Bible Dictionary P 2, Q.

Pontus. [Pon'tus]

Maritime district in the N.E. of Asia Minor, where many Jews were located: it was the native place of Aquila. Acts 2:9; Acts 18:2; 1 Peter 1:1.


See the various names by which they are called.


It was said in the O.T. that "the poor should never cease out of the land," and in the enactments of the law they were cared for by Jehovah. The Lord said, "Ye have the poor with you always, and whensoever ye will ye may do them good." Mark 14:7. "Blessed is he that considereth the poor." Ps. 41:1. "The poor have the gospel preached unto them." Matt. 11:5. "When thou makest a feast call the poor." Luke 14:13. "He that hath pity upon the poor lendeth unto the Lord." Prov. 19:17. Other passages show that the working of the love of God in the soul issues in a special regard for the poor. Gal. 2:10. Of the Lord Jesus it is said, that though He was rich, yet for our sakes He became poor. 2 Cor. 8:9.


libneh. It was probably the white poplar (Populus alba) which Jacob employed: it was 'green' in the sense of being fresh, moist. The poplar affords a grateful shade from the heat of the sun and was therefore one of the trees chosen under which the Israelites burnt incense. Gen. 30:37; Hosea 4:13. Some judge the Hebrew word libneh to refer to the 'storax tree' (the styrax officinale) which also grows in Palestine.

Poratha. [Pora'tha]

Son of Haman: he was slain and hanged. Esther 9:8.

Porcius. [Por'cius]



In scripture this word is used in the sense of doorkeeper. The Levites kept the doors of the temple: it was an honourable office. 2 Sam. 18:26; 2 Kings 7:10-11; 1 Chr. 9:17-26; Mark 13:34.

In John 10:3 the Porter is the Spirit of Jehovah working in Israel, who recognised the Lord Jesus as entering in by the door into the sheepfold that as the Good Shepherd He might have access to the sheep.


ruts. The dispatch of letters with speed was of early date. Job said, "Now my days are swifter than a post." Job 9:25. When Hezekiah proclaimed a Passover for all Israel he sent letters of invitation by 'runners' from city to city. 2 Chr. 30:6, 10. The posts sent with the decree from Shushan the palace went on horses, mules, camels, and young dromedaries, "being hastened and pressed on by the king's commandment." Esther 3:13, 15; Esther 8:10, 14. In the prophecy of God's judgements on Babylon it is said that the news should be carried to the king by one post running to meet another. Jer. 51:31. By dividing large districts into small departments with a post-house in each, in which 'runners' and animals were always kept ready, despatches could quickly be dispersed in various directions.


δυνάστης, 'powerful one.' Jehovah is the only Potentate. 1 Tim. 6:15. The word occurs also in Luke 1:52: Jehovah "hath put down 'the mighty' from their thrones." And in Acts 8:27, the eunuch was a man 'of great authority': they at times had more power than the kings.

Potiphar. [Pot'iphar]

Pharaoh's captain of the guard, to whom Joseph was sold. Gen. 37:36; Gen. 39:1.

Potipherah. [Poti'pherah]

The priest of On, or Heliopolis, whose daughter Asenath became Joseph's wife. Gen. 41:45, 50; Gen. 46:20.


A fragment of pottery, to which man is compared when he strives with his Maker. Isa. 45:9. David quotes the word in the Psalm prophetical of the Lord's sacrificial sufferings, "My strength is dried up like a potsherd." Ps. 22:15. It is employed literally in Job 2:8; Prov. 26:23, and translated 'sherd' in Isa. 30:14; Ezek. 23:34.


Of the potter scripture says he treadeth the clay to make it pliable, Isa. 41:25; and he forms his vessel on a wheel. Jer. 18:3. Much of the ordinary pottery in the East is made in a very simple way: the workman turns the wheel with his feet, and with his hands he forms the vessel as it pleases him. This common pottery of the East is very fragile, and as such is often alluded to in scripture. The Lord Jesus will subdue all His enemies: will dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel. Ps. 2:9, Isa. 30:14; Rev. 2:27.

The potter making his vessels as it pleases him, is a beautiful illustration of the power of God as Creator, and is applied to Israel: "as the clay is in the potter's hand, so are ye in my hand, O house of Israel." Jer. 18:2-6. It also illustrates God's sovereignty: "Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus?" The potter has full power over the clay. Rom. 9:20-21.

Potter's Field.

The field that was bought with the thirty pieces of silver paid to Judas for the betrayal of the Lord is thus called. Matt. 27:7-10. It is added, "then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet." Nothing is found in Jeremiah corresponding to the words quoted; but there is something similar in Zechariah 11:12-13. Jeremiah is said to have spoken the words; the reference therefore may be to something he had said, and not to what he had written. Or it is possible that as the Jews anciently placed Jeremiah at the beginning of the Book of the Prophets (Ezekiel, Isaiah, and the twelve minor prophets following), 'Jeremiah' may have been a sort of heading for the whole. Zechariah is quoted in the N.T. but never named there. See ACELDAMA.




The two principal words in the N.T. translated 'power' are 1, δύναμις, and 2, ἐξουσία. It is important to see the difference between them, for their signification is not at all the same. No. 1 may be described as 'capacity, moral or physical ability, power.' No. 2 signifies 'delegated authority, right, privilege, title.' The latter always supposes power to exercise the right; but in the former there is no thought of right or authority. No. 1 is translated in the A.V. 'ability, might, mighty, mighty deeds, miracles, power, strength, violence, mighty works, wonderful works,' etc. which will help further to show the character of the word, contrasted with No. 2, which is translated 'authority, jurisdiction, liberty, power, right, and strength.'

The word 'power' occurs in both lists, and this needs to be cleared of any ambiguity. No. 2 is often translated 'power' where some other word would convey the sense better; but there is no single word in the English language that exactly answers to the Greek, and which would suit in all places. A concordance must be consulted for a full list of the occurrences: a few passages only are cited. All 'authority' is given to the Lord Jesus. Matt. 9:6; Matt. 28:18; John 17:2. Satan offered to give to the Lord 'authority' over the kingdoms of the world which had been delivered to him, if the Lord would fall down and worship him. Luke 4:6. To as many as received the Lord, to them gave He 'right ' or 'title' to become the children of God. John 1:12. "There is no 'authority' but of God," No. 2 occurring five times in Rom. 13:1-3. Along with 'principality' occurs No. 2 in Eph. 1:21; Eph. 3:10; Eph. 6:12; Col. 1:16; Col. 2:10, 15; Titus 3:1.

The principal thing to remember is that No. 2 signifies a delegated right or title, with the presumed power or strength to enforce the right; whereas in No. 1 it is strength or power only.






This has been described as 'the intercourse of a dependent one with God.' It may take the form of communion in one brought nigh, or it may be the making requests for oneself or for others. There are twelve different words used for prayer in the O.T., and eight in the N.T., with various shades of meaning, as there are in English: 'asking, begging, beseeching,' etc. In the synoptic Gospels the word used in connection with Christ is that most commonly employed for "praying," but in John's gospel the word is that generally rendered, 'ask' or, 'demand.' The change is explained by the different aspect in which the Lord is presented in John.

God hears and encourages prayer. A cry to God is the mark of a soul truly turning to Him: "Behold, he prayeth," was said of Saul of Tarsus. Acts 9:11. To the saints it is said, "Pray without ceasing;"  "ask and ye shall receive."  "If we ask anything according to his will he heareth us, and . . . . we know that we have the petitions."  "All things whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer believing ye shall receive."  "Whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in my name, he will give it you." The disciples as left here, representative of Christ and charged with His interests, were to ask in His name; and the same is true in principle as regards believers now. Mark 11:24; John 14:13; John 15:16; John 16:23, 26; James 1:5-7; 1 John 5:14-15. Christians are exhorted to make known all their petitions, or requests, to God, and having done so, the peace of God shall keep their hearts and minds. Phil. 4:6-7. This is their wondrous privilege: they have addressed God, and in peace they leave it with Him to grant their petitions or not.

The above passages demonstrate that to receive what is prayed for, requests must be in faith, they must be according to the light of God's will, and hence made in the name of the Lord Jesus. While prayer is always to God, it is suggested that requests would naturally be made to the Father in respect of all that tends to the promotion of Christ in believers, as well as in things referring to their discipline in the pathway here. On the other hand prayer would be made to the Lord in relation to that over which He is set as administrator, such as the service of the gospel, the saints, the house of God, etc.

The attitudes in prayer which are recorded are: 'standing,' 1 Sam. 1:26; Mark 11:25; 'kneeling,' Dan. 6:10; Luke 22:41; and 'falling down,' Deut. 9:25; Joshua 7:6.


This is often used in the N.T. for 'announcing, or making known,' without the idea of preaching in a formal way, as the word is now understood. When there was persecution in the church at Jerusalem, they were all scattered, except the apostles, and they went everywhere 'preaching the word.' Acts 8:1-4.

Solomon in the Ecclesiastes calls himself 'the preacher,' and it is said of Noah that he was 'a preacher of righteousness.' Paul was appointed a preacher (herald), and it pleased God by 'the foolishness of the preaching' to save them that believe. Preaching is still used of God as the means for making known the love of God and the work of Christ.


προορίζω. 'To mark out beforehand, predetermine.' In Rom. 8:29-30, it forms a link in the chain that connects the foreknowledge of God in the past with the glory in the future. Election is God's choice of individuals; predestination is to a blessing, as in Eph. 1:5, 11, believers are predestinated to the adoption of sons, according to the purpose of God. Predestination does not, as insisted on by some, imply reprobation of some to wrath. God "will have [or desires] all men to be saved," 1 Tim. 2:4; but to ensure some being saved, He predestinated, called, justified, and glorified them in His sovereign purpose.




In Prov. 12:16 the word is lit. 'in the day,' or openly. In Matt. 21:19, and Phil. 2:23 the words should be translated 'immediately,' as elsewhere. In Matt. 26:53 the word 'presently' should be omitted.


Governors, prefects, satraps. Dan. 6:2-7.


'To go before,' anticipate (from the Latin praevenio) 'to come before.' Ps. 18:5, 18; Ps. 21:3; Ps. 59:10; Matt. 17:25; 1 Thess. 4:15, etc.


The pointed goads by which oxen when ploughing were urged on; to kick against these was only to injure themselves. This action is figuratively applied by the Lord to Paul when he was smitten to the ground at his conversion: "It is hard for thee to kick against the goads." Acts 9:5; Acts 26:14.

Priest, Priesthood.

It is remarkable that the first priest spoken of in scripture is Melchizedek: he is said to be "priest of the most high God."  Nothing is said of his offering sacrifices, but he brought forth bread and wine, and blessed Abraham. Gen. 14:18-19. He is a type of Christ, who is constituted a "priest after the order of Melchizedek," and who will come forth to bless His people in the future. See MELCHIZEDEK.

Before the institution of the Levitical priesthood, Israel had been redeemed out of Egypt. The object of priesthood was not therefore to bring them into redemption, but to maintain their position based on redemption before God. At first it was said that they should all be priests (Ex. 19:6), but law afterwards came in, and the service of priesthood was very definitely confined to the house of Aaron. The names of the twelve tribes were engraved on the breastplate and on the plates on the priest's shoulders: whenever he went in to the presence of God , the people were thus represented. So Christ is the great High Priest at the right hand of God, not for the world, but for His saints: "We have such an high priest, who is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens." Heb. 8:1. He represents His saints there, and in virtue of His presence there, and of His experience here, He is able to sympathise with them in trial and to succour them in temptation.

The Lord was not nor could be a priest on earth, for He was not of the order of Aaron (Heb. 7:14; Heb. 8:4); but on the cross He offered Himself to God, the antitype of Aaron on the day of atonement. He was really Offering, Priest, and Victim in His own person, and, being perfected, is now the great High Priest above for the Christian. Heb. 4:14-16. See AARONIC PRIESTHOOD.

Christians are priests by calling, as being risen together with Christ, and have access to God: "an holy, priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ." 1 Peter 2:5, 9; Heb. 10:19; Rev. 1:6.

Prince, Princess.

There are sixteen different Hebrew words so translated. The principal are

1. nasi, 'one raised up'; this is translated also 'ruler, governor, captain, and chief.' It is applied to 'the princes of the congregation': these would be the heads of families in the various tribes. Joshua 9:15-21.

2. sar, 'to bear rule,' hence applied to the head men in the tribes, 'chief of the fathers'; and to the satraps in the Persian empire. Esther 1:3-21. In Daniel these same are called achashdarpenayya, 'chief governors.' Dan. 3:2-3, 27; Dan. 6:1-7.  Princess is sarah. 1 Kings 11:3; Lam. 1:1. The word sar is also employed for the Prince of peace in Isa. 9:6, and for Michael the archangel, and for the prince of Persia who opposed him, and for the prince of Grecia. Dan. 10:13-21.


The status of those who hold the first place, as rulers among men, Titus 3:1; but the word especially refers to the spiritual high powers in the unseen world, whether good or bad. They were created by the Lord, and He is head of them all. Col. 1:16; Col. 2:10.  Some fell from the position of trust given them: they kept not their first estate or principality. Jude 6. Others contend against the heavenly position of the saints. Eph. 6:12. The Lord 'spoiled' principalities on the cross, Col. 2:15; and at His resurrection He was exalted by God far above all such created powers. Eph. 1:21; Eph. 3:10.

Prisca, [Pris'ca] Priscilla. [Priscil'la]

The wife of Aquila. She and her husband are called by Paul "my fellow-workers in Christ Jesus." Paul met them at Corinth, and they travelled with him to Ephesus, where they were enabled to expound unto Apollos the way of God more perfectly. Priscilla is sometimes mentioned before her husband. Acts 18:2, 18, 26; Rom. 16:3; 1 Cor. 16:19; 2 Tim. 4:19.


In Egypt, in Babylon, among the Romans, and doubtless in most other nations, these were used as places in which to secure prisoners. Joseph was cast into prison, and his feet were hurt with fetters (Ps. 105:18), though it does not appear that there was any trial as to the crime of which he was accused. God interfered on his behalf, and made the keeper or jailor favourable to him, and he committed all the prisoners into Joseph's care. This was the royal prison, but the condition of the place is not known: he called it 'the dungeon.'

Jeremiah was confined in 'the court of the prison,' a place to which the Jews could come and where they could converse with him. Jer. 32:2-12. Jehoiachin was in prison in Babylon. Jer. 52:31. The prison at Jerusalem, under the Romans, is more fully described. Peter was bound by two chains, and lay asleep between two soldiers. It was under military rule, and the soldiers were responsible for the safety of the prisoners. The angel conducted Peter through the first and second guard to the outer iron gate that led into the city. This shows what is meant by the 'inner prison' mentioned elsewhere. Acts 12.  At Philippi there was a jailor who was responsible for the safety of the prisoners. He, supposing some had escaped, was about to destroy himself, when Paul stopped him. Acts 16:23-27.

Fallen angels are said to be kept in 'everlasting chains,' Jude 6; and there are spirits which are kept in prison. 1 Peter 3:19. The abyss in which Satan is to be shut up for the thousand years is also called a prison, which may refer to the same place. Rev. 20:7.


The course run by a Christian is compared to races in which 'one receiveth the prize': with the exhortation, "So run that ye may obtain." 1 Cor. 9:24-27. The prize that Paul was stretching forward to win was that of being with and like the Lord in the glory. Phil. 3:14.

Prochorus. [Pro'chorus]

One of the seven chosen to look after the poor saints at Jerusalem. Acts 6:5.


One who acts as a consul in a province. The word ἀνθύπατος, translated 'deputy' in the A.V., shows the accuracy of Luke in giving this title to the governor of places to whom it belonged. Acts 13:7-8, 12; Acts 18:12; Acts 19:38.


The Roman title given to the chief ruler of a district. Judaea was governed by a procurator, ἡγεμών, who held his authority directly from the emperor, and was invested with powers of life and death. Roman citizens, however, were privileged to appeal from his authority to the emperor. The procurators were to some extent responsible to the Presidents of Syria. Those mentioned in the N.T. are Pontius Pilate, Felix, and Festus. In the A.V. they are called 'governors.'





Prophecy, Prophet.

The scriptural use of the term 'prophecy' is in no way confined to foretelling events, nor is that its primary significance. It included any communication which God saw fit to make either to His own people or to any of the nations. God said to Abimelech concerning Abraham, "He is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee." Gen. 20:7. Aaron was called the prophet of Moses. Ex. 7:1. God's power came at times upon individuals who were not recognised as prophets, and they prophesied, as for instance Saul in 1 Sam. 10:10-11. Prophecy became in Israel the means, through mercy, of God's communication to the people when the priesthood with Urim and Thummim had utterly broken down. It came in by Samuel. Elijah and Elisha prophesied in the midst of apostate Israel. Nathan, John the Baptist, etc., were also prophets. Of some of the prophets no prophecies are recorded, while others are only known to us by what they wrote under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.

In the N.T. we read that Philip had four virgin daughters who 'prophesied;' and Agabus foretold that Paul would be bound at Jerusalem and be delivered to the Gentiles. Acts 21:9-11. Prophesying is, however, in the N.T. also used in a different sense. The word is from πρόφημι, 'to speak forth,' and a prophet may therefore be described as a spokesman of God. Prophecy of this kind is a gift in the church for the edifying of the saints, bringing God's word with power upon their consciences and hearts. It is the gift of most importance in the church. 1 Cor. 14:1-5, 24, 31, 39; 1 Thess. 5:20.

In Rom. 16:26 the writings of the New Testament are spoken of as 'prophetic scriptures,' and the assembly is built on the foundation laid by the apostles and N.T. prophets (Eph. 2:20), that is, the truth taught by them.

Prophet, The.

The Lord Jesus was emphatically 'the prophet of God,' whose coming was foretold in Deut. 18:15, 18. When on earth He said that the works which He did, and the words that He spoke, were not from Himself, but were what He had seen and heard of His Father. John 14:10, 24. He was the perfect exponent of God's mind to the Jews (Acts 3:22; Acts 7:37), and the proclaimer of God's grace to a guilty world. Luke 14:15-24; 2 Cor. 5:19.

Prophets, Sons of the.

These are referred to in the O.T., and at times were numerous. They are spoken of as being at Bethel, Jericho, and Gilgal. 2 Kings 2:3, 5; 2 Kings 4:38. At one place their dwelling was too limited, and they cut down timber to build themselves a larger place. 2 Kings 6:1-2. We read of them only in the days of Samuel, Elijah, and Elisha, who were held in repute by them. When Elijah was about to be taken up, these prophets apparently had a revelation concerning it, and they sent fifty men 'to view afar off,' and afterwards sent fifty to look for the prophet. 2 Kings 2:7, 17: cf. 1 Sam. 10:10. The 'company of prophets' with psaltery, tabret, pipe, and harp, whom Saul met, were probably sons of the prophets. 1 Sam. 10:5. The hundred prophets whom Obadiah hid from the persecution of Jezebel may have been of the same. 1 Kings 18:4. From whence these prophets were gathered, and what their functions were is not recorded.

Prophets, False.

These, at various periods in the history of Israel, appeared in large numbers: Ahab had 'about four hundred' of them. 1 Kings 22:6. Such are described as speaking "a vision of their own heart, and not out of the mouth of the Lord." Jer. 23:16. There were three that opposed Jeremiah to his face — Hananiah, Ahab, and Zedekiah. Jer. 28:1; Jer. 29:21. In the N.T. the Lord, early in His ministry, warned His hearers to beware of false prophets, Matt. 7:15; and in the church, the spirits are to be tried, for many false prophets have gone forth into the world. 1 John 4:1. They were and are Satan's counterfeits of the prophets of God, and their purpose is, on the principle of imitation, to neutralise the word of God.

Prophets, The.

The books so designated form a distinct and most important part of scripture. Prophecy usually implied a ruined state of things among God's people, calling for His intervention. Some of the prophecies are appeals, reminding the people of what God had done for them, and declaring how willing and ready He was to bless them if they would be faithful to Him; though interwoven with this are constant predictions of that which will be for the blessing of Israel in the future, after they have for the time been set aside. Others strictly allude to events which were then or are still future. As a whole the prophets refer to Israel as an inner circle, or chief platform, on which the dealings of Jehovah were and will be developed, and with which the Messiah is in immediate relation. The nations formed an outer circle, and were regarded more or less according to their relations with the twelve tribes. These nations are sometimes spoken of as being God's instruments by whom He punished His own people, they themselves having afterwards to bear the punishments of God. Beyond and above all, there is God's universal government; in which everything is in result to be made subject to the Messiah, while God's promises are made good to Israel, for all Israel will again be brought into blessing, with Jehovah in their midst surrounded with glory, and the nations will be blessed with them.

The Prophetic scriptures naturally fall into three divisions.

1. Those that were given to Israel while still a nation, though divided into two parts, extending to the complete break up of Judah.

2. Those referring to the times of the Gentiles, which began with Nebuchadnezzar, and, continuing beyond the days of the Messiah on earth, are still running on: these are almost entirely given in Daniel.

3. Those given after a portion of Judah had returned from exile, when they were helped by the prophecies of Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, which present the time of the Messiah on earth, and go even beyond to future blessing.

To these may be added the prophecies in the Gospels, the Epistles, and the Revelation, embracing the judgements of God upon apostate Christendom and the nations generally; the final overthrow of Satan, and universal blessing, ending with the judgement of the dead and a glorious outlook into the eternal state.

It will not be inappropriate here to add a few words as to the relative position, in point of time, of the various O.T. prophetic scriptures. It may be premised that the burden of the prophets Obadiah, Jonah, and Nahum has special reference to Edom and to Nineveh, that is, to peoples that were always hostile to Israel. There is but little whereby to fix precisely the dates of Joel and Habakkuk. Of the remainder, Hosea, Amos, and Isaiah are anterior to the captivity of the ten tribes. The visions of Isaiah, however, have reference to Judah and Jerusalem. It appears probable, whatever may be the reason, that the testimony commonly known as "the prophets" began in the time of Jeroboam 2 king of Israel, Uzziah being his contemporary in Judah. The introduction of prophetic scripture indicated that the ordinary relations of the people with God had broken down, Lo-ammi being prophetically written upon them.

Others follow closely, as Micah, who prophesies concerning Samaria and Jerusalem, though no personal reference is made to a king of Israel; and, either before or contemporary with the captivity of Judah, Jeremiah and Zephaniah. The prophets Ezekiel and Daniel speak from the land of Chaldea, when all present hope was over for both Israel and Judah, and the times of the Gentiles had set in. After the return from the captivity we have Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. The testimony of the prophets extended thus over a period of from three to four hundred years.

The approximate dates of each of the prophets may be seen in the tables of chronology under KINGS.

The Books of Isaiah and Jeremiah are remarkable, the former as being the most comprehensive of the prophecies, taking up almost in order the various moral questions involved in God's dealings with Israel, and giving what may be described as a general prophetic framework; and the latter as bringing out, in a peculiarly touching way, the feelings induced by the Spirit of Christ in regard of God's people when, there being no remedy, the end was come.

Two remarks of great importance as regards prophecy may be made: first, that no prophecy carries its own interpretation: each has to be understood in its place and relation to the whole system of prophecy. Secondly, that the scope of all prophecy takes us on to the day of the Lord; the judgement of the nations and of the wicked in Israel; the establishment of the kingdom; and the reunion of Israel and Judah under the Lord their righteousness. This is the great end of God's ways on earth. This recovery and blessing by God of His ancient people, in their Messiah, may be said to be a golden thread running through all the prophets. It was ever before God, and shines out everywhere.

It is of the greatest importance, both for the right understanding of these scriptures, and for a true appreciation of what Christianity is, to see that the church has no place in the prophets. In the church there is neither Jew nor Gentile, and the prophets recognise both, while carefully maintaining the distinction between them. Prophecy treats of the earth and of the government of God and its issue: the Christian belongs to heaven, and he will reign with Christ in the kingdom. In the A.V. of the O.T. the headings of many of the chapters are misleading: the church often spoken of in them is never found in the text; Christ is there, and the manifestation of God; and the scriptures which develop His ways, and speak of the sufferings and the glories of the One to whom the Christian is united, are of deep interest to him, though he himself may not be immediately spoken of.

Some Christians, though they know and enjoy certain portions of prophecy, without seeing its reference strictly to the remnant of Israel, fail to study the prophets. Not a few deem the study to be unprofitable — the subject is too mysterious, they say, and commentators differ so widely in their interpretation! One great hindrance to the understanding of the prophets is that they are not allowed to mean what they say. To allow Israel to signify Israel in its punishment, its restoration, and its future earthly glory, at once clears away a mass of difficulties. Many sayings of the Lord and other parts of scripture cannot be understood unless a true outline of prophecy be grasped; and if this be understood, none of the moral teaching and consolation as to the unchangeable nature and ways of God will be lost.

The twelve prophets that follow the Book of Daniel are often called THE MINOR PROPHETS, simply because they are shorter than the others, and not as being in any respect inferior.

The following are some prophetic events that await fulfilment:-

1.  The rapture of the saints, when the dead in Christ will be raised, the living changed, and death swallowed up in victory. 1 Cor. 15:51-52; 1 Thess. 4:16-17.

2.  The return of a portion of the Jews to Palestine, who in unbelief will rebuild the temple, and re-establish their ordinances. Isa. 17:10-11; Isa. 66:1-3; Rev. 11:1-2.

3.  The resuscitation of the Roman empire, ten of the western powers being more or less under one head. It will at first exercise a protectorate over the Jewish nation. Isa. 28:14-18; Dan. 2:40-43; Dan. 7:7-8; Dan. 9:27; Rev. 17:7-8, 10-13.

4.  The apostasy and the revelation of the man of sin. 2 Thess. 2:3-12.

5.  The full development of the Romish ecclesiastical system, which at first as a harlot dominates the empire, but afterwards is destroyed by the ten kings. 2 Tim. 3:1-9; 2 Tim. 4:3-4; 2 Peter 2:1-3; Jude 3, 4, 11; Rev. 17:1-6, 16.

6.  The casting out of the devil and his angels from heaven, when Satan will energise the beast (head of the Roman empire) and the false prophet (Antichrist): they will persecute the pious Jews, will abolish the worship of Jehovah at Jerusalem, and enforce idolatry and the worship of the image of the beast everywhere. Thus there will be formed a trinity of evil. Dan. 7:19-25; Dan. 9:27; Dan. 11:36-39; 2 Thess. 2:4; Rev. 13:1-18.

7.  The appearing of the Lord with the heavenly saints to judge His enemies, and to deliver His earthly people. Dan. 2:34-35, 44, 45; Matt. 24:30; 1 Thess. 4:14; 2 Thess. 1:7-10; Rev. 19:11-21.

8.  The gathering of the ten tribes after the coming of the Lord so that all Israel will be reunited in the land, under the sceptre of the Lord, He being the Antitype of David. They will be attacked in their land by Gog (Russia) who will be utterly destroyed. Isa. 11:11-14; Ezek. 36, Ezek. 38, Ezek. 39; Dan. 12:2-3; Rom. 11:26-27.

9.  The binding of Satan; the creation will be delivered from the bondage of corruption, and Christ will reign over the earth a thousand years in peace, being Antitype of Solomon. Ps. 72:8, 17; Isa. 2:4; Isa. 11:6-9; Isa. 25:6-8; Hab. 2:14; Zech. 14:9; Rom. 8:21-22; Rev. 20:1-6.

10.  The loosing of Satan for a short time, who will again deceive the nations: they will attack the saints on earth and Jerusalem; but the enemy will be destroyed by fire, and Satan be cast into the lake of fire. Rev. 20:7-10. The eternal state will ensue.


The word ἱλασμός is from the verb 'to be propitious.' Propitiation represents in scripture that aspect of the death of Christ in which has been vindicated the holy and righteous character of God, and in virtue of which He is enabled to be propitious, or merciful, to the whole world. 1 John 2:2; 1 John 4:10.  A kindred word (the verb) occurs in Heb. 2:17, where, instead of 'to make reconciliation,' should be read "to make 'propitiation' for the sins of the people." In Rom. 3:25, 'propitiation' (ἱλαστήριον) should be 'mercy seat,' as the same word is, and must be, translated in Heb. 9:5.  See ATONEMENT.


The name given to any from among the nations who embraced Judaism. Acts 2:10; Acts 6:5; Acts 13:43. The name may be said to be a Greek word, derived from 'to come to.' It is used by the LXX where the Hebrew has 'the stranger' that sojourneth among you. Ex. 12:48-49; Lev. 17:8, 10, 12-15; Num. 9:14; etc. Such, if all the males in the family were circumcised, might eat the Passover and offer a burnt offering or sacrifice. The Rabbis say that there were two classes of proselytes.

1. 'Proselytes of righteousness,' such as those mentioned above; and

2. 'Proselytes of the Gate,' those spoken of as 'strangers within thy gates.'

The Rabbis also assert that in N.T. times and later the proselytes were received by circumcision and baptism; but it is very much disputed as to when the baptism was added, there being no mention of it in the O.T.  Some hold that it was introduced when the emperors forbade their Gentile subjects to be circumcised, but others think it must have been earlier, which seems confirmed by John 1:25.

History shows to what an extent proselytising was abused. The Jews held that on a Gentile becoming a proselyte, all his natural relationships were annulled: he was 'a new creature.' Many became proselytes in order to abandon their wives and marry again. This, with other abuses, caused the emperors to interfere; the stricter Jews also were scandalized, and repudiated such proselytes. The Lord describes such a proselyte as the Scribes and Pharisees would make, as "twofold more the child of hell" than themselves. Matt. 23:15.


The word chidah is once translated 'proverb,' Hab. 2:6 but is often translated 'riddle.' It signifies 'problem,' a hidden mode of speaking, which conceals the sense under figurative expressions. The parable of the great eagle in Ezek. 17:2-3, is also called a 'riddle.' The word commonly translated 'proverb,' and used for the Book of Proverbs is mashal, signifying 'comparison, similitude.' Proverbs are short sentences calculated to arrest attention and be retained in the memory. Deut. 28:37; 1 Sam. 24:13; Ps. 69:11; Prov. 1:1; Ecc. 12:9; Isa. 14:4; Jer. 24:9; Ezek. 12:22-23; Ezek. 18:2-3; etc. In the N.T. are the words

1, παραβολή, 'a similitude, comparison.' In the A.V. this is only once translated 'proverb,' Luke 4:23; but is often translated 'parable.'

2, παροιμία: this is more an obscure saying, John 16:25, 29; 2 Peter 2:22; it is translated 'parable' in John 10:6, but 'allegory' would be a better rendering.

Proverbs, Book of.

In this book God has furnished, through the wisest of men, principles and precepts for the guidance and security of the believer in passing through the temptations to which he is exposed in an evil world. The admonitions speak in terms of affectionate warning 'as to sons:' Heb. 12:5. Under symbolic terms, such as 'the evil man' and 'the strange woman,' the great forms of evil in the world, violent self-will, and corrupting folly, are laid bare in their course and end. Wisdom is shown as the alone guard against one or the other. Wisdom is presented, not as a faculty residing in man, but as an object to be diligently sought after and acquired. It is often personified, and is spoken of as lifting up her voice. In Prov. 8, under the idea of wisdom, we have doubtless Christ presented as the resource that was with God from 'the beginning of His way,' so that God could independently of man establish and bring into effect His thoughts of grace for men.

In detail the book refers to the world, showing what things are to be sought and what to be avoided, and evinces that in the government of God a man reaps according to what he sows, irrespective of the spiritual blessings of God in grace beyond and above this world. It maintains integrity in the earthly relationships of this life, which cannot be violated with impunity. The instruction rises altogether above mere human prudence and sagacity, for "the fear of the Lord is the beginning [or 'principal part,' margin] of knowledge." We have in it the wisdom of God for the daily path of human life.

The book divides itself into two parts: the first nine chapters give general principles, and Prov. 10 onwards are the proverbs themselves. This latter portion divides itself into three parts: Prov. 10: to Prov. 24, the proverbs of Solomon; Prov. 25 to Prov. 29, also the proverbs of Solomon, which were gathered by "the men of Hezekiah king of Judah." Prov. 30 gives the words of Agur; and Prov. 31 the words of king Lemuel.

The Proverbs is a book of poetry. The proverbs vary in style: some are antithetical couplets, one being the opposite of the other, as "a wise son maketh a glad father; but a foolish son is the heaviness of his mother." Others are synthetical, the second sentence enforcing the first, as "The Lord hath made all things for himself, yea, even the wicked for the day of evil." See POETRY.

In Prov. 1 the purport of the proverbs is pointed out: it is that instruction in wisdom, justice, judgement, and equity might be received: the fear of the Lord is the starting point. Satan would of course oppose this, so warnings are at once given to avoid the enticings of sinners. Wisdom cries aloud and in the streets: her instructions are for all. Retribution is for such as refuse her call.

Prov. 2 gives the results of following in the path of wisdom, whereas the wicked will be rooted out.

Prov. 3 shows that it is the fear of God, and subjection to His word, that is the only true path in an evil world.

Prov. 4 enforces the study of wisdom: it will surely bring into blessing. Evil must be avoided and be kept at a distance. The heart, the eye, and the feet must be watched.

Prov. 5 warns a man against leaving the wife of his youth (the lawful connection) for the strange woman, which leads to utter demoralisation.

Prov. 6 enjoins one not to be surety for another. Wisdom is not slothful, violent, nor deceitful. There are seven things which are an abomination to the Lord. The strange woman is again pointed out to be avoided as fire: there is no ransom for adultery.

Prov. 7 again shows the traps laid by the strange woman, which alas, are often too successful. Her house is the way to hell (Sheol).

Prov. 8 proclaims that wisdom calls, and invites all to listen: it is valuable for all — kings, princes, rulers, judges. With wisdom are linked durable riches and righteousness: her fruit is better than gold. All God's works in creation were carried out in wisdom. This introduces Christ as the wisdom of God, from Prov. 8:22. He was there before the work of creation was begun. His delights were with the sons of men (Prov. 8:31), with which agrees the song of the heavenly host at the birth of the Lord Jesus: "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, goodwill toward man." Luke 2:14.  Wisdom says, "Blessed is the man that heareth me, watching daily at my gates, waiting at the posts of my doors. For whoso findeth me findeth life."

Prov. 9. Wisdom is established: she has her house, her food, her bread, and her wine. Her maidens are sent forth with loving invitations to enter. Again the world has its counter attractions by the strange woman; but the dead are there, and her guests in the depths of Sheol.

Thus far are the general principles on which wisdom acts: in Prov. 10 to the end are the proverbs themselves. They enter into details of dangers and how they are to be avoided, and show the path that wisdom leads into, and in which there is safety.

Prov. 30 has a heading, "The words of Agur, the son of Jakeh, even the prophecy: the man spake unto Ithiel, even unto Ithiel and Ucal." As these names are not known, it has been supposed that they are symbolical, and that Agur refers to Solomon. Whether this is so or not does not in any way affect the value of the proverbs in the chapter. There are six sets of four things:
Four generations that are evil. (Prov. 30:11-14.)
Four things that are insatiable. (Prov. 30:15-16)
Four things that are inscrutable. (Prov. 30:18-19)
Four things that are intolerable. (Prov. 30:21-23.)
Four things that are weak, yet wise. (Prov. 30:24-28.)
Four things that are very stately. (Prov. 30:29-31.)

Prov. 32. Here are "the words of king Lemuel, the prophecy that his mother taught him." Who king Lemuel was is not known: this has caused some to suppose that Solomon is again alluded to. The first nine verses speak of the character of a king according to wisdom. The principal things are that his strength should not be given unto women, nor to strong drink, and that his mouth should be opened for those ready to perish, the poor, and the needy. The rest of the chapter is devoted to the description of a virtuous woman. She fills her house with good things, and brings prosperity to the household and honour to her husband. The king and the virtuous woman may in some respects be typical of Christ and the church.

Christians should study the Book of Proverbs, for (even when properly occupied with heavenly things, and the interests of Christ on earth) they are apt to overlook the need of wisdom from heaven to pass through this evil world, and to manage their affairs on earth in the fear of God.


This word occurs in the O.T. only in connection with the Psalms of David and those in the Book of Psalms. David is called "the sweet psalmist of Israel." 2 Sam. 23:1. There can be no doubt that in connection with the 'singers,' and the praising God with instruments, the Psalms were used. We read "sing psalms unto him," "Make a joyful noise unto him with psalms," etc. In N.T. days, for a time at least, the Psalms of David may have been sung by believers, but there were also hymns and spiritual songs, and it is to be remarked that in the singing at the institution of the Lord's supper a hymn (ὑμνέω) is spoken of, not a psalm (ψαλμός). See PASSOVER. The latter Greek word (besides the occurrences which refer to the Book of Psalms) is found in 1 Cor. 14:26; Eph. 5:19; Col. 3:16.

Psalms, Book of.

This book has been called the heart of the Bible. It expresses sentiments produced by the Spirit of Christ, whether of prayer, sorrow, confession, or praise, in the hearts of God's people, in which the ways of God are developed, and become known, with their blessed issue, to the faithful. The book is distinctly prophetic in character, the period covered by the language of the Psalms extending from the rejection of Christ (Ps. 2; Acts 4:25-28) to the Hallelujahs consequent on the establishment of the kingdom. The writers do not merely relate what others did and felt, but expressed what was passing through their own souls. And yet their language is not simply what they felt, but that of the Spirit of Christ that spoke in them, as taking part in the afflictions, the griefs, and the joys of God's people in every phase of their experience. This accounts for Christ being found throughout the Psalms: some refer exclusively to Him, as Ps. 22; in others (though the language is that of the remnant of His people), Christ takes His place with them, making their sufferings His sufferings, and their sorrows His sorrows. In no part of scripture is the inner life of the Lord Jesus disclosed as in the Psalms. The Psalms may be called 'the manual of the earthly choir.' They commence with "Blessed is the man," and end with "Praise ye Jehovah." Man is blessed on earth, and Jehovah is praised from earth.

1 Chr. 16 and 2 Sam. 22 are examples of the immediate occasions on which psalms were composed, and in the headings of the psalms other instances are mentioned; yet these things in no way hinder the Spirit of God from leading the psalmist to utter things that would be fully accomplished in Christ alone. David said, "The Spirit of Jehovah spake by me, and his word was in my tongue." 2 Sam. 23:1-2. Great pains have been taken sometimes to arrange the psalms in a supposed chronological order, but the effect of this is to spoil the whole, for God has Himself ordered their arrangement, and in many places the beauty of the order can be seen.

It must not be forgotten that the O.T. prophets did not grasp what "the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify." 1 Peter 1:11. David's experience could not have caused him to indite Ps. 22.  But being a prophet, it was clearly the Spirit of Christ that was in him that furnished words which would be uttered by Christ on the cross. We have in it a plain instance of a prophetic psalm, and doubtless the spirit of prophecy runs through all.

If this is the main characteristic of the Psalms, they have an aspect entirely different from that in which the book is regarded by many, namely, as a book of Christian experience. The piety that the Psalms breathe is always edifying, and the deep confidence in God expressed in them under trial and sorrow has cheered the heart of God's saints at all times. These holy experiences are to be preserved and cherished; but who has not felt the difficulty of calling on God to destroy his enemies? What Christian can take up as his own language such a sentence as "Happy shall he be that taketh and dasheth thy little ones against the stones." Ps. 137:9. And how can such a sentence be spiritualised? But such appeals are intelligible in regard to a future day, when, apostasy being universal and opposition to God open and avowed, the destruction of His enemies is the only way of deliverance for His people.

Unless the difference of the spirit of the Psalms from that of Christianity be observed, the full light of redemption and of the place of the Christian in Christ is not seen, and the reader is apt to be detained in a legal state. His progress is hindered, and he does not understand the Psalms, nor enter into the gracious sympathies of Christ in their true application. When the attitude of the Jews at the time the Lord was here is remembered, and their bitter opposition to their Messiah, which exists to this day, light is thrown upon their feelings when, under tribulation, their eyes will be opened to see that it was indeed their Messiah that they crucified. Great too will be their persecution from without, from which God will deliver a remnant and bring them into blessing. Into all their sorrows Christ enters, and He suffers in sympathy with them. All these things, and the experiences through which they will pass, are found in the Psalms. But these experiences are not properly those of the Christian.

As the Psalms form a part of holy scripture, their true place and bearing must be seen before they can be rightly interpreted. The writers were not Christians, and could not express christian experience; though their piety, their confidence in God , and the spirit of praise may often be the language of a Christian, and even put a Christian to shame. Christ must be looked for everywhere, either in what He personally passed through, or in His sympathy with His people Israel, which can only end in His bringing them into full blessing on earth, when He will be hailed as "Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace."

The Book of Psalms is in the Hebrew divided into five books, each of which has its own prophetic characteristics. The more these are grasped, the clearer it becomes that God has watched over the order of the psalms. Each book ends with an ascription of praise or doxology.

BOOK 1 extends to the end of Ps. 41, and is occupied with the state of the Jewish remnant of the future (Judah), before they are driven out of Jerusalem: cf. Matt. 24:16. Christ is largely identified with this. The book recalls much of the personal history of the Lord, when He was here, though the bearing of it is future. The light of resurrection dawns for the faithful in this book, Christ having gone through death into fulness of joy at God's right hand: compare Rev. 6:11.

In Ps. 2 (and Ps. 1 and Ps. 2 may be said to be introductory to the whole) we have Christ rejected by Jew and Gentile, yet set as King in Zion, and declared to be the Son of God, having the earth for His possession, and judging His enemies, the nations. In a wider sense Psalms 1 to 8 are introductory; from Ps. 3 to Ps. 7 giving the principles that follow on the rejection of Christ in Ps. 1 and Ps. 2, and Ps. 8 giving His exaltation as Son of man, ending with "O Jehovah our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth." Ps. 16 brings in the personal excellence of Christ and His association with the 'excellent in the earth.'

In some places the appropriateness of the sequence of the psalms, as already remarked, is very apparent, as for instance Psalms 22, 23, 24.  Ps. 22 pictures the sufferings of Christ in the accomplishing of redemption. In Ps. 23 in consequence of redemption being accomplished, the Lord becomes the Shepherd and takes care of the sheep. In Ps. 24 is celebrated the entry of the King of glory through the everlasting gates. In Ps. 40 there comes forth from God One divinely perfect — the true ark of the covenant — who was competent to bring into effect the will of God in all its extent; and at the same time able (by the offering of Himself) to take away the whole system of sacrifices, in which God had found no pleasure.

BOOK 2 embraces Ps. 42 to the end of Ps. 72. The remnant are here viewed as outside Jerusalem, and the city given up to wickedness; but Israel has to be brought back. In Book 1 the name of Jehovah is used all through, but now God is addressed as such: the faithful are cast more entirely on what God is in His own nature and character, when they can no longer approach where Jehovah has put His name: Antichrist prevails there. In Ps. 45 Messiah is introduced, and the remnant celebrate with gladness what God is for His people. Though resurrection may be dimly seen by the faithful in the circumstances of this book, yet what is before them is the restoration of Zion (Ps. 45 — Ps. 48 and Ps. 69:35). God shines out of Zion (Ps. 50:2).  Ps. 69, Ps. 70, and Ps. 71 speak of the humiliation of the remnant, and Christ with them: some of the verses clearly point to Christ personally, as in the reference to the gall and the vinegar. Ps. 69:21. At the close of this book the Psalmist in the doxology arrives at, "Let the whole earth be filled with his glory. Amen and Amen." To which he adds, "The prayers of David, the son of Jesse, are ended."

Ps. 68 shows that God's strength and excellency for Israel was of old in the heavens. The heavens are the seat both of blessing (Ps. 68:9, 18) and of rule (Ps. 68:4, 32-35).  Hence Christ is seen as ascended up on high.

BOOK 3 contains Ps. 73 to the end of Ps. 89. It widens out to the restoration of Israel as a nation, whose general interests are in view. The sanctuary is prominent. The thought is not so much limited, as the previous books, to the Jewish remnant, though faithful ones are spoken of. In this book we have but one psalm with David's name as writer. They are mostly 'for, or of ' Asaph and the sons of Korah — Levites.  In Ps. 88 is the bitter cry of a soul expressive of being subject under a broken law to the wrath of God; and in Ps. 89 praise is rendered for Jehovah's unchangeable covenant with David, extending to the Holy One of Israel as their King. It celebrates the sure mercies of David, though David's house had utterly failed and was cast down.

BOOK 4 embraces Ps. 90 to the end of Ps. 106. It begins with a psalm of Moses. In this section the eternity of Elohim, Israel's Adonai, is seen to have been at all times their dwelling place, as declared in the first verse. It is the answer to the end of Ps. 89: comp. also Ps. 102:23-28 with Ps. 89:44-45. In Ps. 91 Messiah takes His place with Israel; and in Ps. 94 to Ps. 100 Jehovah comes into the world to establish the kingdom in glory and divine order. It is the introduction of the First-begotten into the earth, announced by the cry of the remnant.

BOOK 5 contains Ps. 107 to the end of Ps. 150. This book gives the general results of the government of God. The restoration of Israel amid dangers and difficulties is alluded to; the exaltation of Messiah to God's right hand till His enemies are made His footstool; God's ways with Israel; their whole condition, and the principles on which they stand with God, His law being written in their hearts; ending with full and continued praise after the destruction of their enemies, in which they have part with God.  For Songs of Degrees, see DEGREES.


The principal word used is nebel, and it is supposed to refer to some unknown form of stringed instrument used to accompany the voice. It is at times mentioned along with the harp. 1 Sam. 10:5; Ps. 33:2; Ps. 144:9; Ps. 150:3; etc. The same word is also translated VIOL in Isa. 5:12; Isa. 14:11; Amos 5:23; Amos 6:5. In Dan. 3:5-15 the word is pesanterin.

Ptolemais. [Ptolema'is]



This name of the later Egyptian kings does not occur in scripture, though the acts of the Ptolemies are prophesied of in Daniel. See under ANTIOCHUS.

Pua. [Pu'a]



1.  One of the midwives who preserved the male Hebrew children, contrary to the commandment of the king. Ex. 1:15.

2. Father of Tola, of the tribe of Issachar. Judges 10:1.

3. The name apparently given to PHUVAH in 1 Chr. 7:1.


The persons who farmed the taxes levied by the Romans, a certain sum being payable for each district. These then farmed out smaller portions to others, or engaged them to collect the money. The whole system was bad, and was capable of abuse by the collectors demanding more than they should. The counsel given by John the Baptist to the Publicans was: "Exact no more than that which is appointed you." Luke 3:12-13. Zacchaeus would appear to have been a just and liberal man; he speaks of restoring money taken 'by false accusation': being 'the chief among the publicans,' he remedied such things as were under his control.

The obligation to pay taxes to the Romans was very galling to the Jews, and those engaged in collecting them were accounted unworthy of any respect, hence 'publicans and sinners' are often classed together; the Lord was derided by the religious people for entering their houses: they mockingly called Him "a friend of publicans and sinners." But God's grace was for all, and Matthew was called from his office of publican to be one of the apostles. Matt. 5:46-47; Matt. 10:3; Mark 2:15-16; Luke 5:27-30; Luke 18:10-13.

Publius. [Pub'lius]

The chief man, or governor, of Melita (Malta) when Paul was shipwrecked. He treated the company courteously, and Paul healed his father. Acts 28:7-8.

Pudens. [Pu'dens]

Perhaps the husband of Claudia mentioned in 2 Tim. 4:21. These two, with Linus, are supposed to have been British subjects at Rome. The Latin poet Martial wrote some epigrams about the same date, in which he mentions three friends, whose names agree with the above. This has led to the supposition.

Puhites. [Pu'hites]

A family in Kirjath-jearim. 1 Chr. 2:53.


1. King of Assyria who invaded Israel in the reign of Menahem, who gave him 1,000 talents of silver to confirm the kingdom to him. 2 Kings 15:19; 1 Chr. 5:26. Pul has not been identified among the kings of Assyria. There was one named Pulu, who took the name of Tiglath-pileser 2 B.C. 745-727, and some have supposed that this king was Pul; but these dates do not agree with scripture, and in 1 Chr. 5:26, Pul is mentioned as a distinct king from Tiglath-pileser. Besides, Pulu reigned only 18 years, whereas the events recorded of Pul in 2 Kings 15:19 were 31 years earlier than those concerning Tiglath-pileser in 2 Kings 15:29. Rawlinson supposes Pul to be identical with a king called on the monuments Vul-lush or Iva-lush.

2. A district or people to whom tidings will be sent of Jehovah's fame and glory as seen upon the earth in a future day. Isa. 66:19. The LXX read PHUD, which has led to the thought that Phut may have been in the original. Phut is associated with Lud in Ezek. 27:10. See PHUT.


migdal. Some temporary platform on which Ezra stood, Neh. 8:4; probably the same as that called 'the stairs' in Neh. 9:4. The Hebrew word is often translated 'tower.'


Any species of grain or seeds used for food. Dan. 1:12, 16


The law required that capital punishment should be inflicted for reviling a parent, blasphemy, sabbath-breaking, witchcraft, adultery, man-stealing, idolatry, murder, etc. Capital punishment was by stoning, Deut. 13:10; burning, Lev. 20:14; the sword, Ex. 32:27; and hanging, Deut. 21:22-23. It appears that those who sinned at Baal-peor were first slain, and then hanged or impaled: Num. 25:4-5; the word is yaqa, and for hanging is used only here and in 2 Sam. 21:6, 9, 13, when the seven descendants of Saul were 'hung up to the Lord,' which may also signify being impaled. There is no record in scripture of crucifixion being practised among the Jews. Capital punishment was at times carried out in ways not mentioned in the law: sawing asunder and cutting with harrows and axes, 2 Sam. 12:31; Heb. 11:37; precipitation, 2 Chr. 25:12; Luke 4:29.

For minor offences there was flogging, which was restricted to forty stripes. Deut. 25:3.  A whip with three thongs accounts for the 'forty stripes less one.' 2 Cor. 11:24. Also placing in the stocks. Jer. 20:2-3. In other cases the punishment was according to the offence: "eye for eye, tooth for tooth," etc. Ex. 21:24-25. Imprisonment for definite periods was not customary as a punishment, though persons were imprisoned. Gen. 39:20; 2 Kings 25:27; Jer. 37:4, 18. Punishment was needed in the government of the nation of Israel, as it is in any nation now. God's four direct punishments were "the sword, the famine, the noisome beast, and the pestilence." Ezek. 14:21.

The Lord, referring to the law of an individual demanding an eye for an eye, enjoined forgiveness of personal wrongs; but this in no way interferes with civil government. Christians are exhorted to obey the ordained powers, pay tribute, etc.

Punites. [Pu'nites]


Punon. [Pu'non]

One of the later halting places of the Israelites. Num. 33:42-43.

Pur, Purim.

A feast, signifying 'lot or lots.' Haman cast lots to find an auspicious day for the destruction of the Jews. On this being averted their deliverance was commemorated by an annual feast. Esther 3:7; Esther 9:24-32. It fell on the 14th and 15th of Adar. This feast is not mentioned by name in the N.T. though some suppose it to be alluded to in John 5:1; but of this there is no intimation, and such a feast did not call the Lord to go to Jerusalem. The feast is still kept by the Jews: the Book of Esther is read, and curses are pronounced on Haman and on his wife; and blessings on Mordecai, and on Harbonah.


In the law there were many ceremonial defilements, each of which had its appointed purification. To these the scribes and Pharisees added others, such as washing the hands before eating, washing cups and plates — being very zealous in these things, while within they were full of extortion and excess. Mark 7:2-8. In Christianity the purification required extends to the heart, Acts 15:9; James 4:8; the soul, 1 Peter 1:22; and the conscience through the blood of Christ. Heb. 9:14.


A colour often mentioned with blue and scarlet in connection with the tabernacle. Ex. 25:4, etc. Among the spoils taken from the Midianites under Gideon was "purple raiment that was on the kings," and it is used as a symbol of royalty. Judges 8:26. In derision the soldiers put a crown of thorns and a 'purple' robe on the Lord, as king of the Jews. Mark 15:17, 20; John 19:2, 5. The rich man in Luke 16:19 was clothed in purple; and papal Rome is seen as a woman clothed in purple and scarlet, royalty and splendour. Rev. 17:4; Rev. 18:12, 16.

Purpose of God.

That God has His own purpose before Him, should ever be remembered. Behind all His outward acts towards His ancient people Israel, His dealings with the nations of the earth, and His discipline of the saints who form the church, there is His purpose concerning all, and to this purpose everything is made to bend, and towards its accomplishment everything in some way or other (however hidden from the sight of man) is working. "The Lord of hosts hath sworn, saying, Surely as I have thought, so shall it come to pass; and as I have purposed, so shall it stand . . . . This is the purpose that is purposed upon the whole earth: and this is the hand that is stretched out upon all the nations. For the Lord of hosts hath purposed, and who shall disannul it?" Isa. 14:24-27. It is not a purpose formed because events have turned out as they have in the world's history; but the events that have happened serve to bring about God's purpose, and His purpose is an eternal purpose. This is more fully revealed, though not more certain, when the church is spoken of. He "worketh all things after the counsel of his own will."  "According to the eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord." Eph. 1:11; Eph. 3:11.


A bag for money or weights. Prov. 1:14; Isa. 46:6; Luke 10:4; Luke 22:35-36; John 12:6. In Matt. 10:9; Mark 6:8, the 'girdle' is alluded to, a portion of which was used as a purse.


qereb. The 'inwards' of an animal, as it is often translated elsewhere. Ex. 12:9.



Puteoli. [Pute'oli]

A port in Italy on the N.E. of the bay of Naples, where Paul landed on his way to Rome. Acts 28:13. It has suffered both by sieges and by eruptions, and is now only a poor Italian town. A few piers of the harbour remain. It is now called Pozzuoli.

Putiel. [Pu'tiel]

Father-in-law of Eleazar, son of Aaron. Ex. 6:25.


dishon. This animal is only mentioned as clean for food. Deut. 14:5. The word pygarg signifies, as some think, 'white on its hind quarters,' which agrees with some of the antelopes; others think it is probably a gazelle, and others the addax, the Antilope addax.


selav. This is generally believed to have been the common quail, the coturnix vulgaris.  It migrates, but is so tired when it arrives at its destination that it is easily captured. They are still called salwah by the Arabs. Scripture speaks of their being brought with the wind, and this agrees with their habits; they do not seem to be able to fly against the wind, and therefore wait for a favourable breeze. They were twice provided in abundance for the Israelites. The statement about the birds being "two cubits high upon [or above] the face of the earth" (Num. 11:31) doubtless refers to the height they flew when tired; and this corresponds with the way in which they are still caught, namely, by a number of persons enclosing them in a ring and gradually drawing closer to the centre, when the birds would be crowded together in their endeavour to escape. Thousands have been caught in a day in modern times. Ex. 16:13; Num. 11:31-32; Ps. 105:40.


The word pesilim is commonly translated 'graven images,' or 'carved images'; therefore in Judges 3:19, 26 the word is better rendered as in margin of A.V. 'graven images.' It is not supposed to refer to a place where stone was excavated, but to some images or blocks of stone so called which stood there.

Under Jerusalem there is a quarry from whence in early days much stone was taken. See JERUSALEM.

Quartus. [Quar'tus]

A 'brother' whose salutation was sent to Rome. Rom. 16:23.


A party of 'four soldiers.' Four such parties were told off to guard Peter when in prison, that they might relieve each other every three hours in the night. Acts 12:4.


This is applied, as now, to one reigning in her own right, as the queen of Sheba, 2 Chr. 9:1-12; and Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, Acts 8:27. The title was also given to the consort of a reigning sovereign, as queen Esther; and to the queen-mother, who often had great influence at court, as Bathsheba, Jezebel, etc.

Queen of Heaven.


Quicken, to:

chayah. This term is used in the O.T. with the force of 'to revive, or give new life' in a moral sense: hence we read "quicken me again." In Ps. 119 the psalmist asked nine times to be quickened — according to God's word, or His righteousness, or His judgements, etc. See also Ps. 71:20; Ps. 80:18; Ps. 143:11. In the N.T. the word is ζωοποιέω, and is invariably employed in the sense of making alive those who are in the state, or under the power of death. It is therefore sometimes used as the equivalent of resurrection, but the word is never applied to the wicked dead. It is God's work: the term is employed in connection with the Father (John 5:21), with the Son (John 5:21), and with the Spirit. John 6:63. It is characteristic of the last Adam that He is a quickening Spirit. 1 Cor. 15:45. In Christ all will be quickened. Evidently the principle of divine sovereignty is involved in the term. God makes alive according to His will. The believer is said to have been quickened together (συζωοποιέω) with Christ, and is thus brought spiritually into association with Christ.

A word may be added on the distinction between 'new birth' and 'quickening.' It lies in the latter implying a making alive in view of an order of things and a state different from that in which the one quickened had lived previously. This is not necessarily the result of new birth; for instance, Israel will have to be born again in view of earthly blessing (John 3:12; Ezek. 36:25-26); but believers now are not only born again, but, as quickened with Christ, they are made to live spiritually in that sphere of holy love into which Christ has entered by resurrection, in order that He might introduce them into it; they thus have passed from death to life.


ἡ Σύρτισ. The Syrtis is a quicksand on the north African coast between long. 10 and 20 E. Acts 27:17. There are properly two, called the major and the minor; it would have been the major one on the east of the bay that they were in danger of. It is now called the Gulf of Sidra.


The receptacle for arrows. Gen. 27:3; Lam. 3:13. It is used symbolically as a place of safety, strength, etc. Job 39:23; Ps. 127:5; Isa. 49:2; Jer. 5:16.


The quotations from the Old Testament in the New are important as proving incontestably that God is the author of the whole. It is not simply that Moses or David said this or that — though the quotations prove that Moses was the writer of the Pentateuch — but they are introduced by such words as "God commanded," Matt. 15:4; "The Holy Ghost saith," Heb. 3:7; "David himself said by the Holy Ghost," Mark 12:36; "Spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet," Acts 28:25. Then the whole is spoken of as 'the scriptures,' which are all inspired by God. Whatever therefore is inscribed with 'It is written' has the authority of God Himself.

The quotations from the prophets are introduced in various ways.

1. "In order ( ἵνα) that it might be fulfilled." Matt. 1:22, etc. The event happens that that prophecy should be fulfilled.

2.  "So that ( ὅπως) it might be fulfilled." Matt. 2:23, etc. Such events fall within the scope of the prophecy, and may also apply at other times.

3. "Then (τότε) was fulfilled." Matt. 2:17, etc. The prophecy applied to that event, without its being the purpose of the prophecy.

4.  "Was fulfilled." Mark 15:28. "This day is fulfilled." Luke 4:21. The prophecy was then and there fulfilled.

The citations also illustrate how the scriptures, both the Old and the New Testaments, may be applied, as when the Lord quoted from Deuteronomy in repelling the temptations of Satan. See also the different applications of Hab. 2:4. — In Rom. 1:17, it is a question of righteousness: "the just shall live by faith." In Gal. 3:11, it is in contrast to the law: "the just shall live by faith." And in Heb. 10:38, it is in contrast to drawing back: "the just shall live by faith."

The quotations are from Moses, the Psalms, and the Prophets. In those days the books were not divided into chapters and verses as now, which accounts for various expressions. As in Mark 2:26, a quotation is from '[the section] of Abiathar the high priest.' 1 Sam. 21:1-6.  In Luke 20:37, 'Moses showed in [the section on] the bush.' Ex. 3.  In Rom. 11:2, 'the scripture says in [the history of] Elias.' 1 Kings 17 - 1 Kings 19. This may also account for Matt. 27:9-10, where the quotation is said to be from Jeremiah — that prophet being anciently the first in the Book of the Prophets, his name may have been used as a sort of heading.

Most of the quotations are from the Septuagint (LXX), doubtless because it was then better known than the Hebrew, in the same way that the A.V. is now constantly quoted, even where it is not an exact translation. Some quotations are not literally from the Hebrew or the LXX, the Holy Spirit in alluding to them gives them a fulness and power beyond the revelation of the Old Testament.*

* In "The New Testament Handbook" the quotations as they stand in the Hebrew (shown by the A.V.) and in the LXX (by an English translation) are given in full. (G. Morrish, Paternoster Square.) In Horne's "Introduction" the Hebrew and Greek text are also given.

Raamah. [Ra'amah]

Fourth son of Cush, a son of Ham. He was father of Sheba and Dedan, whose descendants are supposed to have settled along the shores of the Persian Gulf.  Merchants of Raamah traded with Tyre, who were doubtless connected with the above. Gen. 10:7; 1 Chr. 1:9; Ezek. 27:22.

Raamiah. [Raami'ah]


Raamses, [Raam'ses] Rameses. [Ram'eses]

District in Goshen in Lower Egypt, east of the Nile, in which Jacob and his descendants were placed, and in which they built a treasure city of the same name for Pharaoh. It was from thence the Israelites began their march out of Egypt. Gen. 47:11; Ex. 1:11; Ex. 12:37; Num. 33:3, 5. It is not identified. It is a disputed point as to whether the name of the district or of the city had any connection with the Egyptian kings named Rameses.

Rabbah, [Rab'bah] Rabbath. [Rab'bath]

1.  The fortified capital of the Ammonites. It was not included in the cities taken by the tribes on the east of the Jordan. Deut. 3:11; Joshua 13:25. Joab, however, attacked it, and, during its siege, Uriah, by the instigation of David, lost his life. The city was eventually taken and destroyed. 2 Sam. 11:1; 2 Sam. 12:26-29; 2 Sam. 17:27; 1 Chr. 20:1. Subsequently, when the strength of Israel was broken, it appears to have recovered itself, for we find its doom announced in the prophets. Jer. 49:2-3; Ezek. 21:20; Ezek. 25:5; Amos 1:14. Identified with Amman 31 57' N, 35 57' E. There are many ruins on the site, but they are judged to belong to the Roman period, when a city, called Philadelphia, was built there. A stream rises in the midst of the city, and this fact, together with its being the last place to obtain water for crossing the desert, doubtless was the cause of its being called 'the city of waters.' 2 Sam. 12:27.

2. City of Judah, near Kirjath-jearim. Joshua 15:60. Identified by some with ruins at Rubba, 31 40' N, 34 58' E.


A title of respect among the Jews, signifying 'master, teacher,' but is not known to have been used till the time of Herod the Great. It was applied to the Lord, though often translated 'master' in the A.V. Mark 9:5; Mark 11:21; Mark 14:45; John 1:38, 49; John 3:2, 26; John 4:31; John 6:25; John 9:2; John 11:8. Jesus forbade the disciples being called Rabbi, for one was their Master (καθηγητής), even Christ. Matt. 23:8. According to the Jews the gradations of honour rose from Rab to Rabbi, and thence to Rabban or Rabboni.

Rabbith. [Rab'bith]

City in Issachar. Joshua 19:20. Identified with Raba, 32 23' N, 35 23' E.

Rabboni. [Rabbo'ni]

Lit. 'My master, or teacher.' Mark 10:51 (translated 'Lord' in A.V.); John 20:16.  See RABBI.

Rabmag. [Rab-mag]

This is not a proper name, but the title of Nergal-sharezer. Jer. 39:3, 13. It has been supposed by some to signify 'chief of the Magi,' and by others, 'chief priest.' On the monuments it is given as ruba emga, which has been interpreted 'the glorious prince.' This would be an appropriate title if Nergal-sharezer is the same person who became Neriglissar the king.

Rabsaris. [Rab-saris]

This, like Rab-mag, is a title, its meaning being 'chief eunuch.' It was the title of one who accompanied the Assyrian army when it was sent against Hezekiah. 2 Kings 18:17. One of the princes of Nebuchadnezzar at the siege of Jerusalem also bore this title. Jer. 39:3, 13.

Rabshakeh.  [Rab'-shakeh]

This is a title, signifying 'chief cup-bearer,' borne by an officer who was sent by Sennacherib with the Tartan (general) and a Rab-saris to Jerusalem. He was the chief spokesman; and from the fact of his being able to speak in the Jews' language, he is supposed to have been either a proselyte or an apostate Jew. If so he may possibly have been acquainted with Isa. 10:5-6, for he says, "Am I now come up without the Lord against this place to destroy it? The Lord said to me, Go up against this land and destroy it." 2 Kings 18:17-37. On the other hand, he profanely classes the God of Israel with all the gods that could not protect their worshippers from his master. 2 Kings 19:4, 8; Isa. 36:2-22; Isa. 37:4-8.


An Aramaic word signifying 'worthless,' a term of great contempt. Matt. 5:22.


One of the Grecian contests used by the apostle to illustrate the Christian race. All ran, but only one received the prize; let each, casting aside every weight and sin, so run as to obtain; not for a fading crown (of laurel, pine, or parsley), but an incorruptible one. 1 Cor. 9:24-25; Heb. 12:1. This is not a contest in which the unconverted have to strive, with the aim of obtaining salvation; but it is a race the Christian has to run as a matter of experience. Paul said, "I press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus" — of being with Him in the glory. Phil. 3:14.

Rachab. [Ra'chab]


Rachal. [Ra'chal]

Place where David was 'wont to haunt.' 1 Sam. 30:29. Not identified.

Rachel. [Ra'chel]

The beautiful daughter of Laban, for whom Jacob served seven years, which seemed to him but a few days, because of his great love for her. When the time was expired Jacob was cheated by Laban, and Leah was given him instead. He served another seven years for Rachel. She was at first childless, and foolishly said to Jacob, "Give me children, or else I die"; for which she was duly rebuked by her husband. Apparently she prayed to God, for we read that He 'hearkened' to her: she bore Joseph and then Benjamin, at whose birth she died. Jacob set up a pillar at her grave.

It was Rachel who stole the household gods of her father, and then with cunning concealed them. Otherwise we read nothing of her character: at home she had evidently been in a bad school. Her history is given in Gen. 29 — Gen. 35.  In the N.T. she is represented as weeping for her children when Herod slew the young children, Matt. 2:17-18, a fulfilment of that spoken in Jer. 31:15 (where she is called RAHEL), though the circumstances in the two cases were different. A mother in Israel weeping for the loss of her children applies to both.

Raddai. [Rad'dai]

Son of Jesse and brother of David. 1 Chr. 2:14.

Ragau. [Ra'gau]

See REU.

Raguel. [Ragu'el]


Rahab. [Ra'hab]

A poetical name, signifying 'insolence,' given to Egypt. Ps. 87:4; Ps. 89:10; Isa. 51:9. The same word occurs in Isa. 30:7, where the R.V. reads "therefore have I called her Rahab that sitteth still."

Rahab, [Ra'hab] Rachab. [Ra'chab]

The harlot who secreted the spies that Joshua sent into the land. She had heard of the wonders of God in delivering Israel out of Egypt, and she was aware of the fear that had fallen on the inhabitants. In faith she risked her life in hiding the spies. Her stratagem was successful, and she made an agreement with the spies, that if she did not betray them, her life and the life of her family should be saved when the city was taken. This was only to be binding on them if she brought all into her house, under the token of the scarlet line, hung out at the window from which the spies were let down, the house being built upon the wall. Joshua was careful that the compact should be respected, and she and her relatives were saved. Joshua 2:1-22; Joshua 6:17-25.

Rahab was a traitor to her country, and lied to the king; but it was to throw herself under the protection of the God of Israel. Her falsehood is not commended; her faith is, Heb. 11:31; and her works justified her (before men). James 2:25. That the RACHAB of Matt. 1:5 is the same as Rahab is evidenced by the article; it was the Rachab mentioned in the O.T. (the Greek language having no letter H, a CH [Χ] is substituted). That such women as Rahab and Thamar should be mentioned in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus shows the divine origin of the list, for man would probably have omitted these names. Their insertion exalts the grace that superabounds over all sin.

Raham. [Ra'ham]

Son of Shema, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:44.

Rahel. [Ra'hel]



Palestine differed from Egypt in that its vegetation was dependent on the rain from heaven, instead of having to be watered from the river. Rain fell regularly except when God withheld it in chastisement. Deut. 11:11-17. We read of the 'early rain' and the 'latter rain.' The early rain was connected with the sowing of seed; the month Bul signifies 'rain,' which agrees with about our October; and the latter rain in spring (about our February). By recent statistics the seasons appear to have somewhat altered, and most rain now falls from November to March inclusive. It is also judged that the cutting down of trees to make charcoal has affected the fall of rain in some districts.


The 'bow set in the clouds' was given by God to Noah as a token that He would not again destroy the world by a flood. Gen. 9:13-16. That the rainbow, as is now known, is caused by the refraction of light on drops of rain, need not cause any difficulty. The rainbow may have appeared to Noah before, but it was not appointed by God as a token until after the flood. The word translated 'set' (nathan) is sometimes translated 'appoint,' as in Joshua 20:2. Others judge it to be more probable that the rainbow had not been seen prior to the flood, the state of the atmosphere being different from what it became after the deluge.

The rainbow is mentioned in Rev. 4:3; Rev. 10:1, as a symbol that, notwithstanding all the sin of man, God has been faithful to His promise respecting the earth. The beautiful bow in the cloud should ever call to mind His abiding faithfulness.


Dried grapes, some of which are very fine in Palestine. The raisins are always spoken of as in bunches or clusters. 1 Sam. 25:18; 1 Sam. 30:12; 2 Sam. 16:1; 1 Chr. 12:40. See FLAGON.

Rakem. [Ra'kem]

Son of Sheresh, a descendant of Manasseh. 1 Chr. 7:16.

Rakkath. [Rak'kath]

Fortified city of Naphtali. Joshua 19:35.  Judged to be the same as TIBERIAS in the N.T. Identified with Tubariya, 32 47' N, 35 32' E.

Rakkon. [Rak'kon]

City in Dan. Joshua 19:46. Identified with Tel er Rekkeit, 32 8' N, 34 47' E.


1.  Son of Hezron and father of Amminadab. Ruth 4:19; 1 Chr. 2:9-10. Called ARAM in Matt. 1:3-4; Luke 3:33.

2. Son of Jerahmeel. 1 Chr. 2:25, 27.

3. Elihu is described as "the son of Barachel the Buzite, of the kindred of Ram." Job 32:2.


The male of sheep. As the strength of the flock it was constantly offered in the sacrifices. See SHEEP.

Rama. [Ra'ma]

The place where Rachel was said to be 'weeping for her children.'  The prophecy is in the N.T. applied to the occasion of the massacre of the infants by Herod. Matt. 2:18. The same as  RAMAH No. 1.

Ramah. [Ra'mah]

1.  City of Benjamin. It was on the frontier between Judah and Israel. Baasha, king of Israel, sought to build or fortify the place against Asa, king of Judah, but this was averted by Israel being attacked by the king of Syria at the request of Asa, who sent him a rich present of gold and silver. Joshua 18:25; Judges 4:5; Judges 19:13; 1 Kings 15:17-22; 2 Chr. 16:1-6; Ezra 2:26; Neh. 7:30; Neh. 11:33; Isa. 10:29; Jer. 31:15; Jer. 40:1; Hosea 5:8. Called RAMA in Matt. 2:18. Identified with er Ram, 31 51 N, 35 14' E.

2. City of Ephraim, where Samuel the prophet dwelt. 1 Sam. 1:19; 1 Sam. 2:11; 1 Sam. 7:17; 1 Sam. 8:4; 1 Sam. 15:34; 1 Sam. 16:13; 1 Sam. 19:18-23; 1 Sam. 20:1; 1 Sam. 22:6; 1 Sam. 25:1; 1 Sam. 28:3. It is called RAMATHAIM-ZOPHIM in 1 Sam. 1:1. Not identified.

3. Fortified city of Naphtali. Joshua 19:36. Identified with er Rameh, 32 57' N, 35 22' E.

4. Boundary city in Asher. Joshua 19:29. Identified by some with Ramia, 33 7' N, 35 18' E.

5. A contracted form of RAMOTH GILEAD. 2 Kings 8:29; 2 Chr. 22:6.

Ramath of the South. [Ra'math of the South.]


Ramathlehi.  [Ra'math-lehi]


Ramathmizpeh.  [Ra'math-mizpeh]

See MIZPAH No. 1.

Ramathaimzophim. [Ramatha'im-zo'phim]

See RAMAH No. 2.

Ramathite. [Ra'mathite]

Designation of Shimei as an inhabitant of some place named Ramah. 1 Chr. 27:27.

Rameses. [Ram'eses]


Ramiah. [Rami'ah]

One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:25.

Ramoth. [Ra'moth]

1.  Levitical city in Issachar. 1 Chr. 6:73. In the list of these cities in Joshua 21:28-29 Ramoth is omitted, but JARMUTH is perhaps the same place. See REMETH. Identified by some with er Rameh, 32 21' N, 35 10' E.

2. One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:29.

Ramoth Gilead.  [Ra'moth Gil'ead]

Fortified city on the east of the Jordan and south of the Jabbok, in the tribe of Gad. It was one of Solomon's strongholds, but it afterwards fell into the hands of the Syrians. Ahab lost his life in trying to recover it. Joram was successful in taking it, but was wounded by the Syrians. We do not read of it later. 1 Kings 4:13; 1 Kings 22:4-29; 2 Kings 8:28; 2 Kings 9:1-14; 2 Chr. 18:2-28; 2 Chr. 22:5. See RAMAH No. 5 and MIZPAH No. 1. It is called RAMOTH IN GILEAD, a Levitical city and a city of refuge. Deut. 4:43; Joshua 20:8; Joshua 21:38; 1 Kings 22:3; 1 Chr. 6:80. Identified by some with es Salt, 32 2' N, 35 43' E.  Others prefer Reimun, 32 16' N, 35 49' E.

Ramoth in Gilead. [Ra'moth in Gilead]


Ramoth, South. [Ra'moth, South]


Rams' Horns.

These, as trumpets, are mentioned only at the taking of Jericho, though doubtless they were used at other times. Joshua 6:4-13.

Rams' Skins.

These, dyed red, formed a covering for the tabernacle, over which were placed badgers' skins, q.v.  Ex. 25:5; Ex. 26:14; Ex. 35:7, 23; Ex. 36:19; Ex. 39:34 .


The 'ranks' drawn up to protect the king. 2 Kings 11:8, 15; 2 Chr. 23:14.

Rank, to Keep.

A trait in disciplined troops, expert in war. 1 Chr. 12:33.


In the O.T., except in Ex. 21:30, the word is kopher, lit. 'a covering,' a cognate word to kaphar, often translated 'atonement.'  None "can by any means redeem his brother, nor give to God a ransom for him." Ps. 49:7. But God could say, "Deliver him from going down to the pit: I have found a ransom." Job 33:24. The word occurs also in Ex. 30:12; Job 36:18; Prov. 6:35; Prov. 13:8; Prov. 21:18; Isa. 43:3. In the N.T. it is λύτρον, or ἀντίλυτρον, from 'to loose, set free.'  Christ gave Himself, His life, a ransom for many: the precious blood of Christ witnesses that every claim of God against the believer has been answered. Matt. 20:28; Mark 10:45; 1 Tim. 2:6.

Rapha. [Ra'pha]

1.  Son of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:2.

2. Son of Binea. 1 Chr. 8:37. Called REPHAIAH in 1 Chr. 9:43.

3. Rapha, occurs in the margin of 2 Sam. 21:16, 18, 20; 1 Chr. 20:4, where it is 'the giant' in the text. An ancestor of certain warriors.

Raphu. [Ra'phu]

Father of Palti one of the twelve spies. Num. 13:9.

Rapture of the Saints.

A term often applied to the 'catching up' in the clouds of the saints, including both those raised from among the dead, and those who will be alive on the earth at that time, to meet the Lord in the air at His coming, according to 1 Thess. 4:16-17. This preliminary detail in the coming of the Lord is of great interest to the church, which is set to wait for Him. See ADVENT, SECOND.


The word oreb, from a root signifying 'to be black,' appears to be used not only for the common raven, but for birds of the same genus (corvus), as the crow, the rook, etc., for we read of "every raven after his kind" as being unclean. Lev. 11:15; Deut. 14:14. The raven, when sent from the ark by Noah, could doubtless find food (though the dove could not), because it can feed upon carrion, though it went 'to and fro' till the waters were dried up. Gen. 8:7. That the carnivorous ravens should bring flesh as well as bread to Elijah shows God's miraculous power; He caused them to feed His servant. 1 Kings 17:4, 6. They are greedy eaters, and have no storehouse nor barn, yet God feeds them, and will surely feed those who trust in Him. Job 38:41; Ps. 147:9; Prov. 30:17; Cant. 5:11; Isa. 34:11; Luke 12:24. There are several species of the raven in Palestine: it belongs to the order Insessores, family Corvidae.

Reaia. [Reai'a]

Son of Micah, a descendant of Reuben. 1 Chr. 5:5.

Reaiah. [Reai'ah]

1. Son of Shobal, a son of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:2.

2. Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:47; Neh. 7:50.

Reba. [Re'ba]

One of the five kings of the Midianites slain by Joshua. Num. 31:8; Joshua 13:21.

Rebecca, [Rebec'ca] Rebekah. [Rebek'ah]

Daughter of Bethuel the nephew of Abraham, and wife of Isaac. Abraham's servant conducted her to one, whom she had not before seen — to Isaac, who had in a figure been received back from the dead after having been offered to God on the altar: beautiful type of the saints who form the bride of Christ being led by the Holy Spirit on their journey to be the 'wife' of the Risen One "whom having not seen they love," and to whom they can now be companions in spirit, being of His 'kindred,' whom He is not ashamed to own as brethren.

Rebekah, when among the Philistines, denied her true relationship with Isaac, and in like manner the professing church has been unfaithful to her Lord.

Twenty years after her marriage Rebecca became the mother of twin-sons, Esau and Jacob. The latter whom God said should be the first, was her favourite son; but she lacked faith, and did not wait for the promised blessing to fall upon Jacob in God's time, but sought it in her own cunning way. Her death is not recorded, but she was buried with her husband in the cave of Machpelah. Gen. 22:23; Gen. 24 — Gen. 29; Gen. 49:31; Rom. 9:10.



Rechab. [Re'chab]

1. Son of Rimmon: he and his brother Baanah assassinated Ish-bosheth, son of Saul, for which they were put to death by David. 2 Sam. 4:2-12.

2. Father of Jehonadab, or Jonadab, founder of the RECHABITES. 2 Kings 10:15, 23; Jer. 35:6-19.

3. Descendant of Hemath, a Kenite: perhaps the same as No. 2. 1 Chr. 2:55.

4. Father of Malchiah, who repaired the dung gate of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:14.

Rechabites. [Re'chabites]

Descendants of Rechab, the father of Jonadab. The account of these people is given by themselves: they abstained from wine, and they did not build houses, nor sow seed. Being nomads they did not plant vineyards, nor had any; but all their days they dwelt in tents. Though called Rechabites, they trace their mode of life to what their ancestor Jonadab had commanded. When compelled to dwell in Jerusalem for fear of the Chaldeans and Syrians, Jeremiah called them together and offered them wine; but they refused to drink any, and gave the above explanation.

God instructed Jeremiah to hold up the obedience of the Rechabites as an example to the men of Judah. These men faithfully obeyed their father, whereas Judah had not obeyed their God. It was said of them that because of their faithfulness to their father's commands Jonadab should not want a man to stand before God for ever. The Rabbis interpret this to signify that they should minister in the sanctuary, and say they became united to the Levites; but we find nothing of this in scripture. Jer. 35:1-19. Travellers in the East have met with people who trace their origin to Rechab, and who appeal to the scripture as a proof of God having preserved them. There are still about 60,000 of them, dwelling in tents in the oases of the desert.

Rechah. [Re'chah]

Apparently a place or city in Judah. 1 Chr. 4:12. Not identified.


Except in 1 Sam. 29:4, and 2 Chr. 29:24, the Hebrew word is kaphar, which is more than sixty times translated 'to make an atonement;' and this rendering suits sufficiently well in the places where 'reconciliation' is read in the A.V.  Lev. 6:30; Lev. 8:15; Lev. 16:20; Ezek. 45:15, 17, 20; Dan. 9:24.  In the N.T. the last clause of Heb. 2:17 should be translated "to make 'propitiation' for the sins of the people." Elsewhere the word translated 'reconciliation' is καταλλαγή, and kindred words, signifying 'a thorough change.'

By the death of the Lord Jesus on the cross, God annulled in grace the distance which sin had brought in between Himself and man, in order that all things might, through Christ, be presented agreeably to Himself. Believers are already reconciled, through Christ's death, to be presented holy, unblameable, and unreproveable (a new creation). God was in Christ, when Christ was on earth, reconciling the world unto Himself, not imputing unto them their trespasses; but now that the love of God has been fully revealed in the cross, the testimony has gone out world wide, beseeching men to be reconciled to God. 2 Cor. 5:19-20. The end is that God may have His pleasure in man.

Christ also abolished the system of the law that Jew and Gentile might be reconciled together unto God, the two being formed in Christ into one new man. Eph. 2:15-16. Reconciliation will extend in result to all things in heaven and on earth, Col. 1:20; not to things under the earth (the lost), though these will have to confess that "Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father." Phil. 2:10-11.


One in high office, who kept the records of the kingdom, a remembrancer. 2 Sam. 8:16; 2

Kings 18:18; 1 Chr. 18:15; Isa. 36:3, 22.

Red Heifer.


Red Sea.

This sea is renowned in O.T. history on account of the miraculous passage made for the Israelites, and the destruction of their enemies therein.

The Red Sea, situated on the east of Egypt and the west of South Arabia, is somewhat in the form of the letter Y. Its southern extremity opens into the Indian Ocean, from whence it runs N.N.W. for about 1,400 miles, when it divides into two branches; the one on the east being the Gulf of Akaba, about 112 miles long; and the one on the west, the Gulf of Suez, about 200 miles long. It is the latter that the Israelites crossed, and, as is supposed, farther north than the gulf now extends, but the position is not known. It is to this branch that the Suez Canal has been attached, opening a passage to the Mediterranean Sea.

THE PASSAGE OF THE RED SEA. The number of the Israelites was probably about two millions. They encamped by the sea shore and Pharaoh naturally thought they were entangled in the land. With his army and his chariots he pursued after them. The Israelites greatly feared, but Moses said, "Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of Jehovah." The angel of God and the pillar of the cloud went between the Israelites and the Egyptians. To the Israelites the cloud gave light, but to the Egyptians it was a cloud of darkness, all night. Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and God caused a strong east wind to blow all that night, and the waters were divided, and the Israelites went over on dry land.

Pharaoh had not yet learned the power of Jehovah, and the Egyptians pursued them. God fought for the Israelites: He embarrassed the Egyptians, took off the chariot wheels, and thus so hindered them that they began to see that Jehovah was opposing them. It was, however, too late to retreat, Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and it returned in its strength, and they were overwhelmed. Their dead bodies were cast up on the sea shore.

The faith of the Israelites was confirmed by the destruction of the Egyptians: they feared Jehovah, and believed Jehovah and His servant Moses. He and the Israelites could then sing the song of redemption, and praise Him who had purchased them. He also would plant them in the mountain of His inheritance, yea, in the sanctuary which His hands had established. Jehovah shall reign for ever and ever. Ex. 14, Ex. 15.  For the typical teaching of the passage of the Red Sea, see JORDAN.


This term signifies 'being set free, brought back.' God having smitten the firstborn of the Egyptians, claimed all the firstborn of Israel, and received the Levites instead of them; but there not being an equivalent number of the Levites, the residue of the firstborn were redeemed by money: they were thus set free. Num. 3:44-51. So the land, or one who sold himself, could be redeemed. Lev. 25:23-24, 47, 54.  The Israelites were redeemed out of Egypt by the mighty power of God. Ex. 15:13. From thence the subject rises to the redemption of the soul or life, forfeited because of sin. Man cannot give to God a ransom for his brother: for the redemption of the soul is precious, or costly, and it (that is, redemption) ceaseth, or must be given up, for ever: that is, all thought of attempting to give a ransom must be relinquished — it is too costly. Ps. 49:7-8.

In the N.T. there are two words translated 'redemption,' embracing different thoughts. The one is λυτρόω, λύτρωσις, 'to loose, a loosing, a loosing away,' hence deliverance by a ransom paid, redeemed.

The other word is ἐξαγοράζω, 'to buy as from the market.' Christ has redeemed believers from the curse of the law. Gal. 3:13; Gal. 4:5. Christians are exhorted to be "redeeming the time," that is, buying or securing the opportunity. Eph. 5:16; Col. 4:5. A kindred word, ἀγοράζω, is translated in the A.V. 'to buy,' except in Rev. 5:9; Rev. 14:3-4, where it is rendered 'redeem,' but would be better 'buy.' The difference is important in such a passage as 2 Peter 2:1, where it could not be said 'redeemed,' for those spoken of are such as deny Christ's rights of purchase, and bring on themselves swift destruction though they had been 'bought.' Christ 'bought' all, but only believers are 'redeemed.' Christians sometimes speak of 'universal redemption' without really meaning it, because they do not observe the difference between 'buying' and 'redeeming.' Eph. 1:14 embraces both thoughts: "the redemption of the purchased possession."

Redemption is sometimes used in the sense of the right or title to redeem (Ps. 130:7; Rom. 3:24); and this right God has righteously secured to Himself in Christ, and in virtue of it He presents Himself to man as a Justifier. Hence redemption was secured for God before man entered into the virtue of it. But believers have it now by faith, in the sense of forgiveness of sins, in Christ, where it is placed for God. Eph. 1:7.  And in result redemption will extend to the body. Rom. 8:23; Eph. 4:30. In application, the term redemption covers the power in which it is made effectual, as well as the ground or condition on which it is founded; this was set forth in type in the case of Israel.



Reelaiah. [Reelai'ah]

One who returned from exile. Ezra 2:2. Apparently the same as RAAMIAH in Neh. 7:7.


God is the refiner of His people, as the precious metals have to be separated from the dross that clings to them. Prov. 25:4 (where the A.V. has 'finer'); Isa. 48:10; Zech. 13:9; Mal. 3:2-3.  So God tests the believer's heart (1 Thess. 2:4), and his faith, which leads to endurance. James 1:12; 1 Peter 1:7.


The word is διόρθωσις, from 'to amend, make right.' Hence the 'time of reformation,' or 'setting things right.' The thought is taken up from the prophets and will be fulfilled in the kingdom, and implies the setting in order of things on earth according to the mind of God. Christianity is in view and anticipation of this. Heb. 9:10. The Greek verb occurs in the LXX in Isa. 16:5; Isa. 62:7; Jer. 7:3, 5.

Refuge, Cities of.

Six cities were appointed under the law, three on each side of the Jordan, to which any one who had killed a person unintentionally could flee. They were given to the Levites, and the elders of these cities were to judge if the death had been caused accidentally, and if so, the avenger of blood was not allowed to take the manslayer's life. He must remain in the city of refuge until the death of the high priest who 'was anointed with the holy oil,' and then he could return to his possession. Prior to that if he went outside the city and the avenger found him, he might put him to death. Num. 35:6-32; Joshua 20:2-9; Joshua 21:13-38; 1 Chr. 6:57, 67.

Typically the manslayer doubtless represents the Jews: they put the Lord Jesus to death, yet they were not at once slain as murderers, but in grace were treated as manslayers, and the assembly became the city of refuge for them, its hope being connected with heaven and not with an earthly inheritance. Peter said they did it ignorantly, Acts 3:17; and the Lord prayed, "Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do." The preaching of the gospel was to 'begin at Jerusalem,' as it did on the day of Pentecost. The people of Israel are still out of their possession, and will not be restored to it in blessing so long as Christ retains His present position of actual Priesthood on high.

The Cities of Refuge on the west of Jordan were KADESH, in mount Naphtali, in Galilee; SHECHEM, in mount Ephraim; and KIRJATH-ARBA, which is HEBRON, in the mountain of Judah. And on the east of the Jordan they were BEZER, in the wilderness, in the tribe of Reuben; RAMOTH-IN-GILEAD, in the tribe of Gad; and GOLAN, in Bashan, in the tribe of Manasseh. Joshua 20:7-8. It has been calculated that the distance of these from city to city would be about 70 miles, so that no one would in any part be farther than about 35 miles from one of them.