at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:36.

Milcah. [Mil'cah]

1.  Daughter of Haran, and wife of Nahor. Gen. 11:29; Gen. 22:20, 23; Gen. 24:15, 24, 47.

2. Daughter of Zelophehad. Num. 26:33; Num. 27:1; Num. 36:11; Joshua 17:3.

Milcom. [Mil'com]

The idol of the Ammonites, the worship of which was adopted by Solomon. Apparently identical with Molech. 1 Kings 11:5, 33; 2 Kings 23:13.



Miletum, [Mile'tum] Miletus. [Mile'tus]

An ancient city in Caria in Asia Minor, on or near the sea coast. It was here that Paul called for the elders of Ephesus (some thirty miles distant), and had his parting interview with them. Acts 20:15, 17; 2 Tim. 4:20.  By comparing the last named passage with Acts 20:4; Acts 21:29 it appears that Paul visited Miletus between his first and second imprisonments, but he may not have again seen the elders of Ephesus. Miletus was at one time a place of commerce, its ships going long voyages; but there are now but few relies of the place, about ten miles from the sea shore. It is now called Palattia, 37 30' N. 27 20' E.


This from cows, goats, sheep and camels is plentifully used in the East. It is drunk in its natural condition, or shaken up in a skin into a sour curdled state, called in scripture 'butter.' Flocks and herds were so numerous, and wild honey so plenteous, that the country was fitly called 'a land flowing with milk and honey.' Gen. 18:8; Ex. 3:8, 17; Ex. 23:19; Joel 3:18.  Milk is regarded as such a necessary article of sustenance that it is associated with wine to prefigure that which grace now supplies, without money and without price, and which will be supplied to Israel in a future day. Isa. 55:1. In the description of Israel's promised glory it is said, "Thou shalt also suck the milk of the Gentiles." Isa. 60:16. In the N.T. milk is a symbol of the sustenance of God's word, 1 Peter 2:2; and is also referred to as food for infants in contrast to the solid food used by adults. 1 Cor. 3:2; Heb. 5:12-13.

Mill, Millstone.

In the East these are usually small, every family having its own mill. A woman, or sometimes two sit at the mill, turning the upper stone, casting in the grain occasionally through a hole in it Larger mills are also referred to, the stone being turned by an ass. Num. 11:8; Matt. 18:6; Mark 9:42; Rev. 18:21-22.


dochan. Small seeds used as an ingredient in coarse bread or in pottage. Ezek. 4:9. The Hebrew word is held to embrace at least two species of millet, the Sorghum vulgare and the Panicum miliaceum.


This word signifies a thousand years, and usually refers to that period spoken of in Rev. 20. The first resurrection will have taken place before these years commence, the saints who have part in this resurrection will be priests of God and of Christ, and reign with Christ the thousand years. During that period Satan will be confined in the abyss, or bottomless pit. Rev. 20:1-6. These two facts prove that the millennium will not be brought about by any present or similar agency in connection with the gospel. Satan must be confined, and the first  resurrection must have taken place. See RESURRECTION. Other important events will also have occurred previously, namely, the judgements that must fall upon Judah and Israel before they can under God occupy the first place of earthly blessing in their own land, the nations being blessed through them. Jer. 30:4-9; Matt. 24:21-22. Blessing will follow the judgements. They will not speak then of having been brought out of Egypt, but from all countries whither God has driven them. Jer. 23:5-8. The reconciliation of Israel will be "life from the dead." Rom. 11:15.

The man of sin also must first be manifested, and, with the resuscitated Roman empire, be crushed. 2 Thess. 2:7-12; Rev. 13; Rev. 14.  From these, and from other particulars mentioned in scripture, it is clear that there will be a great and marvellous change before the millennium is established, and that change will not be limited to a spiritual change in man, as many suppose. The change will bring about a dispensation entirely different in character from that which now exists during the gathering out from the nations of a people for heavenly blessing. It will be characterised by a universal knowledge of Jehovah in relation to Israel. Jer. 31:34; Zech. 14:9. "All flesh shall know that I Jehovah am thy Saviour and thy Redeemer, the mighty One of Jacob." Isa. 49:26. The Lord Himself will reign over the earth in righteousness, and all the inhabitants of the world will learn righteousness. Ps. 72:8, 17; Isa. 11:5; Isa. 26:9.

The Spirit will be poured out on all flesh, and creation, now groaning and travailing in pain, will be delivered from the bondage of corruption. Rom. 8:19-22. "Instead of the thorn shall come up the fir tree, and instead of the brier shall come up the myrtle tree." Isa. 55:13: cf. Isa. 41:19. Things and natures, most opposed and diverse, will dwell together in peace. "The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice's den."  Isa. 11:6-8.

There will be universal peace and blessing all over the earth: instead of the invention of weapons of slaughter, the swords will be beaten into ploughshares. Isa. 2:4.

Thus the kingdom spoken of in Daniel 2:44 will be established on earth by the God of heaven, and it will consume all other kingdoms. It will be the kingdom of God in power, and the Lord Jesus will be acknowledged King of kings and Lord of lords. He will first reign as son of David, the man of war, and then, when all enemies of His people have been subdued, as Solomon, the man of peace.

Death, though not destroyed, will be swallowed up in victory. If one should die at a hundred years of age he will be considered an 'infant.' Isa. 65:20.

The throne of God and the Lamb will be in the new and heavenly Jerusalem, which descends from God out of heaven, and the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb will be the temple thereof. The glory of God lightens it, and the Lamb is the light thereof. The saved nations will walk in the light of it. Rev. 21:22-24.

As well as being the fulfilment of all God's promises to Israel, the millennium will be a trial of man under entirely new circumstances. And no sooner will Satan, released from his prison, go forth to deceive the nations, than he will be readily listened to. They will be gathered to attack Jerusalem, but only to meet with their own destruction. Rev. 20:7-9.


1.  'House of Millo,' in connection with Shechem, apparently a family or clan. Judges 9:6, 20.

2. A part of ancient Jerusalem, though afterwards said to be 'built' by Solomon; it was repaired by Hezekiah. The name always has the article, 'the Millo.' Various sites have been suggested for it, but its locality and its form are unknown. 2 Sam. 5:9; 1 Kings 9:15, 24; 1 Kings 11:27; 1 Chr. 11:8; 2 Chr. 32:5. In 2 Kings 12:20 Joash was slain in the 'house of Millo, which goeth down to Silla:' this may be another place, though apparently it was in Jerusalem.

Miniamin. [Minia'min]

1.  Levite in the days of Hezekiah. 2 Chr. 31:15.

2. Priest mentioned in Neh. 12:17; probably the same as MIAMIN in Neh. 12:5.

3. Priest who assisted at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:41.


The word commonly occurring in the O.T. is sharath, 'to minister, serve.' Joshua was Moses' minister. All God's hosts are called 'ministers of his, that do his pleasure,' and He maketh 'his ministers a flaming fire.' The priests were the ministers of Jehovah. Joshua 1:1; Ps. 103:21; Ps. 104:4; Joel 2:17. In the N.T. three words are used.

1. διάκονος. See DEACON.

2.  λειτουργός, a public servant,' one holding an official position. It is applied to the Lord; to angels; to Paul; and to magistrates. Rom. 13:6; Rom. 15:16; Heb. 1:7. Heb. 8:2.

3.  ὑπηρέτης, lit. 'under-rower,' and so an 'attendant' on, or 'assistant ' to a superior authority. Luke 1:2; Luke 4:20; Acts 13:5; Acts 26:16; 1 Cor. 4:1. It is also translated 'officer' and 'servant.'

Minni. [Min'ni]

Part of Armenia, mentioned in connection with Ararat. Jer. 51:27.

Minnith. [Min'nith]

Place on the east of the Jordan, mentioned anciently as four miles from Heshbon on the road to Philadelphia; but now unknown. Judges 11:33. Perhaps the same place is referred to in Ezek. 27:17, from whence wheat was sent to Tyre.


The word nagan signifies a player on a stringed instrument, a harpist, though used of players of any musical instrument. Elisha once when solicited to give advice asked for a minstrel to be brought, and 'when the minstrel played, the hand of the Lord came upon him.' 2 Kings 3:15. The minstrels mentioned in Matt. 9:23 were pipers or flute-players hired to assist in mourning.


ἡδύοσμον. One of the small herbs on which the Pharisees were careful to pay tithes. Matt. 23:23; Luke 11:42. There are several species of mint; the Mentha Sylvestris is common in Syria.

Miphkad. [Miph'kad]

One of the gates of Jerusalem when the walls were rebuilt on the return of the Jews from exile: its position is unknown. Neh. 3:31.


No sincere believer in the inspiration of scripture can have a doubt as to real miracles having been wrought by the power of God both in O.T. and N.T. times. It is philosophy so-called, or scepticism, that mystifies the subject. Much is said about 'the laws of nature;' and it is confidently affirmed that these are irrevocable and cannot be departed from. To which is added that laws of nature previously unknown are frequently being discovered, and if our forefathers could witness the application of some of the more recent discoveries, as the computer, mobile telephone, etc., they would judge that miracles were being performed. So, it is argued, the actions recorded in scripture as miracles, were merely the bringing into use some law of nature which had been hidden up to that time.

All this is based upon a fallacy. There are no laws of nature, as if nature made its own laws: there are laws in nature, which God in His wisdom as Creator was pleased to make; but He who made those laws has surely the same power to suspend them when He pleases. Though laws in nature hitherto unknown are being discovered from time to time, they in no way account for such things as dead persons being raised to life, the blind seeing, the deaf hearing, the lame walking, and demons being cast out of those who were possessed by them. Neither has natural philosophy discovered any law that will account for such a thing as an iron axe-head swimming in water. The simple truth is that God, for wise purposes, allowed some of the natural laws to be suspended, and at times He put forth His almighty power, as in supplying the Israelites with manna from heaven, and in feeding thousands from a few loaves and fishes, or by recalling life that had left the body.

The words translated 'miracle' in the O.T. are

1. oth, 'a sign,' as it is often translated, and in some places 'token.' Num. 14:22; Deut. 11:3.

2. mopheth, 'a wonder,' as it is mostly translated: it is something out of the ordinary course of events. Ex. 7:9; Deut. 29:3.

3. pala, 'wonderful, marvellous.' Judges 6:13.

Moses was enabled to work miracles for two distinct objects. One was in order to convince the children of Israel that God had sent him. God gave him three signs to perform before them: his rod became a serpent, and was again a rod; his hand became leprous, and was then restored; and he could turn the water of the Nile into blood. Ex. 4:1-9.

The other miracles, wrought by him in Egypt, were to show to Pharaoh the mighty power of God, who said, I will "multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt . . . . and the Egyptians shall know that I am Jehovah, when I stretch forth mine hand upon Egypt." Ex. 7:3-5. The ten plagues followed, which were miracles or signs of the power of God — signs not only to the Egyptians, but also to the Israelites, as is shown by the reference to them afterwards. Num. 14:22; Judges 6:13.

By the following list it will be seen that there were many other miracles wrought in O.T. times — by Moses in the wilderness; by the prophets in the land; and some through the direct agency of God from heaven, as the deliverance of the three from the fiery furnace, Daniel from the lions, etc. All the miracles were indeed the acts of God, His servants being merely the means through which they were carried out.

 In Egypt.
Aaron's rod becomes a serpent Ex. 7:10-12
 The Ten Plagues.
Water made blood  Ex. 7:20-25
Frogs  Ex. 8:5-14
Lice Ex. 8:16-18
Flies Ex. 8:20-24
Murrain   Ex. 9:3- 6
Boils and blains   Ex. 9:8-11
Thunder and hail   Ex. 9:22-26
Locusts   Ex. 10:12-19
Darkness   Ex. 10:21-23
Death of the Firstborn   Ex. 12:29-30
Parting of the Red Sea   Ex. 14:21-31
 In the Wilderness.
Curing the waters of Marah   Ex. 15:23-25
Manna from heaven Ex. 16:14-35
Water from the rock at Rephidim Ex. 17:5-7
Death of Nadab and Abihu Lev. 10:1- 2
The earth swallows the murmurers, and
 the death of Korah, Dathan and Abiram Num. 16:31-40
Budding of Aaron's rod at Kadesh Num. 17:8
Water from the rock at Meribah Num. 20:7-11
The brazen serpent: Israel healed  Num. 21:8- 9
Balaam's ass speaking  Num. 22:21-35
Parting the Jordan  Joshua 3:14-17
 In the Land.
Fall of Jericho's walls  Joshua 6:6-25
Staying of the sun and moon Joshua 10:12-14
Withering and cure of Jeroboam's hand 1 Kings 13:4- 6
Multiplying the widow's oil 1 Kings 17:14-16
Raising the widow's son1 Kings 17:17-24
Burning of the captains and their companies 2 Kings 1. 10-12
Dividing of Jordan by Elijah 2 Kings 2:7-8
Elijah carried to heaven 2 Kings 2:11
Dividing of Jordan by Elisha 2 Kings 2:14
Cure of the waters of Jericho 2 Kings 2:19-22
Supply of water to the army 2 Kings 3:16-20
Increase of the widow's oil 2 Kings 4:2-7
Raising the Shunammite's son 2 Kings 4:32-37
Healing of the deadly pottage 2 Kings 4:38-41
Feeding the 100 with 20 loaves 2 Kings 4:42-44
Cure of Naaman's leprosy 2 Kings 5:10-14
Swimming of the iron axe-head 2 Kings 6:5-7
Resurrection of the dead man on touching Elisha's bones 2 Kings 13:21
Return of the shadow on the dial 2 Kings 20:9-11
 Among the Gentiles
Deliverance of the three in the fiery furnace  Dan. 3:19-27
Deliverance of Daniel from the lions Dan. 6:16-23
Jonah saved by the great fish   Jonah 2:1-10

In the N.T. three Greek words are used, similar to those in the O.T.

1.  τέρας, 'a wonder,' which in the A.V. is always thus translated and often associated with the word 'signs:'  'signs and wonders.' People were generally amazed at the miracles performed.

2. σημεῖον, 'a sign.' This word is translated 'signs,'  'miracles,'  'wonder,' and in 2 Thess. 3:17 'token': it is the word invariably used in John's gospel.

3. δύναμις, 'power:' translated 'miracles,' 'mighty works,' 'powers.' These three divinely selected words explain the nature of miracles. They were 'wonders' that arrested the attention of the people; they were 'signs' that God had visited His people, and that the acts of the Lord Jesus identified Him with the promised Messiah; and they were 'powers,' for they were superhuman. These three words are applied to the miracles of the Lord Jesus in Acts 2:22; to those wrought by Paul, 2 Cor. 12:12; and to the work of Antichrist, the man of sin, in a future day. 2 Thess. 2:9.

The miracles by the Lord and His apostles were nearly all wrought for the welfare of men, curing them from the diseases of mind and body, and dispossessing them of demons, thus spoiling the kingdom of Satan. The cursing of the fig-tree differs from the others: it was a sign of God's judgement on the Jews. From the wording of several passages it is conclusive that not nearly all the miracles of the Lord are recorded. Mark 6:55-56; John 21:25.

It is stated in Mark 16:16-18 that those who should believe on the Lord Jesus, by the testimony of the apostles, would be able to work miracles; and there is ample testimony in early church history that this was the case, especially in casting out demons. Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, and Tertullian testified to the heathen persecutors that there was power in the name of Jesus to effect this, and the persecuting emperors were invited to witness it. While the Christians were being persecuted, such signs would be a visible evidence of the power of God and the value of the name of the Lord Jesus. By the time the emperors professed Christianity, followed by the masses (the 4th century), Christ had been well accredited on the earth: hence there was no further need of such signs. Satan in the days of the apostles had his counterfeits (cf. Acts 8:9; Acts 13:6-8; Acts 19:19), as he certainly has had since, and will have in the future, when he will be allowed to bring in his strong delusion: cf. Matt. 24:24; 2 Thess. 2:9-10; Rev. 13:13-14.

Though not called a miracle, is not the conversion of a sinner a miracle? It seems impossible for one who has been turned from darkness to light, and has been created in Christ Jesus, with the fruits and effects following, to doubt the reality of other miracles recorded by God in His sacred writings.

In the accompanying list of miracles in the N.T. it will be noticed that some are found in one gospel only — each of the gospels having miracles peculiar to itself — a few are in two gospels; many in three; and only one that is recorded in all four. None but God could have made these selections. Indeed the scriptures are themselves as clear a manifestation of the power and wisdom of God as are any of the miracles.


Principal Miracles of the New Testament

Two blind men cured - Matt. 9:27-31.
Dumb spirit cast out - Matt. 9:32-33.
Tribute money in mouth of fish - Matt. 17:24-27.
Deaf and dumb man cured - Mark 7:31-37.
Blind man cured - Mark 8:22-26.
Draught of fishes - Luke 5:1-11.
Widow's son raised - Luke 7:11-17.
Woman loosed from a spirit of infirmity - Luke 13:11-17.
The dropsy cured - Luke 14: l- 6.
Ten lepers cleansed - Luke 17:11-19.
Malchus' ear healed - Luke 22:50-51.
Water made wine - John 2:1-11
Nobleman's son cured - John 4:46-54.
Impotent man cured - John 5: l- 9
Man born blind cured - John 9: l- 7.
Lazarus raised from the dead - John 11:38-44.
Draught of 153 fishes - John 21:1-14.
Syro-Phoenician's daughter cured - Matt. 15:21-28; Mark 7:24-30.
Four thousand fed - Matt. 15:32-38; Mark 8: l- 9.
Fig tree withered - Matt. 21:18-22; Mark 11:12-24.
Centurion's servant cured - Matt. 8:5-13; Luke 7:1-10.
Blind and dumb demoniac cured - Matt. 12:22; Luke 11:14.
Demoniac in the synagogue cured - Mark 1:23-28; Luke 4:33-37.
Peter's wife's mother cured - Matt. 8:14-15; Mark 1:30-31; Luke 4:38-39.
Leper cured - Matt. 8:2- 4; Mark 1:40-45; Luke 5:12-15.
Paralytic cured - Matt. 9:2- 7; Mark 2:3-12; Luke 5:18-26.
Tempest stilled - Matt. 8:23-27; Mark 4:36-41; Luke 8:22-25.
Demoniacs cured at Gadara - Matt. 8:28-34; Mark 5:1-20; Luke 8:26-39.
Jairus' daughter raised - Matt. 9:18-26; Mark 5:22-43; Luke 8:41-56.
Woman's issue of blood cured - Matt. 9:20-22; Mark 5:25-34; Luke 8:43-48
Man's withered hand cured - Matt. 12:10-13; Mark 3: l- 5; Luke 6:6-11.
Demon cast out of boy - Matt. 17:14-18; Mark 9:14-27; Luke 9:37-42.
Blind men cured - Matt. 20:30-34; Mark 10:46-52; Luke 18:35-43.
Jesus walks on the sea - Matt. 14:24-33; Mark 6:47-51; John 6:16-21.
Five thousand fed - Matt. 14:15-21; Mark 6:35-44; Luke 9:12-17; John 6:5-14.

Miriam. [Mir'iam]

1.  Sister of Aaron and Moses: she is emphatically called 'Miriam the prophetess.' She was probably the sister who watched the ark in which her brother Moses was laid. In after years she headed the procession of women, when, with timbrels and dances, they answered the song of Moses, on their deliverance out of Egypt and through the Red Sea. With Aaron she took the lead in murmuring against Moses, on the plea that he had married an Ethiopian woman. Moses was very meek, but the Lord did not allow His servant, who was faithful in all God's house, and to whom He spake mouth to mouth, to be spoken against. God was angry with them and Miriam was smitten with leprosy, white as snow. Aaron humbled himself and confessed their sin, and Moses prayed for the restoration of Miriam. She was made to go outside the camp seven days. This rebellion was typical of Israel in the character of prophet and priest uniting against Christ as King. Miriam died at Kadesh and was buried there. Ex. 15:20-21; Num. 12:1-15; Num. 20:1; Num. 26:59; Deut. 24:9; Micah 6:4.

2. Son or daughter of one in the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:17.

Mirma. [Mir'ma]

Son of Shaharaim, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:10.



Misgab. [Mis'gab]

Place in Moab denounced by the prophet. Jer. 48:1. It reads 'high place' in the margin. Without the article the word is translated 'defence,'  'high fort,'  'refuge,' etc.

Mishael. [Mi'shael]

1.  Son of Uzziel, a son of Kohath. Ex. 6:22; Lev. 10:4.

2. One who stood by Ezra when he read the law. Neh. 8:4.

3. Name of one of Daniel's companions, changed to MESHACH, q.v. Dan. 1:6-19.

Mishal. [Mish'al]


Misham. [Mish'am]

Son of Elpaal, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:12.

Misheal. [Mish'eal]


Mishma. [Mish'ma]

1.  Son of Ishmael. Gen. 25:14; 1 Chr. 1:30.

2. Son of Mibsam, a descendant of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:25-26.

Mishmannah. [Mishman'nah]

Gadite who joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:10.

Mishraites. [Mish'raites]

One of the families of Kirjath-jearim. 1 Chr. 2:53.

Mispereth. [Misper'eth]

One who returned from exile. Neh. 7:7. Called MIZPAR in Ezra 2:2.

Misrephothmaim.  [Mis'rephoth-maim]

City in connection with Zidon. Joshua 11:8; Joshua 13:6. Identified with Sarafend, 33 28' N, 35 17' E.



Mithcah. [Mith'cah]

Place where the Israelites encamped. Num. 33:28-29.

Mithnite. [Mith'nite]

Designation of Jehoshaphat, one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:43.

Mithredath. [Mith'redath]

1.  Treasurer of Cyrus king of Persia. Ezra 1:8.

2. Persian officer who opposed the rebuilding of the temple. Ezra 4:7.


The head-dress of the high priest. It was made of fine linen: to it was fastened by a lace of blue "the plate of the holy crown of pure gold," on which was engraved "Holiness to the Lord." This plate came across the forehead. The mitre was emblematical of the upholding of purity, righteousness and holiness by the Lord Jesus as the Minister of the sanctuary, or holy place. Ex. 28:4, 37, 39; Ex. 29:6; Ex. 39:28, 31; Lev. 8:9; Lev. 16:4.

The word is mitsnepheth, and (translated 'diadem') occurs again in a remarkable reference to the "profane wicked prince of Israel," which, though referring to the then king, Zedekiah, seems to point to the future Antichrist in conjunction with the Roman beast, for he is represented as wearing the mitre and the crown, which shall be removed. God will overturn, overturn, "until he come whose right it is: and I will give it him." Ezek. 21:25-27. With this agrees Isa. 28:5: "In that day shall the Lord of hosts be for a crown of glory, and for a 'mitre ' of beauty, unto the residue of his people." In Zech. 3:1-8, where Joshua the high priest, as a representative of the people, is delivered from the resistance of Satan, and is cleansed, a fair mitre (tsaniph, a kindred word to the above) is set upon his head, and he is clothed with garments. The Lord Jesus as the BRANCH comes forth, and blessing follows.

Mitylene. [Mityle'ne]

Capital city of Lesbos, an island in the AEgean Sea. Acts 20:14. The island and the city are both now called Mitylene: 39 7' N, 26 30' E.

Mizar. [Miz'ar]

Probably one of the lesser mountains near Hermon, or, if not a proper name, it may be read 'the little hill' as in the margin. Ps. 42:6.

Mizpah, [Miz'pah] Mizpeh. [Miz'peh]

1.  The place where Jacob and Laban parted, after making a covenant and raising a heap of stones as a witness of the covenant and as a landmark between them. It was on the east of the Jordan, somewhere in Gilead. Gen. 31:49; Judges 10:17; Judges 11:11, 29, 34. It is probably the place mentioned in Judges 20:1, 3; Judges 21:1, 5, 8. Some suppose it to be identical with RAMATH-MIZPEH in Joshua 13:26; and this to be the same as RAMOTH-GILEAD. Others judge these to be all different places and that No. 1 is identified with Suf, 32 18' N, 35 50' E.

2. LAND OF MIZPEH, the resort of the Hivites, who joined with Jabin to attack Joshua. It was 'under Hermon,' and therefore in the north of Palestine, Joshua 11:3; this is possibly the same as

3. VALLEY OF MIZPEH to which Joshua chased the allies. Joshua 11:8. Probably the extensive valley on the east of Mount Lebanon.

4. Town in the lowlands of Judah. Joshua 15:38. Not identified.

5. City of Moab, where David placed his parents for safety. 1 Sam. 22:3. Not identified.

6. City of Benjamin, in the vicinity of Ramah and Gibeon. Joshua 18:26. It was the city to which Samuel gathered the people, as 'to the Lord,' and where he judged Israel, and where also he presented Saul to them as their king. 1 Sam. 7:5-16; 1 Sam. 10:17. The city was rebuilt by Asa king of Judah, and, after the destruction of Jerusalem, Gedaliah the governor established himself there. 1 Kings 15:22; 2 Kings 25:23, 25; 2 Chr. 16:6; Jer. 40:6-15; Jer. 41:1-16; Hosea 5:1. Probably the same place is alluded to in Neh. 3:7, 15, 19.  Identified by some with Neby Samwil, 31 50' N, 35 10' E.

Mizpar, [Miz'par]


Mizpeh. [Miz'peh]


Mizraim. [Miz'raim]

Son of Ham, and the name of his descendants and also of the country possessed by them. Its signification is much disputed. The Hebrew word is really Mitzraim and is given in the A.V. untranslated only in Gen. 10:6, 13; 1 Chr. 1:8, 11. Elsewhere it is translated EGYPT. The word is in a dual form, occasioned, it has been thought, by the division of that land into Upper and Lower Egypt. The word Matzor, of which Mitzraim is the dual, occurs many times and is variously translated in the A.V. In 2 Kings 19:24; Isa. 37:25 it is 'besieged places;' in Isa. 19:6, 'defence;' and in Jer. 10:17, 'fortress.' But it is a proper name and refers to Egypt. The Revisers and others translate it Egypt in all passages.

Mizzah. [Miz'zah]

Son of Reuel and a duke of Edom. Gen. 36:13, 17; 1 Chr. 1:37.

Mnason. [Mna'son]

An aged disciple of Cyprus who accompanied Paul from Caesarea to Jerusalem, and with whom Paul lodged. Acts 21:16.

Moab, [Mo'ab] Moabites. [Mo'abites]

Son of Lot and his eldest daughter; his descendants; and the land which they inhabited. Gen. 19:37. No account is given of Moab personally. The territory of his descendants was on the east of the Salt Sea. When the tribe of Reuben obtained their possession, their boundary on the south was the river Arnon, which river was the northern boundary of the Moabites, for they had been driven south by the Amorites before the arrival of Israel. Num. 21:11-30. When the Israelites approached the promised land they were directed not to distress nor contend with Moab, Deut. 2:9, so they passed to the east of them. The Moabites were however filled with terror when they heard that the Amorites had been smitten, and Balak their king hired Balaam to curse Israel. Balaam was compelled by God to bless them instead of cursing them, but he gave to Balak the fatal advice to try to weaken them by seductive alliances (which would cause them to fall under the Lord's discipline), and this, alas, was only too successful: cf. Rev. 2:14. It was in a valley in the land of Moab that Moses was secretly buried. Deut. 34:6.

In the time of the judges God used Eglon king of Moab to punish Israel, and they served the Moabites eighteen years; but when they cried unto the Lord, He delivered them, and ten thousand of the Moabites were slain. Judges 3:12-30. The relations of Israel with the Moabites were varied. In the prophecy of Isaiah 16 Moab is characteristic of the world in which outcast Israel is hidden: Elimelech and Naomi fled thither from the famine, and David, when Saul was persecuting him, entrusted to their king his father and mother. During his subsequent reign David defeated them and made them tributary. 1 Sam. 22:3-4; 2 Sam. 8:2; 1 Chr. 18:2.

In the time of Jehoshaphat the children of Moab, Ammon and mount Seir attacked Judah, but God made the battle His own and caused them to attack one another. 2 Chr. 20:1-23. During Ahab's reign they were again tributary, but at his death they threw off their allegiance, but were completely subdued by the united forces of Israel, Judah and Edom. In desperation the king of Moab offered up his eldest son as a sacrifice. 2 Kings 3:4-27. They revived to some extent, but were again subdued by Nebuchadnezzar. Jer. 27:1-11.

Ruth was a MOABITESS, and so also were some of Solomon's wives, for whom he introduced into Jerusalem the worship of Chemosh the idol of Moab. 2 Kings 23:13. The Moabites were not allowed to be received into the congregation of the Lord for ever. Deut. 23:3. The numerous ruins extant in the country of the Moabites show that it was once populously occupied, and it must have been wealthy to have annually paid Israel 100,000 lambs and 100,000 rams with the wool.

Moab is denounced in the prophets: it had reproached God's people, and He declared that it should be as Sodom, as the breeding of nettles and saltpits, and a perpetual desolation. Zeph. 2:8-9. This is its state at present. In the future the king of the north shall enter "into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon," Dan. 11:40-41; these will be left for Israel to punish: cf. Isa. 11:14.

THE MOABITE STONE. In connection with Moab an interesting monument was discovered in 1868 at Dibon (Dhiban) in the land of Moab. It was a stone 3ft. 10in. by 2ft., and contained 34 lines of inscription in the Phoenician character. When the Arabs discovered that two or three nations were desirous of possessing the stone they thought they should gain more by breaking it into pieces: a fire was kindled beneath it, and, when heated, cold water was poured on the top, which broke it. Eventually about two thirds of these pieces were obtained, and are now in the Museum of the Louvre in Paris: a paper cast is in the British Museum. A paper impression had been taken of the stone before it was broken, which, with the pieces recovered, renders it possible to give a nearly complete translation of the inscription.

It is dedicated to Chemosh, the god of Moab, by Mesha. He admits that Chemosh was angry with his land, and that Omri king of Israel took it, and he and his son oppressed them forty years. Then Chemosh had mercy on it, and the king was able to rescue some of the cities, kill the people, and take the spoil, and he built others, of which he gives the names. There can be no doubt that the Mesha of the stone is the same as the Mesha, of scripture. The son of Omri would be Ahab; and in 2 Kings 3:5 it says that on the death of Ahab the king of Moab rebelled against the king of Israel. Ahaziah succeeded Ahab, but it was not he that attacked Moab: his reign (called two years) and the beginning of the reign of Jehoram, would give Mesha time to strengthen himself against Israel and attack some of the outlying cities. Scripture is thus confirmed by this interesting monument.

Moadiah. [Moadi'ah]

Priest who returned from exile. Neh. 12:17. Probably the same as MAADIAH in Neh. 12:5.

Moladah. [Mola'dah]

City in the south of Judah: it was inhabited on the return from exile. Joshua 15:26; Joshua 19:2; 1 Chr. 4:28; Neh. 11:26.  Identified by some with the ruins at Tell el Milh, 31 13' N, 35 1' E.


1.  tinshemeth. An animal classed among the unclean, but it is not known definitely what animal is meant by the Hebrew word. It is probably the chameleon, which is adopted in the R.V. It is placed with the lizard and the snail. Lev. 11:30. In two places the same word is translated 'swan.' Lev. 11:18; Deut. 14:16.

2. chapharperah. This is by most identified with the mole-rat, the spalax typhlus. It is very like a mole: it burrows under the earth and turns up mounds, but it is of a different order from the true mole. These mole-rats have been found in Palestine; they inhabit ruins and stone-heaps, and come out in the night. They may be well classed with the bats to which the idols will be cast in a future day. Isa. 2:20.

Molech. [Mo'lech]

This is the Fire-god, 'the abomination of Ammon.' In the latter days of Solomon, when the heathen women whom he had married had turned away his heart after other gods, he built a high place in the hill before (that is, 'east of') Jerusalem for Molech. The Israelites sacrificed their children to this idol. Passing their children through the fire might seem to imply that they were dedicated to the idol by being rapidly passed through a fire without being burnt, and this may have been done, but some passages do not admit of this interpretation. Of the Canaanites it is said, "their sons and their daughters have they burnt in the fire to their gods," Deut. 12:31; and of Israel it is recorded, they have "caused their sons, whom they bare unto me, to pass for them through the fire, to devour them, . . . . for when they had slain their children to their idols, then they came the same day into my sanctuary to profane it." Ezek. 23:37, 39; Lev. 18:21; Lev. 20:2-5; 1 Kings 11:7; 2 Kings 23:10; Jer. 32:35.

The expression 'the tabernacle of your Molech,' Amos 5:26, is quoted in Acts 7:43-44. The Israelites had not worshipped Jehovah for forty years in the wilderness; but they had carried symbols of Molech and Chiun (or Remphan) and worshipped them. The root of their idolatrous course was that they had never in heart made a clean break from Egypt.

Molid. [Mo'lid]

Son of Abishur and Abihail. 1 Chr. 2:29.

Moloch. [Mo'loch]


Molten Image.



Mention is made of money as early as Gen. 17:12-13, where persons are said to be 'bought with money;' and from Genesis to Zechariah it is spoken of as being not counted, but weighed, which would give the true value of the precious metals in the form of rings or in odd pieces of gold or silver. The names Gerah, Bekah, Shekel, Maneh, and Talent, being used for weights as well as money, the two are better considered together. See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

On the return of the Jews, B.C. 536, Persian money was used by them. This would be followed by Greek money when they were under the dominion of the Greeks. Antiochus VII about B.C. 140, granted permission to Simon Maccabeus to coin Jewish money. Shekels were coined bearing a pot of manna and an almond rod. Under the Romans, Roman money was used.


These were persons who supplied those who came from a distance to Jerusalem, to pay the regular tax to the temple, with a half-shekel, in exchange for any money they might possess. The Lord's language to such, when He drove them out of the temple, seems to imply that they took unfair advantage in the exchanges. Matt. 21:12; Mark 11:15.

Monster, Sea.

The Hebrew word is tannin, and is used for any huge creature whether of sea or land. Lam. 4:3. The word is also translated 'whales,' 'dragons,' and 'serpents.'


The months were reckoned by the Jews from the moon. From new moon to new moon is about 29½ days, and to suit this period their months consisted alternately of 29 and 30 days; thus 12 months would amount to only 354 days; being 11¼ days short of a solar year. This reckoning would soon have thrown out some of their festivals because they were connected with the first-fruits of the barley and wheat harvest. Every three years a month had to be added, and this was called Ve-adar, the 'added Adar.' There were two periods for the year to commence: one called the Civil year, and the other the Sacred. The Israelites were brought out of Egypt in the month Abib, and that was to be the beginning of the year to them. Ex. 12:2; Ex. 13:4. This agrees with the sacred order, and all through the O.T. when the name of a month is given, its position in the year agrees with this arrangement. See 1 Kings 6:1; Esther 3:7, 13; Esther 8:12; Esther 9:1, Zech. 1:7; Zech.7:1. It is remarkable that the Jews now begin their year on the first day of Tisri (in September),which stands the first month of the civil year.

The months of Tammuz and Ab are not mentioned in scripture. The names in italics are used by Josephus and others. See SEASONS and YEAR.

Table of Jewish Months
Civil  Sacred
Year  Year
    7   1   Abib or Nisan.  30 days.
    8   2   Zif or Iyar.  29 days.
    9   3   Sivan.  30 days.
  10   4   Tammuz.   29 days.
  11   5   Ab.    30 days.
  12   6   Elul.    29 days.
    1   7   Ethanim or Tisri.     30 days.
    2   8   Bul or Marchesvan. 29 days.
    3   9   Chisleu.  30 days.
    4  10   Tebeth.   29 days.
    5  11   Sebat.    30 days.
    6  12   Adar.    29 days.


This word is often used in reference to ancient kingdoms, when the term simply signifies any memorial or inscription, embracing those found on bricks or tiles, equally with those found on tombs, or stately columns, or papyrus rolls.


At the creation the 'lesser light' was to rule the night. Its brilliancy is seen much more in the east than in the west, and its light is more appreciated in the former, especially when the heat of the day necessitates travelling by night. The NEW MOON among the Israelites was a festival: it was watched for on the hills, and as soon as it was seen, it was ushered in by sound of trumpet. Num. 10:10; 1 Chr. 23:31; Ps. 81:3; Ezek. 45:17; Col. 2:16: cf. 1 Sam. 20:5, 18, 24.

The Israelites were warned against worshipping the moon as well as the sun and stars. Deut. 4:19; Deut. 17:3: cf. Job 31:26-28. Of Israel, in the time of Hoshea and of Manasseh it is said they worshipped 'all the host of heaven.' 2 Kings 17:16; 2 Kings 21:3, 5. Jeremiah also states that in Judah and Jerusalem cakes were made to the QUEEN OF HEAVEN, which is commonly supposed to refer to the moon, worshipped as Astarte. Then when the residue of the people had gone into Egypt, they declared that in spite of the prophet's warning they would burn incense to the Queen of Heaven, and pour out drink offerings unto her. Jer. 7:18; Jer. 44:17-19, 25.

There will be SIGNS IN THE MOON as well as in the sun when the time of God's dire judgement has arrived. Joel 2:10, 31; Luke 21:25; Rev. 6:12. As a symbol the moon is used in prophecy to signify derivative authority, the sun being the supreme source of heavenly rule.

Morasthite. [Mo'rasthite]

Designation of Micah the prophet. Jer. 26:18; Micah 1:1. The name signifies 'a man of Moresheth.'

Mordecai. [Mor'decai]

1.  One who returned from exile. Ezra 2:2; Neh. 7:7.

2. A Benjamite, first cousin of Esther, queen of Ahasuerus, who, being an orphan, had been brought up by him. All that is known of his history is contained in the book of Esther. Though a captive he had liberty to sit at the gate of the palace, and when Haman was promoted, the faith of Mordecai shines out in that he refused to bow to Haman an Agagite, even at the command of the king. His reason is not given, but it was doubtless because Haman was an Amalekite, upon whom the curse of God rested. Saul was told to utterly destroy them, even to the asses. Ex. 17:14, 16; Deut. 25:19; 1 Sam. 15:3.  Mordecai, by this action, put his life in danger because of the position of Haman; but, though warned, he was staunch in his refusal.

This led to Haman's plotting in his pride, the destruction, not of Mordecai only, but of the Jews generally. God, however, was watching over His people, and when the right moment came, He wrought deliverance. He caused that the king should not sleep, and that the records should be read to him, which brought Mordecai's unrequited service to remembrance. The proud Agagite had to lead him, seated on the king's horse, through the city, and proclaim him as one whom the king delighted to honour. The fall of Haman rapidly followed, and the raising of Mordecai into power. Thus did God honour the faith of one of His people, though they were in captivity. The plot against the Jews was nullified and they became the victors, as it will be in a future day when God's set time has arrived. Mordecai was promoted to high honour and was next to the king; he sought the wealth of his people, 'speaking peace to all his seed.'

Moreh, [Mo'reh] Hill of.

Place where the Midianites encamped before they were attacked by Gideon. Judges 7:1. It is supposed to have been what is now called Neby Duhy, or 'Little Hermon,' 32 37' N, 35 20' E. It is 1,690 feet high.

Moreh, [Mo'reh] Plain of.

The Hebrew signifies the 'oak, or oaks, of Moreh.' It was near Shechem, where Abram first pitched his tent on entering Canaan, and where the Lord appeared to him. Gen. 12:6; Deut. 11:30.

Moreshethgath.  [Mo'resheth-gath]

A name occurring only in Micah 1:14; mentioned along with towns in the lowlands of Judah.

Moriah. [Mori'ah]

The land in which was situated the mount on which Abraham was told to offer his son Isaac. Gen. 22:2. The name of the mountain is not recorded. On the third day after leaving Beer-sheba, Abraham saw the mount afar off, and it was doubtless some lonely spot suitable for such an incident. The Jews say it was the mount bearing this name in Jerusalem. The Samaritans and some modern authorities judge it to have been Gerizim; but it is unknown.

Moriah, [Mori'ah] Mount.

The mount on which the temple was built: once only is it thus designated. 2 Chr. 3:1. It was the place previously occupied by the threshing floor of Araunah. Its site is now very generally believed to be on the S.E. of Jerusalem, where there is a large plain, called the 'temple area,' formed by stones being built into the sides of the rock. It is also called the 'mosque enclosure,' because the mosque of Omar is built thereon.


The monuments of Egypt show that anciently, as now, stone mortars with stone pestles were used for pounding hard seeds. The manna was ground in mills or beaten in a mortar. Num. 11:8. Though by this means the seeds were pounded very small, yet even such treatment would not cure a fool of his folly: it shows the incorrigible nature of him who despises wisdom and instruction. Prov. 27:22.


This is spoken of as early as Gen. 11:3, in reference to building the tower of Babel: they used brick for stone and slime for morter. In other places it seems to have been employed more for plastering the walls, morter not being so much needed when the buildings were of stone. Lev. 14:42, 45. The rigorous labour of the Israelites in Egypt was in preparing morter as well as making bricks. Ex. 1:14. Morter was made by treading the clay. Nahum 3:14. The work of the false prophets who prophesied peace to Jerusalem when God threatened to bring judgement is compared to building a wall and daubing it with untempered [morter]: God's wind would blow down the wall. Ezek. 13:10-15. This teaches a needed lesson that all that is built for God must be built with God's materials, otherwise it will not stand: cf. 1 Cor. 3:11-15.

Mortgage, to.

On the return of the Jews from exile, there were many poor, and in order to get food they borrowed money on their land, which gave the lender a claim on the property, even as mortgages are now negotiated. The money was lent by rich Jews, and Nehemiah was very angry at their exacting usury and strongly condemned them. They ought to have given sustenance to their poorer brethren. Neh. 5:3.

Mosera, [Mose'ra] Moseroth. [Mose'roth]

One of the encampments of Israel, connected with Mount Hor, where Aaron died and was buried. Deut. 10:6; Num. 33:30-31. See WANDERINGS.

Moses. [Mo'ses]

Son of Amram and Jochebed, of the tribe of Levi, brother of Aaron and Miriam. He was born after the mandate by the king that all male children of the Hebrews were to be killed, but his parents by faith hid him three months, and when he could no longer be hidden he was put in an ark of bulrushes and placed among the reeds in the river. Being found there by Pharaoh's daughter he was named by her MOSES, signifying 'drawn out,' and adopted as her son, being nursed for her by his own mother. He became learned in all the wisdom of Egypt, and was mighty in words and deeds.

When forty years of age he visited his brethren, and seeing one ill-used he defended him, and slew the Egyptian; but the next day, on seeing two of the Israelites contending, he reminded them that they were brethren, and would have judged between them; but the wrong-doer repulsed him, and asked whether he would kill him as he had killed the Egyptian. Moses, finding that his deed was known, feared the wrath of the king, and fled from Egypt. He had acted with zeal, but without divine direction, and had therefore to become a fugitive for forty years (being the second period of forty years of his life, as the forty years in the wilderness was the third). In the land of Midian he married Zipporah, daughter of Jethro, the priest of Midian, by whom he had two sons.

At the end of the forty years God spoke to him out of the burning bush, telling him to go and deliver Israel out of the hand of the Egyptians. He who had once used an arm of flesh is now conscious of his own nothingness, but learns that God would be with him. He is to make known to the people the name of Jehovah, and to attest his mission, as sent by the God of their fathers, by doing certain signs in their sight.

No trace of timidity is apparent in his dealings with Pharaoh, he boldly requests him to let the people go into the wilderness to sacrifice to Jehovah; but Pharaoh refused and made the burdens of the Israelites greater. Ten plagues followed, when the Egyptians themselves, on the death of all their firstborn, were anxious for them to depart.

God constantly spoke to Moses and gave him instructions in all things. Though Aaron was the elder brother, Moses had the place of leader and apostle. He conducted them out of Egypt, and through the Red Sea. He led the song of triumph when they saw their enemies dead on the sea shore. The N.T. declares that it was by faith he refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter, choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God. He forsook Egypt, not now fearing the wrath of the king, for he endured as seeing Him who is invisible. Heb. 11:24-27.

Moses needed such faith, for the murmurings and rebellion of the people were great, and they charged him with causing their trials: why had he brought them out to perish in the wilderness? When God's anger was kindled against them, he pleaded for them. When God spake of consuming all the people, and making a great nation of Moses, he besought God to turn from His anger, urging what a reproach it would be for the Egyptians to say that He had led them out only to slay them; and he reminded God of what He had sworn to His servants Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. He thus acted as intercessor with God for the people. Ex. 32:7-13.

When Miriam and Aaron complained of Moses because he had married an Ethiopian woman, and said, "Hath the Lord indeed spoken only by Moses? hath he not spoken also by us?" it does not appear that Moses rebuked them; but on that very occasion it is recorded, "Now the man Moses was very meek, above all the men which were upon the face of the earth." God had, however, heard them, and He defended Moses, and declared, He "is faithful in all mine house. With him will I speak mouth to mouth, even apparently, and not in dark speeches." Num. 12:1-8.

When Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, and their company rose against Moses and Aaron, 'he fell on his face,' and left the matter in God's hands. "Even to-morrow the Lord will show who are his and who is holy;" and they were all consumed. Num. 16:1-35. God also called Moses up into the mount, dictated to him the law, gave him the ten commandments written on stone by the finger of God, and showed him the pattern of the tabernacle. He was the mediator, that is, he received all communications from God for the people. He was also called 'King in Jeshurun' (or Israel), Deut. 33:5; and was a prophet of a unique type. Deut. 34:10.

In one instance Moses failed. When without water, God told him to take the rod (namely, that of priesthood), and speak to the rock, and water would come forth. Moses took "the rod from before the Lord as he commanded him," and with Aaron said unto the people, "Hear now, ye rebels; must we fetch you water out of this rock? And Moses lifted up his hand, and with his rod he smote the rock twice: and the water came out abundantly." Moses then had to hear the voice of God saying "Because ye believed me not, to sanctify me in the eyes of the children of Israel, therefore ye shall not bring this congregation into the land which I have given them." It was called the water of Meribah, that is 'strife.' Num. 20:7-13. After this Moses besought the Lord saying "I pray thee, let me go over, and see the good land that is beyond Jordan, that goodly mountain, and Lebanon." But the Lord told him to speak no more to Him of that matter. He was to go up to the top of Pisgah, and view the land. There the Lord showed him all the land: after which he died in the land of Moab, over against Beth-peor; but no man knew where. He "was an hundred and twenty years old when he died: his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated." Deut. 3:25-27; Deut. 34:1-7.

In the N.T. it is said respecting the body of Moses that Michael, the archangel, contended with the devil about it, the object of Satan probably being to make his tomb to be regarded as a holy place, to which the people would go for blessing, as people do still to the tombs of saints. Jude 9.

The law having been given through Moses, his name is often used where the law is alluded to; and Moses is mentioned by the Apostle John when contrasting the dispensations of the law and the gospel: "The law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ." John 1:17. The fact of the two dispensations being entirely different furnishes the reason why Moses was not allowed to enter into Canaan. That being a type of the heavenly blessings of Christianity, it would not have agreed with Moses, as the dispenser of the law, leading the Israelites into the land: that must be done by JOSHUA, type of Christ risen. Moses had his proper line of service, and was greatly honoured of God. He was faithful in that service amid great discouragements and trials; he was faithful in all God's house. On the mount of transfiguration Moses still represented the law, as Elias did the prophets.

That Moses was the writer of the first five books of the O.T., called the Pentateuch, there are many proofs in scripture; such as "have ye not read in the book of Moses?" Mark 12:26; "If they hear not Moses and the prophets," Luke 16:31; Luke 24:27;  "When Moses is read," 2 Cor. 3:15. Of course the section where his death is recorded was added by a later hand. When the inspiration of scripture is fully held, God is known as the author of His word, and it becomes a secondary question who was the instrument that God used to write down what He wished to be recorded. Respecting some of the books of scripture we know not who wrote them; but that in no way touches their inspiration. It is plain, however, from the above and other passages that Moses was the writer of the Pentateuch, which is often called "the law of Moses."


Any small particle or splinter. It is used to illustrate small failings in contrast to larger faults, called 'beams.' The Lord Jesus was exposing the hypocrisy of those who see and magnify small faults in others, and pass over greater ones in themselves, Matt. 7:3-5; Luke 6:41-42.


ash, σής. This is the clothes-moth (one of the Tineae), the destructive ravages of which are well known. In the East garments were kept in larger quantities, as property and for presents, as when Naaman the Syrian brought 'changes of garments' as a present to Elisha, of which Gehazi obtained two. 2 Kings 5:22-23. Moths do not attack the clothing that is worn; but they lay their eggs in what is laid up, in which the young find their food. From this the lesson is drawn to lay up treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust can corrupt or destroy. Job 13:28. Ps. 39:11; Isa. 51:8; Matt. 6:19-20; James 5:2.


The law commanded that honour was to be paid to a mother as well as to a father. In nearly all cases the mothers of the kings of Israel are mentioned as well as the fathers. The wise woman who appealed to Joab as 'a mother in Israel,' was at once listened to. 2 Sam. 20:19. A mother has naturally great influence over her children, whether for good or evil, as Jochebed the mother of Moses, and Jezebel the mother of Athaliah. The children of the virtuous woman arise and call her blessed. Prov. 31:28. Timothy had a faithful mother and grandmother. 2 Tim. 1:5. There are also 'mothers' in the church, who have the Lord's interests at heart in the welfare of the saints, as Paul called the mother of Rufus his own mother also. Rom. 16:13.

Mount, Mountain.

The ordinary word for this is har, which is employed both for the mountain ranges, some of which run through Palestine from north to south, and also for the higher mountains that rise upon those ranges or on the plains. Thus in 2 Chr. 13:4 it says "Mount Zemaraim, which is in mount Ephraim," which means that mount Zemaraim was situated in the hill-country of Ephraim. Mount Ephraim does not refer to any particular mountain; but to the range of hills, or hill country in Ephraim, extending from Bethel to the plains of Jezreel. In like manner there are parts that can be called hill-country throughout all the land, as in Joshua 13:6; Luke 1:39, 65. Each of the mountains is considered under its own name.


It was the habit of the Hebrews, as it still is in the East, to make a great demonstration of their mourning. They would beat their breasts, cover their heads, fast, put dust and ashes on their heads, neglect their hair, wear dull-coloured garments, rend their clothes, wear sackcloth, etc. For Asa and Zedekiah there was 'great burning' of odours at their death, which was most probably copied from the heathen. 2 Chr. 16:14; Jer. 34:5. At a death professional mourners were hired, mostly women. "Call for the mourning women . . . . let them make haste, and take up a wailing for us, that our eyes may run down with tears, and our eyelids gush out with waters." Jer. 9:17-18; cf. 2 Sam. 14:2; Amos 5:16. Musicians also attended at deaths, who played mournful strains. Matt. 9:23. God does not desire those who are bereaved to be without feeling: the Lord wept at the grave of Lazarus, but He would have reality in all things. He had to say to His people, "Rend your heart, and not your garments." Joel 2:13.


akbar. The Hebrew word refers to some species of rodent, and the word may include the field mouse, the hamster, and the jerboa, all of which are found in Palestine, and are very destructive to the crops. They were forbidden for food as unclean. Lev. 11:29; Isa. 66:17. When the Philistines returned the ark, they sent as a trespass offering images of their emerods, and images of the mice that 'marred the land.' 1 Sam. 6:4-18.

Moza. [Mo'za]

1. Son of Caleb, the son of Hezron. 1 Chr. 2:46.

2. Son of Zimri, a descendant of Saul. 1 Chr. 8:36-37; 1 Chr. 9:42-43.

Mozah. [Mo'zah]

City in Benjamin. Joshua 18:26. Identified with ruins at Beit Mizza, 31 49' N, 35 9' E.


Mentioned among the women's ornaments in Isa. 3:19. The word is raal, which is translated 'trembling' in Zech. 12:2. It is supposed to refer to some light ornament that would flutter on the wearer's movements. The margin renders it 'spangled ornaments.' Gesenius has 'veils.'

Mulberry Tree.

The word baka is supposed to be from a root signifying 'weeping,' and to refer to some tree that distils an odoriferous gum; but what tree is alluded to is unknown. David was to wait for some secret sign from God in the mulberry trees before attacking the enemy. 2 Sam. 5:23-24; 1 Chr. 14:14-15; Ps. 84:6 margin. The true mulberry is supposed to be the tree called in the A.V. SYCAMINE, q.v.


1.  pered. The first reference to this animal is in the time of David: his sons rode upon mules. David had his own mule, upon which Solomon was made to ride when he was proclaimed king. Mules were among the animals that were brought as presents by the nations to Solomon. They were also imported to Tyre. It would appear from Lev. 19:19 that the Israelites were forbidden to breed them. 2 Sam. 13:29; 2 Sam. 18:9; 1 Kings 1:33, 38, 44; 1 Kings 10:25; Ps. 32:9; Isa. 66:20; Ezek. 27:14; Zech. 14:15.

2. rekesh. This was probably a swift horse on which despatches were sent. Esther 8:10, 14. The word is once translated 'dromedary,' 1 Kings 4:28; and once 'swift beast.' Micah 1:13.

3. yemim. This is acknowledged to be wrongly rendered in the A.V.: it is translated 'hot springs,' by the Revisers and others. Gen. 36:24.


Fortress, stronghold. Isa. 29:7; Isa. 33:16; Nahum 2:1.

Muppim. [Mup'pim]

Son of Benjamin. Gen. 46:21. Apparently called SHUPHAM in Num. 26:39.


The first death was caused by murder when Cain slew his brother Abel, and the second recorded is when Lamech said, "I have slain a man to my wounding," or "for my wound;" which may mean that he did it in self-defence. Gen. 4:23. God set a mark upon Cain that none should kill him; and Lamech said, "If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold." After the flood God made a definite law concerning murder. God would require expiation for the blood of man, whether it was shed by beast or by man; at the hand of every man's brother, or kinsman, God would require the life of man. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man." Gen. 9:5-6. This injunction was repeated in the law, and has never been rescinded or modified. Neither does the N.T. in any way alter it: indeed it incidentally confirms it by declaring that the magistrate does not bear the sword in vain. Rom. 13:4. God claims the life of man, and none can set aside His rights.


The word is deber, commonly translated 'pestilence,' which is its meaning. Ex. 9:3.

Mushi, [Mu'shi] Mushites. [Mu'shites]

Son of Merari, and his descendants. Ex. 6:19; Num. 3:20, 33; Num. 26:58; 1 Chr. 6:19, 47; 1 Chr. 23:21, 23; 1 Chr. 24:26, 30.

Music, Musicians, Musical Instruments.

The harp and the organ, or pipe, were in use as early as Gen. 4:21. Laban, when chiding with Jacob for secretly leaving him, said he would have sent him away "with songs, with tabret, and with harp." Gen. 31:27. The monuments show that the Egyptians had various musical instruments, the Israelites, therefore, if they had not known their use before going into Egypt, could have learnt it there. When Moses sang the song of triumph at the Red Sea, Miriam answered with a tabret in her hand; and Samuel told Saul that he would meet a company of prophets with a psaltery, a tabret, a pipe, and a harp. 1 Sam. 10:5.

There must have been with these prophets some knowledge of music, which doubtless under David was further cultivated and devoted to the service of God, their music being intimately connected with temple worship. He had several companies of singers, and players on instruments, which are often mentioned in the Psalms. As these were indited under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, we may conclude that this way of celebrating the praises of God was in accordance with the dispensation that then was. Such an exhortation as "Praise him with the psaltery and harp," is beautifully in place in the Psalms; but in the N.T. dispensation it is, "singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord;" and "I will sing with the spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also." "They that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth."

In the headings of fifty-five of the Psalms the words occur, "To the chief musician;" the word is natsach, and simply means 'to the chief or the leader,' and may therefore apply as much to the singers as to the musicians. The musical instruments are considered under their various names.

Mustard Seed.

This is mentioned as something very small to which the faith of the apostles did not rise; and the kingdom of God is spoken of as being like this small seed, which nevertheless grows into a tree large enough for the birds to lodge in its branches. Various surmises have been made as to what tree is alluded to. The one that best answers to the description is the sinapis nigra, a common mustard plant in Palestine. Its seeds are very small, and it grows to a tree of some ten feet high, quite large enough for the smaller birds to lodge in its branches. There is also the salvadora persica, which grows still higher. The teaching of the parable is that the kingdom of God would become elevated in the earth and suitable for emissaries of Satan to find protection under its shadow. Matt. 13:31; Matt. 17:20; Mark 4:31; Luke 13:19; Luke 17:6.  In Matt. 13 it says that, "when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs," yet it "becometh a tree." This reads as if its normal class was that of a large herb, but by some mysterious means it became a tree.

Muthlabben. [Muth-labben]

These are two Hebrew words in the heading of Ps. 9, the meaning of which has not been discovered. The LXX has "A psalm of David, concerning the secrets of the Son."

Myra. [My'ra]

Seaport of Lycia, in Asia Minor, where Paul and those with him embarked on a ship sailing to Italy. Acts 27:5. It is now called Dembra.


1.  lot. This is judged to be a fragrant resinous gum gathered from the leaves of the cistus, or rock rose. Gen. 37:25; Gen. 43:11.

2. mor, Arabic murr. The true myrrh, so called because it distils its gum as tears, which harden into a bitter aromatic gum. It was an ingredient in the holy anointing oil, and was much prized as a perfume. Ex. 30:23; Esther 2:12; Ps. 45:8; Prov. 7:17; Cant. 1:13; Cant. 3:6; Cant. 4:6, 14; Cant. 5:1, 5, 13. It is identified with the balsamodendron myrrha and other allied species. In the N.T. the same is alluded to under the name of σμύρνα. The Magi presented myrrh with frankincense to the Lord at His birth, and it was used at His burial. Mingled with wine it was offered to Him as a stupifying drink before He was crucified, but He refused it. Matt. 2:11; Mark 15:23; John 19:39.


The well-known tree bearing this name, the myrtus communis. Branches were to be taken from this tree, among others, to make booths when the feast of tabernacles was kept. During the millennium, 'instead of the brier shall come up the myrtle tree,' so that it seems to be a type of peace and blessing. Neh. 8:15; Isa. 41:19; Isa. 55:13.  In Zech. 1:8, 10, 11 a man (that is, an angel of Jehovah) was seen standing among the myrtle trees, when all the earth was sitting still and was at rest — emblem of the blessing of Jerusalem, for which the angel was interceding. Under the rule of the second Gentile empire, the nations were indifferent to the condition of Jerusalem.

Mysia. [My'sia]

District in the N.W. of Asia Minor. Paul visited it, but 'passed by' and went to Troas. Acts 16:7-8.


This word describes a hidden or secret thing, known only to the initiated. In scripture it stands in contrast to the manifest or public dealings of God. The Lord Jesus having been rejected, is now hidden in the heavens, and the ways of God are secret to the world, but made known, as also His hidden purpose which is being accomplished by His secret ways, to those who have 'ears to hear.' In the issue of those ways the mystery of God is finished. Rev. 10:7.

The Lord often spoke in parables to the multitude, but explained them to the apostles, because it was given unto them to know the mysteries of the kingdom. Matt. 13:11; Mark 4:11; Luke 8:10. Christianity is a mystery to the unconverted. The apostles were stewards of the mysteries of God, and they spoke "the wisdom of God in a mystery." The Apostle Paul spoke of the 'mystery of the gospel,' the 'mystery of the faith,' the 'mystery of Christ,' and the 'mystery of godliness,' or piety. 1 Cor. 2:7; 1 Cor. 4:1; Eph. 6:19; Col. 4:3; 1 Tim. 3:9, 16.

The marvellous purpose of God, the mystery of the church, that had been hidden for ages, was revealed to Paul, as well as its present administration. Eph. 1:9; Eph. 3:3-4, 9; Col. 1:26-27. It is that in which are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. The intelligence of it explains how Christ can be here in a scene from which He has been rejected alike by Jew and Gentile. There is also the mystery of the power of Christ as regards both the dead and the living saints. 1 Cor. 15:51. In opposition to God there is the 'mystery of iniquity,' that was secretly working in the church in the apostles' days. 2 Thess. 2:7. Allied to this is papal Rome, whose name is really "Mystery, Babylon the Great, the Mother of Harlots and Abominations of the Earth." Rev. 17:5, 7. The above scriptures show that though there are several things designated mysteries, yet God in His grace has made them known to His saints.

Naam. [Na'am]

Son of Caleb, the son of Jephunneh. 1 Chr. 4:15.

Naamah. [Na'amah]

1.  Daughter of Lamech, a descendant of Cain. Gen. 4:22.

2. An Ammonitess, wife of Solomon and mother of Rehoboam. 1 Kings 14:21, 31; 2 Chr. 12:13.

3. City in the lowlands of Judah. Joshua 15:41. Identified with Naaneh, 31 52' N, 34 52' E.

Naaman. [Na'aman]

1.  Son of Benjamin. Gen. 46:21.

2. Son of Bela, a son of Benjamin. Num. 26:40; 1 Chr. 8:4, 7.

3. A Syrian captain, who, in the days of Joram king of Israel, was cured of his leprosy through Elisha the prophet. The inherent pride of the human heart, which always rejects God's sovereign right and hence His way of blessing nearly prevented Naaman being cured. He had his own thoughts about how the prophet should have cured him, and asked if the rivers of Damascus were not better than the Jordan. But when his servants reasoned with him he went to the river (typical of death), dipped himself seven times, and was cured.

This is an illustration of the truth that there is no blessing for sinful man but through death: all is in resurrection and in Christ Jesus. When Naaman was cleansed he could stand before the man of God, and gladly confess that there was no God in all the earth but in Israel. He would offer no sacrifice to other gods, but only unto Jehovah. He now had an exercised conscience, and, fearing the consequences of making a stand against the world, he asked that Jehovah might pardon him when as a servant he went into the idol's temple with his master. Elisha simply answered, "Go in peace." This was not the acceptance of a compromise, but setting Naaman in the path of liberty and peace, the sense of grace was not to be enfeebled in his soul. Sin has no dominion over those under grace. He asked for two mules' burden of Canaan's earth, no doubt with the thought of making an altar therewith. The whole story is a beautiful instance of the grace of God going out to a heathen; the faith of the little maid who, though in captivity, did not forget the prophet of Jehovah, and who sought the welfare of those among whom her lot was cast, is also an interesting feature. 2 Kings 5:1-27; Luke 4:27.

Naamathite. [Naama'thite]

Designation of Zophar, one of Job's friends. Job 2:11; Job 11:1; Job 20:1; Job 42:9. The origin of the name is unknown.

Naamites. [Na'amites]

The family of Naaman, son of Bela. Num. 26:40.

Naarah. [Na'arah]

Wife of Ashur, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:5-6.

Naarai. [Na'arai]

Son of Ezbai and one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:37. Perhaps, as in the margin, the same as PAARAI the Arbite in 2 Sam. 23:35.

Naaran, [Na'aran] Naarath. [Na'arath]

City in Ephraim. Joshua 16:7; 1 Chr. 7:28. Some early writers place it five miles from Jericho, and some identify it with ruins at el Aujah et Tahtani, 31 57' N, 35 28' E.

Naashon, [Na'ashon] Naasson. [Naas'son]


Nabal. [Na'bal]

A wealthy man in Maon, husband of Abigail. His shepherds and his flocks had been protected in the wilderness by David and his followers. David, therefore, during the sheep-shearing festivities, sent to greet Nabal and to ask for a share of his abundance — anything he liked to send him. Nabal, however, railed on David's men and refused to give them anything. He had no faith to discern in David the anointed of Jehovah. Abigail hastened to appease David's wrath. David accepted her person and her present, and left Nabal in God's hands. The next morning, when Abigail told him the danger he had escaped, his heart died within him. After about ten days God smote him and he died. Thus did God avenge the insult given to His servant when in rejection, and saved him from avenging himself. 1 Sam. 25:3-39.

Naboth. [Na'both]

A Jezreelite, owner of a vineyard adjoining the property of Ahab, king of Israel. Ahab desired to purchase this vineyard, or exchange it for another; but Naboth refused to part with it, because it was the inheritance of his fathers. Jezebel, Ahab's wife, observing her husband's vexation on account of this refusal, wrote to the elders and nobles of the city where Naboth lived, telling them to proclaim a fast, to set Naboth in a prominent place, to get two sons of Belial to charge him with blaspheming God and the king, and then to stone him to death. The elders and nobles were mean and wicked enough to carry out her instructions, and sent word that Naboth was dead. Jezebel now informed her husband, and he went down to take possession of the vineyard; but God sent Elijah to tell him his doom and that of Jezebel. God could not allow such wickedness to go unpunished. 1 Kings 21:1-19; 2 Kings 9:21-26.

Nachon. [Na'chon]

The person at whose threshing-floor Uzzah was smitten for touching the ark when it shook. 2 Sam. 6:6. Called CHIDON in 1 Chr. 13:9.

Nachor. [Na'chor]


Nadab. [Na'dab]

1.  Eldest son of Aaron. He was taken up into the mount by Moses, but lost his life for offering strange fire before the Lord.  Ex. 6:23; Ex. 24:1, 9; Ex. 28:1; Lev. 10:1; Num. 3:2, 4; Num. 26:60-61; 1 Chr. 6:3; 1 Chr. 24:1-2.  See ABIHU.

2. Son of Jeroboam, king of Israel. He reigned two years and was then killed by Baasha. 1 Kings 14:20; 1 Kings 15:25, 27, 31.

3. Son of Shammai, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:28, 30.

4. Son of Jehiel, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:30; 1 Chr. 9:36.

Nagge. [Nag'ge]

Son of Maath, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:25-26.

Nahalal. [Nah'alal]


Nahaliel. [Naha'liel]

One of the stations of the Israelites. Num. 21:19. Identified by some with the ravine of the Zerka Main, 31 38' N, 35 44' E.

Nahallal, [Nah'allal] Nahalal, [Nah'alal] Nahalol. [Nah'alol]

Levitical city in Zebulun. Joshua 19:15; Joshua 21:35; Judges 1:30. Identified with Ain Mahil, 32 44' N, 35 21' E.

Naham. [Na'ham]

A man of Judah, father of Keilah and Eshtemoa. 1 Chr. 4:19.

Nahamani. [Na'hamani]

One who returned from exile. Neh. 7:7.

Naharai, [Na'harai] Nahari. [Na'hari]

The Beerothite, armour-bearer to Joab. 2 Sam. 23:37; 1 Chr. 11:39.