Bible Dictionary R

Regem. [Re'gem]

Son of Jardai, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:47.

Regemmelech.  [Re'gem-mel'ech]

One sent unto the house of God, in the time of Darius, to pray and to consult with the priests and prophets respecting the continuation of fasting in the fifth month. Zech. 7:2. This fast had probably been observed in commemoration of the destruction of Solomon's temple. 2 Kings 25:8-9. God's answer, through Zechariah, was that they had not fasted to Him: it was insincerity on their part.


The word is παλιγγενεσία, lit. 'new birth,' a renovation as in the return of spring. The word occurs but twice in the New Testament. In Matt. 19:28 it speaks of the time when Christ will sit on the throne of His glory; and in Titus 3:5 it refers to the new order of things, in connection with the presence of the Spirit, into which believers were brought. The word does not occur in the LXX. Josephus (Ant. xi. 3, 9) uses it for the 'restoration' of the Jewish nation after the exile. It will be seen that the word regeneration has not in scripture the sense of 'new birth,' to which the term has been commonly applied. Intimately connected with regeneration is the idea of 'washing,' referring probably to a cleansing, or separation from old associations, which is essential to the idea of regeneration.

Rehabiah. [Rehabi'ah]

Son of Eliezer, a son of Moses. 1 Chr. 23:17; 1 Chr. 24:21; 1 Chr. 26:25.

Rehob. [Re'hob]

1.  Father of Hadadezer king of Zobah. 2 Sam. 8:3, 12.

2. Levite who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:11.

3. The northern limit of the exploration by the spies. Num. 13:21; 2 Sam. 10:8. Identified by some with Hunin, 33 13' N, 35 32' E.

4, 5.  Two cities assigned to Asher, one of which was allotted to the Levites, but which of the two is not known, nor can they be identified. Joshua 19:28, 30; Joshua 21:31; Judges 1:31; 1 Chr. 6:75.

Rehoboam. [Rehobo'am]

Son of Solomon and Naamah an Ammonitess: he succeeded his father. On the tribes seeking relief from some of the burdens laid upon them by Solomon, Rehoboam unwisely turned from the counsellors of his father, and followed the advice of his young companions. He proudly boasted that he would augment their burdens and treat them with increased rigour. The ten tribes then revolted from Rehoboam and chose Jeroboam as their king. This had been prophesied of, and the folly of Rehoboam brought it thus to pass. He raised an army to punish the rebels, but was forbidden by the prophet Shemaiah to fight against them, and he had to hear that the separation of the ten tribes was of God. It was because of the sin of Solomon. Though a civil war was at that time averted, there were continual conflicts between the two nations, as they must now be called.

The outward worship of Jehovah was maintained in Judah, but Rehoboam did not check the introduction of heathen abominations into the land, and the wickedness of the people became very great. Shemaiah rebuked them, and said the Lord would deliver them into the hand of Shishak, king of Egypt. The king and the princes humbled themselves, and God granted them some deliverance; nevertheless they were made tributary to the king of Egypt. Shishak took away the treasures of the temple and of the king's house, and the shields of gold that Solomon had made. Rehoboam replaced the latter with shields of brass. Thus the glory of Solomon soon passed away! Rehoboam reigned over Judah and Benjamin, under the title of JUDAH, seventeen years, from B.C. 975 to 958. 1 Kings 11:43; 1 Kings 12:1-27; 1 Kings 14:21-31; 1 Kings 15:6; 2 Chr. 10:1-18; 2 Chr. 11:1-22; 2 Chr. 12:1-16; 2 Chr. 13:7. He is called ROBOAM in Matt. 1:7.

Rehoboth. [Reho'both]

1.  City built by Asshur, or by Nimrod in Asshur. Gen. 10:11. Usually placed near to Nineveh, but see No. 2.

2. City in the East, 'by the river,' from whence one named Saul, or Shaul, became an early king of Edom. Gen. 36:37; 1 Chr. 1:48. There are two places named Rahabeh, near the Euphrates, which may be these cities. One is eight miles below the junction of the Khabur river, and the other four or five miles further south on the left bank, and called Rahabeh Melek, that is 'royal.'

3. Name of a well which Isaac dug, so called because God had 'made room' for them. Gen. 26:22.

Rehum. [Rehum']

1.  One who returned from exile. Ezra 2:2. Apparently called NEHUM in Neh. 7:7.

2. Levite who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:17.

3. One who sealed the covenant. Neh, 10:25.

4. Chancellor of the king of Persia: he with others wrote to Artaxerxes against the rebuilding of the temple. Ezra 4:8-23.

5. Head of a priestly family who returned from exile. Neh. 12:3.

Rei [Re'i]

A friend of David, mentioned when Adonijah set himself up to be king. 1 Kings 1:8.


The kidneys, used symbolically for the inward thoughts and feelings. Ps. 7:9; Ps. 16:7; Ps. 26:2; Ps. 139:13; Prov. 23:16; Jer. 12:2; Jer. 17:10; Jer. 20:12; Lam. 3:13; Rev. 2:23. The word translated 'reins' in Isa. 11:5 is elsewhere translated 'loins.'

Rekem. [Rek'em]

1.  King of Midian, slain by the Israelites, when Balaam was also killed. Num. 31:8; Joshua 13:21.

2. Son of Hebron. 1 Chr. 2:43-44.

3. City in Benjamin. Joshua 18:27. Not identified.

Religion, Religious.

This is applied in scripture to

1. The Jews' religion, in which Paul was very strict. Acts 26:5.

2. Practical Christianity. James 1:26-27.

3. The character of the proselytes as 'religious' or 'worshipping.' Acts 13:43.

Remaliah. [Remali'ah]

Father of Pekah who slew Pekahiah and reigned in his stead. 2 Kings 15:25-37, etc.

Remeth. [Rem'eth]

City in Issachar. Joshua 19:21. Probably the same as RAMOTH in 1 Chr. 6:73.


This is used in the sense of 'forgiveness.' The forgiveness or remission of sins is through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ and on the ground of His sacrificial death. Acts 10:43; Acts 13:38; Rom. 3:25; 1 Cor. 15:3.  See FORGIVENESS.

Remmon. [Rem'mon]

City of Simeon. See RIMMON

Remmonmethoar. [Rem'mon-metho'ar]

City in the boundary of Zebulun. Joshua 19:13. The R.V. reads "Rimmon 'which stretches' unto Neah."  See margin of A.V. Identified with Rummaneh, 32 47' N, 35 18' E.


This word constantly occurs in the O.T. in the sense of 'the rest of the people.' In every crisis in the history of Israel there has been a remnant: this was seen in the time of Ahab (1 Kings 19:18), and so too in the introduction of Christianity (Luke 2:38), and that it will be so in the future is abundantly evident from the testimony of the prophets. There will be great prosperity in the land, and God will cause the remnant of His people to possess it. Zech. 8:12: cf. Rev. 12:17. When God's people are unfaithful to His calling, He secures His own purpose in a remnant.

The prophetic language in the Psalms is not that of the mass of Israel, but of the remnant, in whom the Spirit of Christ speaks; and it is in the Psalms that the remnant is first seen as distinguished from the ungodly nation. The idea of a remnant is found also in the address to the church in Thyatira, and to that remnant ('the rest') it was said, "That which ye have already hold fast till I come." Rev. 2:24-25. They represent the faithful in the time of the supremacy of the apostate Popish system.

A remnant represents morally the original whole, and does not imply an inferior remaining portion. It is of God's grace that any are enabled to be stedfast to the original truth and calling during a general apostasy from it.

Remphan. [Rem'phan]

The name of a god in Acts 7:43, which Israel had worshipped (but some of the Greek MSS read REPHAN). Stephen was quoting Amos 5:25-26 from the LXX, which has RAEPHAN. In the Hebrew the name of the god is CHIUN, but why the translators changed the name is not known. There have been found among the foreign gods in Egypt one named RENPU, and a goddess KEN, which may have been those referred to.


The idea conveyed in this term is of great importance from the fact of its application not only to man but to God, showing how God, in His government of the earth, is pleased to express His own sense of events taking place upon it. This does not clash with His omniscience. There are two senses in which repentance on the part of God is spoken of.

1. As to His own creation or appointment of objects that fail to answer to His glory. He repented that He had made man on the earth, and that He had set up Saul as king of Israel. Gen. 6:6-7; 1 Sam. 15:11, 35

2.  As to punishment which He has threatened, or blessing He has promised. When Israel turned from their evil ways and sought God, He often repented of the punishment He had meditated. 2 Sam. 24:16, etc. On the other hand, the promises to bless Israel when in the land were made conditionally on their obedience, so that God would, if they did evil, turn from or repent of the good that He had said He would do, either to Israel or in fact to any nation. Jer. 18:8-10. He would alter the order of His dealings towards them, and as to Israel He said, "I am weary with repenting." Jer. 15:6. In all this the responsibility of man is concerned, as well as the divine government.

But the unconditional promises of God, as made to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, are not subject to repentance. "The gifts and calling of God are without repentance."  Rom. 11:29. "God is not a man that he should lie; neither the son of man that he should repent: hath he said, and shall he not do it?" Num. 23:19; 1 Sam. 15:29; Malachi 3:6. And this must hold good in regard to every purpose of His will.

As regards man, repentance is the necessary precursor of his experience of grace on the part of God. Two motives for repentance are presented in scripture: the goodness of God which leads to repentance (Rom. 2:4) and coming judgement, on account of which God now commands all men to repent (Acts 17:30-31); but it is distinctly of His grace and for His glory that this door of return to Him is granted (Acts 11:18) in that He has approached man in grace and by His glad tidings, consequent on His righteousness having been secured in the death of Christ. Hence God's testimony is "repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ." Acts 20:21.

Repentance has been described as "a change of mind Godward that leads to a judgement of self and one's acts." 1 Kings 8:47; Ezek. 14:6; Matt. 3:2; Matt. 9:13; Luke 15:7; Acts 20:21; 2 Cor. 7:9-10; etc. This would not be possible but for the thought of mercy in God. It is the goodness of God that leads to repentance. Rom. 2:4.

Repentance is also spoken of as a change of thought and action where there is no evil to repent of. 2 Cor. 7:8.

Rephael. [Reph'ael]

Son of Shemaiah, a Levite. 1 Chr. 26:7.

Rephah. [Re'phah]

Son of Ephraim, and ancestor of Joshua. 1 Chr. 7:25.

Rephaiah. [Rephai'ah]

1.  Head of a family, of the house of David. 1 Chr. 3:21.

2. Son of Ishi and a chief in the tribe of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:42.

3. Son of Tola, of the tribe of Issachar. 1 Chr. 7:2.

4. Son of Binea. 1 Chr. 9:43; called RAPHA in 1 Chr. 8:37.

5. Son of Hur: on the return from exile he was ruler of the half of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:9.

Rephaim. [Repha'im]


Rephaim, [Repha'im] Valley of.

A valley on the south of Jerusalem, in which the Philistines gathered themselves against Israel, and where David twice signally defeated them. 2 Sam. 5:18, 22; 2 Sam. 23:13; 1 Chr. 11:15; 1 Chr. 14:9-17; Isa. 17:5. In the A.V. it is twice called the 'VALLEY OF THE GIANTS.' Joshua 15:8; Joshua 18:16. Identified with el Bukeia, 31 45' N, 35 13' E.

Rephidim. [Rephi'dim]

Place near Horeb, where the Israelites encamped; water gushed from the rock when Moses had smitten it, and there Joshua fought with Amalek, while Moses lifted up his hands to heaven, assisted by Aaron and Hur. Ex. 17:1, 8; Ex. 19:2; Num. 33:14-15. Not identified.


maas. God's ancient people in their condition of moral debasement are compared to 'reprobate silver,' or 'refuse silver' as in the margin, Jer. 6:30; or, as is read in Isa. 1:22, 'thy silver is become dross,' rejected.

In the N.T. the word is ἀδόκιμος, 'disapproved,' and is applied to the wicked, and to those also who having engaged in the race fail to reach the goal. Rom. 1:28; 2 Cor. 13:5-7; 2 Tim. 3:8; Titus 1:16. The same word is translated 'rejected,' and is descriptive of such as, in spite of gracious ministry, produce only that which is natural to fallen man. Heb. 6:8. It is also translated 'castaway' in 1 Cor. 9:27, where the apostle Paul represents himself as keeping under his body, and bringing it into subjection, lest having preached to others he himself should be rejected. This appears to indicate the possibility of a man, after having preached the gospel to others, being himself disapproved; failing to reach the goal through lack of self-discipline.

Resen. [Res'en]

The great city "between Nineveh and Calah" one of the four cities built by Asshur, or by Nimrod in Asshur. Gen. 10:12. Some judge it to be 'not identified'; but others trace it to ruins at 36 12' N, 43 10' E.

Resheph. [Resh'eph]

Son of Ephraim. 1 Chr. 7:25.


The first allusion to rest in scripture is on the part of God after His works of creation. Gen. 2.  It may be assumed, therefore, that while the term means cessation from labour, it also covers the idea of complacency in the result of the labour; and this thought probably underlies the institution of the sabbath; for it is clear from Ps. 95 and Heb. 4 that it was in the thought of God that man should enter into His rest. But sin entered into the world by man, with all its baneful consequences; and unless God were to acquiesce in a world of sin and moral woe He must needs work in grace. Hence the word of Christ, "My Father worketh hitherto [until now], and I work." John 5:17. This untiring activity of God is intimated by various expressions in the O.T.  God is again and again described as 'rising up early,' sending His prophets, etc. Eventually Christ came to do the will of His Father, and to finish His work. When the full results of the death of Christ are displayed, and all enemies subdued, then God will again enjoy His sabbath of rest, and His people too will enter into His rest.

The Lord Jesus in His ministry on earth, when recognising the absence of moral effect from His mighty works, and retiring consequently into the service of revealing the Father to the babes, invited those who laboured and were heavy laden to come to Him for rest. Matt. 11:28. Those who felt the rejection of Christ here were invited to take His yoke upon them, and learn of Him, who was meek and lowly of heart, and they should find rest unto their souls. Matt. 11:29. The soul thus has, outside of circumstances here, a portion unaffected by circumstances, and that satisfies all its longings. On the other hand there is no rest to the wicked, who are like the troubled waves of the sea; and those who bow to the future imperial beast and his image will have no rest from their torments day nor night for ever and ever. Isa. 57:20-21; Rev. 14:11.

Restitution of all Things.

This expression, which is found in Acts 3:21, has been taken out of its connection and used in the attempt to prove Universalism, namely, that all mankind will be eventually saved. The restitution mentioned in scripture is of all things "which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets." The thought is thus limited to what had been stated in the prophets. In Matt. 17:11 Christ speaks of Elias coming and 'restoring' all things. All such expressions clearly have reference to God's dispensational dealings on earth, to which the term 'all things' refers, and do not touch one way or another the idea of universal salvation. See also RECONCILIATION.


This may be said to be the fundamental principle of God's dealings with man in grace, seeing that man is through sin under the judgement of death. The expression, 'The general resurrection' is found in works on theology, and is explained as meaning that the dead will all be raised at the same time; but this idea is not found in scripture. The Lord speaks of a resurrection unto life. "The dead in Christ" will be raised at the coming of the Lord Jesus, 1 Thess. 4:16; and John speaks of the first resurrection, and adds that "the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were finished." Rev. 20:5-6. The term 'first' designates rather the character than the time of the resurrection, it will evidently include only the saved; 'the rest' being simply raised for judgement.

It will be seen in Romans 8:11, that the resurrection of believers is of a wholly different order from that of the wicked: the saints will be quickened by, or on account of, God's Spirit that dwells in them, which certainly could not be said of the unconverted. The resurrection of the saints is also distinguished from that of the wicked in being, like that of the Lord and of Lazarus, 'out from among (ἐκ) the dead.' Mark 12:25. It was the earnest desire of Paul to attain this. Phil. 3:11 (see Greek)

The resurrection condition is in the strongest contrast to that after the flesh. That which springs from the seed sown in the ground appears very different in form from the seed sown, though absorbing the substance of the seed. 1 Cor. 15 refers only to the resurrection of the saints, as may be seen in 1 Cor. 15:23-24. There were those at Corinth who said that there was no resurrection (1 Cor. 15:12); and on the other hand it appears from 2 Tim. 2:18, some held that the resurrection had already past, that they had in fact reached a final condition!

Few distinct intimations of the resurrection are found in the O.T., though the idea of it underlies all the teaching. Job may perhaps have learnt it (Job 19:25-27), and when the Lord rebuked the Sadducees He taught that resurrection could be gathered inferentially from God speaking of Himself as the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob long after they were dead. He is God of the living, not of the dead. Mark 12:26-27. Martha spoke of the resurrection as a matter of common orthodox belief, John 11:24; which is also implied in its being said that the Sadducees did not believe in it.

Isa. 26:19; Ezek. 37:1-14; and Dan. 12:2, are often quoted as testimony to resurrection; but these passages are figurative and refer to Israel being raised up as from their national decease (the consequence of their departure from the Lord, Isa. 1:1-4), when God will again bless them on the earth. It is an important fact, however, that the figure of resurrection is used.

Resurrection of Christ.

This is the great central fact on the testimony of which the structure of Christianity has been reared. If Christ be not risen, there is no salvation, since sin would still be reigning by death in universal sway. But Christ, who was made sin, is risen and is at God's right hand, a manifest proof that atonement has been made, and that God's righteousness has been vindicated. The result has been the sending of the Spirit from the Father. Abundant evidence was given to the disciples that Christ was risen from the dead. He appeared again and again, ate in their presence, and gave opportunity for identification. Evidence of the fact was also borne to the Jews by the apostles in the power and by the gifts of the Spirit, Acts 4:10, confirming what they had themselves seen and heard and the testimony of the scriptures. The resurrection of Christ is the keystone of the faith of the Christian; at the same time it is the assurance on the part of God that He has appointed a day when He is going to judge the world in righteousness. Hence it has a voice to all.

It has been asserted that the accounts given of the resurrection of the Lord Jesus in the gospels are discordant and irreconcilable. This is not the case: it has been overlooked that Luke 23:54-56 refers to Friday evening, before the Sabbath, and Matt. 28:1 refers to Saturday evening, after the Sabbath: the women return after viewing the sepulchre and finish their preparations, according to Mark 16:1.

Reu. [Reu']

Son of Peleg, or Phalec, and father of Serug, or Saruch. Gen. 11:18-21; 1 Chr. 1:25. Called RAGAU in Luke 3:35.

Reuben. [Reu'ben]

The firstborn of Jacob and of Leah, and head of one of the twelve tribes. The territory they possessed also bears his name. He saved the life of Joseph when his brothers thought to kill him, and when they went to buy corn in Egypt, he offered to be responsible for Benjamin's safety. Jacob, when blessing his sons, said, "Reuben, thou art my firstborn, my might, and the beginning of my strength, the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power: unstable as water, thou shalt not excel; because thou wentest up to thy father's bed; then defiledst thou it."  Gen. 49:3-4. This speaks of failure in the firstborn, and implies loss of his birthright. (Joseph, type of Christ separated from His brethren, had the birthright.) Moses, when he blessed the tribes (showing more their relationship with God according to His government) said, "Let Reuben live, and not die: and let not his men be few." Deut. 33:6. Reuben entered Egypt with his four sons, Hanoch, Phallu, Hezron and Carmi. Gen. 46:9.

At the Exodus the tribe numbered 46,500 men fit to go to war; and at the close of the wanderings they had decreased to 43,730. At their request, Reuben had their possession on the east of the Jordan, because it was 'a place for cattle.' It extended northward from the river Arnon about 25 miles, where it joined the possession of Gad.

The Reubenites do not appear to have taken any prominent part in the struggles under the Judges; they had 'great thoughts of heart,' but remained with their flocks. Judges 5:15-16. They made inroads upon the Bedouin tribes: being on the border of the wilderness doubtless this was unavoidable if they were to live in peace and safety. 1 Chr. 5:9-10, 18; etc. The Reubenites, with the others on the east of the Jordan, went after the gods of the heathen, and Jehovah cut them short by Hazael, of Syria. 2 Kings 10:32-33. Afterwards by Pul and Tiglath-pileser they were carried away captive unto Halah, Habor, Hara, and to the river Gozan. 1 Chr. 5:26.

The east of the Jordan was a place of danger. Remaining there was a type of a Christian stopping short of the place of nearness God has given him — not realising his death and resurrection with Christ, and his true place in the heavenlies.

Reuel. [Reu'el]

1.  Son of Esau by his wife Bashemath. Gen. 36:4, 10, 13, 17; 1 Chr. 1:35, 37.

2. Priest of Midian and father or grandfather of Zipporah, Moses' wife. Ex. 2:18. Called RAGUEL in Num. 10:29. See JETHRO.

3. Father of Eliasaph, the captain or prince of Gad. Num. 2:14. Called DEUEL in Num. 1:14, etc.

4. Son of Ibnijah, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 9:8.

Reumah. [Reu'mah]

Concubine of Nahor, Abraham's brother. Gen. 22:24.

Revelation, The.

This may be said to suitably follow the Catholic Epistles. In them the last times are in view, and evil is pointed out in connection with the church: then follows this prophecy, the first part of which concerns the church viewed as a lightbearer on earth: rejection awaits it as judgement awaits the world. The Revelation was given to Jesus Christ by God as sovereign ruler. It was signified to John, and he wrote what he saw and heard. It is not known when the book was written, nor by what emperor John was banished to the Isle of Patmos. Some judge that it was Claudius (A.D. 41-54), others Nero (A.D. 54-68), and others Domitian (A.D. 81-96): it is more generally attributed to the last named, and if so, the date of the book would be after the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70.

There are fewer ancient manuscripts of the Revelation than of any other part of the N.T., and some of those now known were not discovered till after the date of the A.V.; this makes the 'various readings' now introduced very numerous, some of them being important.

The book evidently divides itself into three parts: see Rev. 1:19.

1. "Things which thou hast seen"found in Rev. 1.

2. "Things that are" — namely, the seven specified churches as then existing in Asia, Rev. 2, Rev. 3.

3.  "Things which shall be after these" — contained in Rev. 4 to the end. It is evident that "after these" refers to the removal of the entire church from earth, and not simply to the disappearance of the seven particular churches named. The whole of the Revelation was addressed to the seven churches (as representing the whole church), though each assembly had also a short address especially to itself.

Rev. 1.  After the introduction, Christ is seen in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks, which represent the seven churches as lightbearers. He was like unto the Son of man, clothed, not for service, but for priestly judgement, with eyes like a flame of fire, and feet like brass glowing in a furnace: His countenance as the sun shining in its strength, and proceeding out of His mouth a sharp two-edged sword: nothing can escape His judgement. John, who, when Christ was on earth had leaned on His bosom, seeing Him now in so different an aspect, fell at His feet as dead. The Lord reassures him, telling him that He has the keys of Hades and of death. Christ has seven stars in His right hand, and the stars are the angels of the seven churches, that is, representative, as if the spirit of each church were personified.

Rev. 2 and Rev. 3 contain the addresses to the seven churches: the number seven is symbolical of completeness, and we may thus assume that these churches represented the whole; and, while actually existing at the time, are selected as showing the various features which become successively apparent in the church to the end: the end being made manifest by the presentation of the coming of the Lord to the last four churches. These seven addresses may be described as God's view of the church in its various phases given prophetically.

In the varied conditions of the churches those who have ears are specially addressed, and overcomers are encouraged. An overcomer is one who has faith to surmount the special danger that exists in his day. To each address there are three parts:

1. The presentation of the Lord, which is different in each.

2. His judgement of the state of each assembly.

3. The promise to the overcomers.

1.  EPHESUS.  From the various mention of this church in the Acts and the Epistles, it is evident that its decline was gradual: cf. Acts 20:29-30; 1 Cor. 15:32; 1 Tim. 1:3; 2 Tim. 1:15. The mark discerned by Christ was that it had left its first love. The loss of the true spring and power of devotedness and service characterises the first declension in the church: no one may have observed it but the Lord, yet it is spoken of as a fall, and repentance is called for, or its candlestick would be removed from its place. Historically it represents the church after the departure of the wise master-builder.

2.  SMYRNA.  Nothing is said here in the way of disapproval; the church is in a time of persecution, and is encouraged by Christ in the midst of it. Persecution may be used to make manifest what is real, and to draw the soul nearer to the Lord. The saints are exhorted to be faithful unto death, and Christ would give them the crown of life. Historically this church represents the period of persecution that set in under Nero. The 'ten days' of Rev. 2:10 may represent ten different persecutions, or refer to ten years' duration of persecution under Diocletian. In any case it gives the idea of limitation.

3.  PERGAMOS.  We have here very distinct indications of the toleration of evil — first in the allowing those that held the teaching of Balaam, which led to corrupt commerce with the world, and then that there were also those that held the doctrine of the Nicolaitanes, hateful to Christ. Historically this church probably represents the period when Christianity was adopted by the world power ("where Satan's seat is"), which led to thousands becoming nominally Christians, and to the incorporation of heathen elements and institutions into the professing church. Satan had altered his tactics, and the dangers were peculiar, but the Lord looked for overcomers.

4.  THYATIRA.  The evil allowed in this church was systematic and controlling, as indicated by the name of the woman, Jezebel, who called herself 'prophetess.' The result was moral fornication and idolatry; and children were begotten of the system. The attitude of the Lord is severe: His "eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet like fine brass." A 'rest,' or remnant, in this church is recognised and addressed: and the formula "he that hath an ear to hear" occurs henceforth after the promise to the overcomer, indicating that from this point only those who overcome are expected to have an ear to hear what the Spirit says unto the churches. The kingdom is brought into view in the promise to the overcomer. Historically Thyatira represents that phase of the church's history in which the influence of Rome had become predominant in its tyranny, worldliness, and corruption. It is not difficult to identify Jezebel with the great whore of Rev. 17 and Rev. 18.

5.  SARDIS.  One very emphatic sentence gives the character of this church: "Thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead." It was a name that should carry life, but was in Sardis identified with spiritual death. There had been escape from the corruptions of Rome, but the truth in its purifying power was lost. Yet there were a few who had not defiled their garments. The coming of the Lord 'as a thief' reminds us of the character of His coming to the world as seen in 1 Thess. 5:2. Historically Sardis presents Protestantism, after it had lost spiritual power and become worldly and political.

6.  PHILADELPHIA.  There is nothing of evil charged to this church. Christ presents Himself as "he that is holy, he that is true," and as having the key of administration; and He says, Thou "hast a little strength and hast kept my word, and hast not denied my name . . . . hast kept the word of my patience." The Lord Himself has with them the prominent place, and the church is kept out of the hour of tribulation which is coming on the whole earth. The historical development of the church may be said to close with Thyatira; and Philadelphia represents in the latter times of the church's history on earth faithfulness to the Lord Himself, on the part of those who are seeking to stand morally in the truth of the church.

7.  LAODICEA.  This church is characterised, not by any definite evil either of doctrine or practice, but by pride of acquirement and by self-sufficiency, accompanied with indifference to Christ. While boasting itself in being rich and in need of nothing, it was wretched, miserable, poor, blind, and naked. Man in his self-satisfaction is the main feature, and Christ is not appreciated. It represents the arrogance of rationalism and higher criticism in the latter days of the church on earth: Christ is outside but still appealing, knocking for admission to the individual heart.

Rev. 4.  A different section of the book commences here: namely, "the things that shall be after these," events that will occur after the church has ceased to occupy a place on earth as in Rev. 2 and Rev. 3. The 'rapture' of the saints has evidently taken place between Rev. 3 and Rev. 4, for henceforth they are seen in heaven. The apostle is in the Spirit, and the scene is in heaven. John saw a throne that is in relation to the earth; and One sitting on the throne like a jasper and a sardine stone: it is God, but so presented as that He could be looked upon. And on 'thrones' (not 'seats') sat twenty-four elders, the perfect number of the redeemed, sitting, as kingly priests, with crowns on their heads. In the midst of the throne were four living creatures, symbolical of power, firmness, intelligence, and rapidity of execution of God's government, when the throne is once taken: cf. Ezek. 1. These celebrate Jehovah Elohim Shaddai thrice holy, and the elders worship their Lord and their God as Creator of all things.

Rev. 5  brings in another element, namely, the sealed book in the right hand of Him that sat on the throne. John, in answer to his weeping, is told that the Lion of the tribe of Judah has overcome to open the book of the counsels of God as to the earth. And when he looked he saw a Lamb as it had been slain, who has the seven spirits of God, and He takes the book. The four living creatures and the elders fall down, and the new song of redemption is sung. The angels declare the worthiness of the Lamb, without mentioning redemption. Then every creature in all the universe speaks out the worthiness of Him that sits upon the throne and of the Lamb for ever and ever.

Rev. 6  The 'book' spoken of in Rev. 5 had seven seals, which are opened consecutively. It is a book of God's judgements, but revealed in symbols. Six of the seals are opened, but before the opening of the seventh seal a parenthetical chapter (Rev. 7) intervenes. It is noticeable that in the first six seals no allusion is made to angels. What are prominent are horses and their riders, which come forth successively at the call of the four living creatures. The horses may represent powers or forces on earth, and the riders, those who control or turn them to account.

First seal.  A white horse and its rider with a bow, to whom a crown is given — imperial conquest.

Second seal.  A red horse and its rider, who takes peace from the earth, and they shall kill one another — the scourge of civil war.

Third seal.  A black horse and its rider with a balance — famine in the necessaries of life with its devastations, but a restraining 'voice' in the midst of it.

Fourth seal.  A pale horse and its rider, who kills with God's sore plagues those on a fourth part of the earth: this may be a continent.

Fifth seal.  Under the altar are seen the souls of the martyrs (especially those slain during the first half of Daniel's seventieth week: cf. Matt. 24:9).

Sixth seal.  In the first four seals we have seen forces at work, but controlled; now there is a great earthquake, and the sun, moon, and stars are affected, indicating probably the apostasy, and the break up of the civil governments ordained of God. There is general dismay, and the call for death, in the fear that the great day of the wrath of the Lamb has come; but these are but preliminary judgements.

Rev. 7.  This is parenthetic, describing the sealing of a perfect number of the twelve tribes — the spared ones of Israel; they are sealed for preservation: cf. Rom. 11:26. A great multitude out of all nations also stand before the throne, and ascribe salvation to God and to the Lamb. John is told that they have come out of the great tribulation (not, however, the same as Jacob's trouble,' Jer. 30:7). They are evidently souls converted after the present dispensation of the church, and may not ever have known Christianity.

Rev. 8.  The seventh seal introduces the seven trumpets, which have in them something of the nature of a final summons. The prayers of the saints, presented by an angel distinct from those having the seven trumpets, while fragrant before God, bring, as their consequence, judgements on the earth.

First trumpet. Human prosperity in the third part of the Roman empire is burnt up.

Second trumpet. A great mountain burning with fire is cast into the sea — some great earthly power influences the masses with direful effect, and commercial intercourse is affected: cf. Jer. 51:25; it may correspond to the fall of Babylon in Rev. 17, Rev. 18.

Third trumpet. A great star falls — some great power from above — and corrupts the moral sources.

Fourth trumpet. The governmental powers are disorganised and in darkness. A great eagle (as is now read by the editors, instead of 'angel'), cries, "Woe, woe, woe" on those who make the earth their home. The scene of the judgements of this chapter is the West.

Rev. 9.  The Fifth trumpet. A star — one in power — falls from heaven: moral darkness and Satanic influence follow. There is feigned righteousness, but the actors are cruel, deceptive, and bitter. This judgement is directed against the Israelites that have not the seal of God.

Sixth trumpet. Forms of wickedness, led by Satan, hitherto held in check in the East, are let loose. The third part of men are killed by plagues. What is referred to is probably moral death. And those that are not killed do not repent of their deeds. The mention of the Euphrates shows that the judgements of this chapter arise from the East.

Rev. 10 to end of Rev. 11:13, is a parenthesis, before the seventh trumpet. A mighty angel, probably Christ from the description, plants his feet upon (that is, claims) the sea and earth, and cries with a great voice to which the thunders respond. He has an open book, evidently bringing us to known prophetic ground, and declares that "There shall be no longer delay" (as Rev. 10:6 should read). John eats the book as bidden, and while he finds it sweet to know what God has revealed, it is bitter to reflect on His judgements.

In Rev. 11  John is told to measure the temple and the altar and the worshippers, that is, all that is real. They are now taken account of; but not the court without, that is, Jewish profession — the external system. The holy city will be trodden under foot of the nations 42 months, the latter half of Daniel's seventieth week. God's two witnesses prophesy 1,260 days (the same half week). It is now a question of Christ's rights to the earth. The witnesses manifest His power, and smite the earth with plagues. The beast (the Roman power of Rev. 17:8) kills the witnesses, and they lie unburied, but they are called up to heaven, and there is in the same hour a great upheaval on earth.

Rev. 11:14-18. The second woe is past, and the third woe cometh.

The Seventh trumpet. The world-kingdom of Jehovah and His Christ is come. The heavenly company give thanks to the Lord God Almighty who has taken His great power and has reigned. His wrath has come and the time of recompense. The general history of the book ends with Rev. 11:18. Certain details follow exhibiting the full ground for the final pouring out of wrath, the judgement of the great whore, and the coming of Christ to make war in righteousness. The time of judging the dead is announced here.

Rev. 12.  Rev. 11:19 commences another division of the book, taking us back in thought to the birth of Christ, from which this development starts. The temple of God was opened in heaven, the ark of His covenant was seen there, and there were judgements on earth. A woman (Israel) is seen as a sign in heaven, and brings forth a man child (Christ), whom Satan seeks at once to devour, but the child is caught up to God and to His throne. The woman flees into the wilderness, and is nourished by God 1,260 days — last half-week of Daniel. There is war in heaven, and the devil is cast out, which causes great exultation in heaven. The devil casts a flood (people) after the woman, but it is swallowed up by the earthly organisations of men. He is angry with the woman and sets himself to make war with the pious remnant of her seed.

Rev. 13.  The Roman empire is now seen as a beast, rising out of the sea, the unorganised mass of the Gentile people. This is the second element in the trinity of evil. It embraces ten kingdoms. One of its heads had been wounded to death; that is, in one epoch of its history it had been slain, but it lived again. The dragon gives to the beast his power and throne and great authority, and it continues 42 months — the last half of Daniel's seventieth week. It blasphemes God, and the dwellers on earth worship it. In Rev. 13:11 another beast is seen to arise out of the earth (formed organisation): it appears as a lamb, but speaks as a dragon. It deceives all the earth and assists the Roman power, working miracles in order that the image of the revived beast may be worshipped: cf. 2 Thess. 2:3-10. This is the man of sin, the Antichrist. The number of the Roman beast is 666, the significance of which will be understood in that day. We have thus the trinity of evil arrayed against God and His Christ.

Rev. 14.  This gives a view of what God is doing during the above evil transactions. The Lamb is seen on mount Zion, and with Him a hundred and forty-four thousand, who learn the heavenly song. There is then a succession of angels, one of whom flies in mid heaven, having the everlasting gospel for all nations, crying, "Fear God, and give glory to him:" for the hour of judgement has come. Another announces the fall of Babylon. A third warns against worshipping the beast or receiving his mark. A voice from heaven announces a blessing on the dead from that time, which is confirmed by the Spirit. One then, like the Son of man, on a cloud, reaps the earth, the harvest of which is ripe. The vintage of the earth is gathered by another angel, and the winepress trodden, blood coming from it reaching to sixteen hundred furlongs, the extent of Palestine.

Rev. 15, Rev. 16.  These form another division of the book.  Rev. 15 shows the blessedness of those victorious over the beast and his image and number, and recounts their song. It presents also the coming out of the seven angels from the temple of the tabernacle of the testimony, having the seven vials, or bowls, of the wrath of God. In Rev. 16 they are bidden to go forth and pour out the vials. This is evidently different from all that has gone before.

The first vial brings grievous miseries.

Second vial. Moral death is upon the sea — the people.

Third vial. This is poured out upon the rivers and fountains — channels and sources of influence and action.

Fourth vial. Poured upon the sun — supreme authority.

Fifth vial. Poured upon the throne of the beast, his kingdom becomes chaos.

Sixth vial. Poured upon the great river Euphrates, opening up the way for the eastern hordes. A trinity of evil spirits goes forth to gather the kings of the earth to the battle of the great day of Almighty God at Harmagedon — mount of Megiddo: cf. Judges 5.

Seventh vial. This is poured on the air. There is an unprecedented break up of communities, and fall of imperial centres; and great Babylon is remembered before God for wrath. Direct final judgements fall from God out of heaven, but produce only blasphemy on the part of men.

Rev. 17, Rev. 18.  A vision concerning the great harlot, which may be identified with Jezebel (in the address to Thyatira) and from the description given, may be recognised as the Romish Papal system, is brought under the notice of John by one of the angels of the seven last plagues. The woman is seen riding the beast (the revived Empire), but she is drunk with the blood of saints and martyrs of Jesus. In Rev. 17:8 the beast is described, after its period of non-existence, as reappearing in Satanic power. Seven kings, heads or forms of government, are spoken of, of which five were fallen, one existed, and one was still to come, remaining but a little while. The beast, the final form, is the eighth, but morally of the seven, and goes into destruction. See ROMAN EMPIRE. They make war with the Lamb, but He is Lord of lords and King of kings, and overcomes them. The use to which God turns the power of the last form of the Roman Empire is the destruction of the harlot. Rev. 18 gives the lamentations of various classes and orders over the fall of the great and splendid city, under the form of which the harlot is portrayed.

Rev. 19.  There is joy in heaven because the judgement of the harlot is accomplished. Its day being over, the marriage of the Lamb is come and His wife is ready. In Rev. 19:11 to Rev. 20:3 is presented a vision of the Lord coming forth in warrior judgements He is seated on a white horse, and His saints follow with Him. He comes to smite the nations. He is manifested as King of kings and Lord of lords. The Roman beast and the Antichrist are cast alive into the lake of fire.

Rev. 20.  Satan is cast into the abyss (not into the lake of fire yet) for a thousand years. Thrones and judgement committed to those sitting on them and the 'souls' of those martyred (cf. Rev. 6:9-11), and of those killed during the time of the beast (cf. Rev. 13:7, 15-17), are seen. Such are raised to life, and reign with Christ a thousand years. (See MILLENNIUM.) This is the first resurrection; but the rest of the dead — the wicked — are not raised until the thousand years are expired. After this, Satan is loosed for a little season and deceives the nations: they come up and compass the camp of the saints, but fire comes down and devours them. Satan is cast into the lake of fire. The dead stand before the great white throne to be judged according to their works. (See JUDGEMENT, SESSIONAL.) Death and Hades are cast into the lake of fire. "Whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire."

Rev. 21.  Rev. 1-8 speak of the eternal state, when there will be a new heaven and a new earth. The holy city, new Jerusalem, comes down from heaven as a bride adorned for her husband. The title 'the Lamb,' and all dispensational names have disappeared: God is all in all. In Rev. 21:9 the narrative returns to furnish certain details connected with the kingdom. The bride is shown to John (as had been the harlot) by one of the angels that had the seven last plagues, in the glories that distinguish her as the seat of heavenly light and rule. The holy city comes down out of heaven from God. Her security is in her high wall and gates. On the gates are the names of the twelve tribes of Israel: cf. Matt. 19:28. The work of the twelve apostles is recognised by their names in the foundation: cf. Eph. 2:20. The city is resplendent with divine glory, and answers every requirement of righteousness. Its glory is reflected, as shown by the reference to precious stones. The Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple: the glory of God lightens the city, and the Lamb is the light-bearer. No evil can enter there: only those written in the Lamb's book of life. The throne of God and the Lamb is there, from which issues a river of life.

Rev. 22.  In Rev. 22:1-5 the tree of life is seen in the city yielding its fruits and its leaves for the healing of the nations. The servants of the Lamb enjoy His presence, and reign for ever and ever.

Rev. 22:6-21 are a conclusion to the book. The angel declares the truth of the prophecies. Jesus adds, "Behold, I come quickly: blessed is he that keepeth the sayings of the prophecy of this book." The sayings were not to be sealed, for the time was near: cf. Dan. 12:4, 9. When the testimony is closed, man's state is unalterable. Christ is coming with His rewards, to render to every one as his work shall be. He is the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end — Jehovah. Those who have washed their robes, eat of the tree of life, and have right to enter by the gates into the city: the defiled and idolaters are outside.

The Lord closes the book, saying simply "I Jesus," speaking personally rather than officially. The Spirit and the bride on their part say, "Come;" and he that heareth is invited also to say, Come; and there is then an appeal to him that is athirst and to whosoever will to take the water of life freely. A solemn warning is given as to maintaining the prophecy in its integrity and completeness. The last words of the Lord Himself are "Surely I come quickly." To which John responds, "Amen, come, Lord Jesus." The closing salutation is "The grace of the Lord Jesus be with the saints."


Future rewards for the Christian are spoken of frequently in the N.T. They are open to all. A cup of cold water given to a disciple because he belongs to Christ, shall not lose its reward, Mark 9:41; and the Lord Jesus said, "Behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to give every man according as his work shall be." Rev. 22:12.  He who labours in the Lord's service, if his work abides, will receive his reward. 1 Cor. 3:8, 14: cf. 2 John 8. At the same time the Lord will reward the doer of evil with its fitting recompense. 2 Sam. 3:39.

Rewards are not held out as a motive before the soul: each should be able to say, The love of Christ constraineth me. 2 Cor. 5:14. But they are added, in the aboundings of love and grace, as an encouragement amid the dangers and difficulties of the way. Believers are warned that they be not beguiled of their reward. Col. 2:18: cf. Rev. 3:11.

Rezeph. [Re'zeph]

Place which the king of Assyria boasted of his 'fathers' having destroyed. 2 Kings 19:12; Isa. 37:12. Several places have been known bearing this name. There is one west of the Euphrates, on the road from Racca to Hums, and another on the east of the river, near Bagdad; both have been suggested as probable identifications.

Rezia. [Rezi'a]

Son of Ulla, a descendant of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:39.

Rezin. [Rezin']

1.  King of Syria, who, in alliance with Pekah king of Israel, made an attack upon Ahaz, king of Judah. Isaiah was sent to comfort Ahaz, but he asked the aid of Assyria, sending him silver and gold. Rezin was slain, Damascus made desolate, and the people carried into captivity. 2 Kings 15:37; 2 Kings 16:5-9; Isa. 7:1-8; Isa. 8:6; Isa. 9:11.

2. Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:48; Neh. 7:50.

Rezon. [Rezon']

Son of Eliadad and a subject of Hadadezer king of Zobah: he fled to Damascus, and established himself as king. God stirred him up against Solomon. 1 Kings 11:23-25.

Rhegium. [Rhe'gium]

City on the coast of Italy, near its south-east extremity. The ship in which Paul sailed touched there on the journey to Rome. Acts 28:13. It is now called Reggio.

Rhesa. [Rhe'sa]

Son of Zorobabel, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:27.

Rhoda. [Rho'da]

A maid in the house of Mary when Peter was delivered from prison. Acts 12:13.


An island lying near the S.W. corner of Asia Minor. Acts 21:1. It was at one time a place of great renown. It still bears the same name.

Ribai. [Ri'bai]

Father of Ithai, or Ittai, one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:29; 1 Chr. 11:31.

Ribband of Blue.

This was to be worn by the Israelites on the borders of their garments that they might look upon it, and remember the commandments of Jehovah, and do them. Num. 15:38-39. It denotes that the character of Christ, the heavenly Man, should govern the ways of the Christian, instead of the self-will and presumption of the flesh.

Riblah. [Rib'lah]

1.  Place apparently on the eastern boundary of Palestine. Num. 34:11. Not identified.

2. City in the land of Hamath, where Pharaoh-nechoh imprisoned Jehoahaz, and whence the king of Babylon carried Zedekiah, when he slew his sons and the priests and chief men of Judah. 2 Kings 23:33;  2 Kings 25:6-7, 20, 21; Jer. 39:5-6; Jer. 52:9-10, 26, 27. Identified with Ribleh, 34 28' N, 36 31' E.


A dark or hidden saying, as that which Samson put forth respecting the carcase of the lion, Judges 14:12-19; and that of Ezekiel concerning the great eagle, but this is also called a 'parable.' Ezek. 17:2. The word is chidah, and is also translated 'dark saying, sentence, speech,'  'hard question,' and once 'proverb.'

Rie, Rye,

kussemeth. This is judged to refer to 'spelt,' the Triticum spelta, a species of grain resembling wheat. Ex. 9:32; Isa. 28:25. The same Hebrew word in Ezek. 4:9 is translated 'fitches,' with 'spelt' in the margin. The northern rye is the Secale cereale.


A term frequently occurring in scripture expressing an attribute of God which maintains what is consistent with His own character, and necessarily judges what is opposed to it — sin. In man also it is the opposite of lawlessness or sin, 1 John 3:4-7; but it is plainly declared of man that, apart from a work of grace in him, "there is none righteous, no, not one." Ps. 14:1-3; Rom. 3:10. But God has, independently of man, revealed His righteousness in the complete judgement and setting aside of sin; and of the state with which, in man, sin was connected. This was effected by the Son of God becoming man and taking on the cross, vicariously, the place of man as under the curse of the law, and in His being made sin and glorifying God in bearing the judgement of sin. Hence grace is established on the foundation of righteousness. The righteousness of God, declared and expressed in the saints in Christ, is thus the divinely given answer to Christ having been made sin. On the other hand, the lake of fire is an eternal expression of God's righteous judgement. At the present moment God's righteousness is revealed in the gospel and apprehended by faith.

This is an entirely different principle from that on which the Jew went, namely, that of seeking to establish their own righteousness, and not submitting to the righteousness of God. Rom. 10:3. Their father Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness; and the faith of the believer is counted to him for righteousness, apart from works. Rom. 4:3, 5.

Christ Jesus is made unto us righteousness from God. 1 Cor. 1:30. He is the end of the law for righteousness to all those who believe.

Besides the above, there is the practical righteousness which characterises every Christian. By knowing God's righteousness he becomes the servant of righteousness. The bride of the Lamb is represented as "arrayed in fine linen, clean and white:" which is "the righteousnesses of the saints." Rev. 19:8.

The doctrine of the imputed righteousness of Christ, though largely acknowledged in Christendom, is not found in scripture. The explanation generally given of the doctrine is that Christ having perfectly kept the law, His obedience has formed a legal righteousness that is imputed to the believer as if the latter had himself kept the law. One passage of scripture proves this view to be incorrect: "If righteousness come by the law, then Christ is dead in vain." Gal. 2:21. The force of the doctrine is to maintain the validity of the law in application to believers; and it stands in the way of their apprehending their death to the law by the body of Christ, so as to be married to Christ raised up from the dead, to bring forth fruit to God. Rom. 7:4.

Rimmon. [Rim'mon]

1.  City in Judah, but allotted to Simeon. Joshua 15:32; 1 Chr. 4:32; Zech. 14:10. It is called REMMON in Joshua 19:7.  Probably the same as EN-RIMMON.

2.  Rock or cleft in Benjamin, where six hundred Benjamites took refuge. Judges 20:45-47; Judges 21:13. Identified with Rummon, 31 56' N, 35 17' E.

3. Merarite city in Zebulun. 1 Chr. 6:77. Identified with Remmaneh, 32 47' N, 35 18' E. See DIMNAH.

4.  Father of Rechab and Baanah who slew Ish-bosheth. 2 Sam. 4:2-9.

5.  Syrian idol at Damascus. 2 Kings 5:18.

Rimmonparez.  [Rim'mon-pa'rez]

One of the stations of the Israelites. Num. 33:19-20.

Rinnah. [Rin'nah]

Son of Shimon, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:20.

Riphath. [Ri'phath]

Son of Gomer, a son of Japheth. Gen. 10:3; 1 Chr. 1:6.

Rissah. [Ris'sah]

One of the stations of the Israelites. Num. 33:21-22.

Rithmah. [Rith'mah]

One of the stations of the Israelites. Num. 33:18-19. By comparing this passage with Num. 11:35 and Num. 12:16 it appears that Rithmah is in the wilderness of Paran, and the passages refer to the first visit of the Israelites to that locality. See WANDERINGS OF THE ISRAELITES.


The three principal rivers referred to in scripture are the Nile, the Jordan, and the Euphrates. The word employed for the Nile is yeor, 'a fosse or channel'; for the Jordan and the Euphrates the word used is nahar, 'a river' always supplied with water. The other streams in Palestine, though called 'rivers,' as the Arnon, are torrents running in valleys; for the most part they have water only in the winter, and are then often impassable: these are described by the word nachal. For the symbolical river that Ezekiel saw issuing from the house this latter word is used. Ezek. 47:5-12.

God will make His people drink of the river of His pleasures, Ps. 36:8; here the word is nachal. In Ps. 46:4 it is nahar. "There is a river, the streams whereof shall make glad the city of God." It will never run dry.

River of Egypt.

The S.W. border of the promised land was to be from 'the river of Egypt.' Gen. 15:18. Here the word is nahar, and would seem to allude to the most eastern branch of the Delta of the Nile, called the Pelusiac mouth. In Num. 34:5 'the river of Egypt' has the word nachal, signifying a winter torrent, and is supposed to refer to the Wady el Arish, 31 8' N, 33 50' E.

Rizpah. [Riz'pah]

Concubine of Saul, whose two sons Armoni and Mephibosheth were given up by David to avenge the deeds of Saul against the Gibeonites. They, with the five sons of Michal, or Michal's sister, were hanged up before the Lord. Rizpah protected the bodies from the birds and the beasts day and night, until David had their remains interred. 2 Sam. 3:7; 2 Sam. 21:8-12.

Road, To make a.

To invade for plunder. 1 Sam. 27:10.



Roboam. [Robo'am]



Two words are principally employed for this word. One is sela, 'an elevation of strength, immovable': used symbolically for Jehovah as the rock of His people: "Jehovah is my rock and my fortress." Ps. 18:2. He hath "set my feet upon a rock, and established my goings." Ps. 40:2.

The other word is tsur, a rock, generally sharp and precipitous, 'a place of shelter and security': "Lead me to the rock that is higher than I"; Thou art "my father, my God, and the rock of my salvation."  "My God is the rock of my refuge." Ps. 61:2; Ps. 89:26; Ps. 94:22.

In the N.T. any one who heard and did the sayings of the Lord is compared to a man who built his house upon the rock which nothing could shake. Matt. 7:24-25; Luke 6:48. The Lord said, "Thou art Peter [πέτρος], and upon this rock [πέτρα] I will build my church." The church is being built upon what Peter confessed, Christ Himself, the Son of the living God. Matt. 16:16-18: cf. 1 Cor. 3:11; 1 Cor. 10:4.

Roe, Roebuck.

The word tsebi is supposed to refer to some species of the gazelle. In the Levitical economy it was ranked with the clean animals. Deut. 12:15, 22. The gazelle is graceful and elegant: three times in the Canticles the bride compares the bridegroom to a roe; and the bridegroom compares the breasts of the bride to two young roes. Cant. 2:7, 9, 17; Cant. 3:5; Cant. 4:5; Cant. 7:3; Cant. 8:14. The Gazella dorcas and Gazella Arabica are found in Syria. The Arabs hunt them by a falcon and a greyhound. Repeated attacks upon the head of the gazelle by the bird bewilder it, so that it becomes a prey to the hound, which is trained for the purpose. Others are caught in pits, to which they are driven by the hunters.

Rogelim. [Ro'gelim]

City in Gilead, the residence of Barzillai. 2 Sam. 17:27; 2 Sam. 19:31. Not identified.

Rohgah. [Roh'gah]

Son of Shamer, a descendant of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:34.



Romamtiezer.  [Romam'ti-e'zer]

Son of Heman: he was appointed to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:4, 31.

Roman Empire.

This is more often spoken of in scripture than is generally recognised. In the vision of the great image by Nebuchadnezzar, four great empires are prophesied of, each being inferior to its predecessor. The fourth is the Roman empire, which in its last phase is compared to iron and clay, materials which would not unite: the kingdom would be divided in itself. In the visions of Daniel the same four kingdoms are further portrayed, and whereas the first three are compared to known animals, the Roman is compared to some dreadful monster that cannot be named: cf. Dan. 7:7.

The history of the Roman empire fully answers to the prophecy. There were many changes before the line of emperors, but there was always the democratic element in the ruling power. When there were emperors they depended upon popular choice — mostly upon the soldiers, and the senate endorsed the choice of the army. The emperor exercised imperial power, but had to please the troops. There were the two elements at work, the iron and clay, which would not unite. Of the first twelve emperors, seven were either put to death, or committed suicide to escape a more violent end.

There is no empire mentioned in scripture as succeeding Rome, and the iron and clay elements, as the relics of Rome, are at work more or less in all civilised countries. The same empire is described in the Revelation as a beast that was, and is not, and yet it shall be present, or come. It is further described as "there are seven kings," or forms of government (Kings, B.C. 753; Consuls, 509; Dictators, 498; Decemvirs, 451; and Consular Tribunes, 444): "five are fallen, and one is" (Imperial, B.C. 31; it existed when John wrote): "and the other is not yet come." Rev. 17:10. From this we learn that the Roman empire will be reconstructed: it will be a union of ten kings (ten horns), and will be of the seven numerically, but will be the eighth as being of a new order.

The empire will make a covenant with the Jews for a week (seven years), but will break it in the middle of the week. Dan. 9:27. It will be in close association with another great power, symbolised by a beast (the Antichrist), coming up out of the earth, and both will be energised by Satan. Rev. 13:1-18; Rev. 17:8-18. The empire will be used by God to destroy Babylon (Papal Rome), and will then be itself destroyed.

Palestine became subject to Rome in B.C. 63. It was an officer of the Roman empire that delivered the Lord to be crucified, and it was the Romans who were used by God to punish His people and destroy their city. They alas, in their pride have been displaying this before the world ever since in the Arch of Titus at Rome.

The Roman Emperors who reigned during New Testament times; the Procurators whom the Emperors appointed over Palestine; and the branches of Herod's family who succeeded him, are given in the following table:-

Table of Roman Emperors and Procurators

Romans, Epistle to the.

This may justly be called the fundamental epistle of Christian doctrine. Its value and importance are seen in that its doctrine lays in the soul a moral foundation by the presentation of God in qualities or attributes which the state of things existing in the world appears to call in question. Thus God is justified in the eyes of the believer, and this being the case, the purposes of His love are made known to him.

In looking at all that is around us in the world, everything appears to be out of order: the presence and domination of sin, a broken law, and the corrupt and violent will in man, all call in question the righteousness of God; while the scattering of God's people Israel raises the question of His faithfulness to His promises.

Now in Christ all this finds its full and complete answer. The Son of God, by whom all were created, has Himself come in the likeness of sinful flesh, and, by offering Himself a sacrifice for sin, has completely vindicated God's righteousness, while revealing His love. At the same time the man, or order of man, that has sinned against God has been judicially removed by His death from before the eye of God, so that God can present Himself to man in grace.

The moral perfection of the offerer of necessity brought in resurrection, in which all the pleasure of God's grace in regard to man is set forth in righteousness; and Christ risen is the deliverer who is to come forth from Zion to turn away ungodliness from Jacob. Thus God's faithfulness to His covenant is established in Zion. God is proved to be faithful and righteous: we have here the first elements of the knowledge of God.

But it way be desirable to open up the epistle a little in detail. After the introduction, in which the fact may be noticed that the glad tidings are said to be concerning God's Son, a picture is given us of the moral condition of man in the world, whether heathen, philosopher, or Jew. In the heathen we see the unchecked development of sin (Rom. 1). In the philosopher the fact that light in itself does not control evil (Rom. 2); and in the Jew that law is proved to be powerless to bring about subjection to God, or to secure righteousness for man. The conclusion is that all have sinned and come short of the glory of God — all are proved to be justly under the sentence and judgement of death which God had imposed at the outset. Rom. 3.

In the latter part of Rom. 3 we have the declaration of God's righteousness, in regard of man's state, in the blood of Christ, who on the cross took vicariously the place of man, and suffered what was due to man: God's righteousness is thus witnessed to, both in respect of past forbearance and present grace; and His consequent attitude towards all men, without difference, is seen; while Rom. 4 shows that the principle of justifying man, or accounting him righteous apart from works, had been conspicuous in regard to the men to whom in time past God had made promises, namely, Abraham and David. This was and is the pleasure of God, as now set forth in our Lord Jesus, who has been delivered for our offences, and raised again for our justification. While God had Himself been glorified in Christ's death, His pleasure as to man is set forth in Christ's resurrection.

Rom. 5 brings fully into view the dominion of grace established through our Lord Jesus Christ, and unfolds in detail the terms on which God is with those who have been justified in His grace, beginning with peace and going on to reconciliation, the love of God being shed abroad in the heart by the Holy Ghost. The subject is brought to a conclusion at the close of the chapter by the unfolding of the position of Christ as the last Adam; and of the effects of His moral perfectness in not only removing all that had come in by the sin of the first man Adam, but, in bringing in the justification of life. The bearing of this is that, for God, but one typical Man subsists, and that what attaches to Him as such belongs to those who are morally of His line or order. This principle was true in Adam, and is now true in Christ. In Christ the question of good and evil has been solved; death has been annulled, and the blessing of eternal life brought into view.

The righteousness of God having been vindicated, and the truth brought out of what His mind is towards believers, the three following chapters take up the question of the state of the believer, and develop the divinely established way of deliverance for him from principles to which man's soul is naturally in bondage; that thus he may be responsive to the love in which it has pleased God to make Himself known, and may be brought into the sense of being the object of God's purpose.

There are three principles to which man is in bondage, namely, sin, the law, and the flesh; and a way has been opened by which the believer may be free from the control of each of these principles. As to sin, the dominating principle in the world (Rom. 6), the way of deliverance is indicated in baptism, in identification with the death of Christ; and freedom is found in realising the truth of that which is set forth in baptism, that is, in reckoning ourselves dead indeed to sin, and alive to God in Christ Jesus. The knowledge which the soul has acquired of God in grace enables it to take this ground.

As regards law (Rom. 7), the bond, where it existed, has been dissolved in the death of Christ, so that Christ who is risen from the dead should be law to the believer; hence he lives by the faith of the Son of God who loved him and gave Himself for him.

As regards flesh, which is found to be hopelessly perverse, deliverance is in the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus (Rom. 8). This is the power within the believer, and the consequences of it are momentous. It involves, in the consciousness of the believer's soul, the transfer from one stock to another. He is not only transplanted, but grafted into Christ, so that he acquires all the nourishment and vigour of the new stock. Thus he is led into the consciousness of all that is involved in the Spirit that dwells within him; and is able more distinctly to accept the position of death to sin, and to appreciate the truth of Christ being law to him — and in the enjoyment of deliverance he has the consciousness by the Spirit of that to which God has called him, namely, to be conformed to the image of His Son, and the persuasion that nothing can separate him from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.

We now arrive at another section of the epistle, which includes Rom. 9, Rom. 10, and Rom. 11, the object of which would appear to be to vindicate the faithfulness of God as to His promises to the fathers, in face of the fact of Israel having been set aside to make way for the church. It is shown that the principle of sovereignty lay underneath the whole of God's dealings in regard to Israel, and was expressed in the way of election, and of rejection at critical points in their history, and that the position of Israel had been formed on this. A crucial test had come in by the presentation of Christ, and Israel had stumbled at the stumbling stone; and, while saving a remnant, God had in His sovereignty also called an election from the Gentiles, who had submitted to the righteousness of God which Israel had refused. In this connection the apostle vindicates his world-wide gospel.

God had not, however, given up finally His thought in regard to Israel, for even in the gospel to the Gentiles He had them ultimately in view. The nations had now by the gospel their opportunity, and if they failed to continue in the goodness of God, their defection would make the way for the resumption of God's ways with Israel, and both Gentiles and Jews would manifestly come in on the ground of mercy. Thus God would be everything, and man nothing. This result calls forth the doxology at the close of Rom. 11.

Thus we have in the epistle a full vindication of God, both as to righteousness and faithfulness.

The hortatory part of the epistle follows in Rom. 12 — Rom. 15.  The compassions of God are urged as an incentive to the believer to be here for the will of God. Transformed by the renewing of his mind, he is to be here in anticipation of another age. This is to be seen both in his service and, morally, in his character. His obligation is then shown in respect of the powers allowed of God in the world, and of man generally; and then in respect of the kingdom of God, by the influence of which he is to be ruled in his conduct toward those weak in the faith.

The apostle closes by a reference to the distinctiveness of his own service, carrying out his special mission to the Gentiles — and the expression of his purpose in due course to reach Rome.

The salutations at the close of the epistle are remarkable for the number of persons mentioned by name, and for the touches by which they are individually identified.

The epistle was written by Paul when at Corinth, about A.D. 58: cf. Acts 20:1-3. It is an exhaustive dissertation, and evinces the energy and wisdom of the Spirit of God in each point discussed. It is apposite that such an epistle should have been addressed to the saints at the then metropolis of the civilised world, not, however, that that metropolis should be in any way a centre of the church of God. Paul had not introduced the gospel there, and there is no evidence that Peter did so. It may have been carried to that city by some who were converted at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost.


The well-known capital of Italy and the metropolis of the Roman empire. There were 'strangers' from Rome at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, where they would doubtless hear the gospel, some may have been converted, and carried the gospel back with them. Acts 2:10. Paul wrote his epistle to the saints at Rome about A.D. 58. He was a prisoner there in his own hired house for two years, about A.D. 61, 62, being, as was usual, chained to a soldier. But the gospel spread thereby, and entered Caesar's household. Phil. 1:13; Phil. 4:22.

PAPAL ROME is clearly spoken of, and its doom announced in Rev. 17 and Rev. 18: "the seven heads are seven mountains on which the woman sitteth."  See under REVELATION.


chabatstseleth. The bride in the Canticles calls herself a 'rose of Sharon'; and when God again brings the Jews into blessing "the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose." Cant. 2:1; Isa. 35:1. Roses grow in Palestine, but it is generally agreed that the above Hebrew word does not refer to the rose, but implies a bulbous plant, and it may be the lily, the crocus, or the narcissus. The R.V. has in the margin the 'autumn crocus.'


1.  Son of Benjamin. Gen. 46:21.

2. The same Hebrew word occurs in Ezek. 38:2 and Ezek. 39:1, which, though frequently translated 'chief,' is now treated in these passages as a proper name reading 'prince of Rosh,' as in the R.V. and other translations. It refers to Russia.


reninim. To what precious stone this word refers is not definitely known. It is mentioned as a symbol of preciousness: as "the price of wisdom is above rubies"; the value of a virtuous woman is far above rubies. Job 28:18; Prov. 3:15; Prov. 8:11; Prov. 20:15; Prov. 31:10.  In Lam. 4:7, where the Nazarites are said to be "more ruddy in body than rubies," some translate 'corals,' though the Hebrew is the same.  Bochart judges 'pearls' to be intended.


'Elements or principles.' The Christian is warned against the rudiments of the world, from which he has died with Christ. Col. 2:8, 20.


The well-known plant, the common Ruta graveolens. It is only mentioned as a small thing which was tithed by the Pharisees. Luke 11:42. It is used in the East as a condiment and as a medicine. Four species of wild rue are found in Palestine.

Rufus. [Ru'fus]

1. Son of Simon, the Cyrenian, who was compelled to bear the Lord's cross. Mark 15:21.

2. A believer in Rome to whom Paul sent a salutation. Rom. 16:13. Possibly the same as No. 1

Ruhamah. [Ruha'mah]

In the prophet Hosea they were to say to their sisters in Israel, Ruhamah, 'having obtained mercy,' as in the margin. Hosea had in Hosea 1 called his daughter symbolically Lo-ruhamah, 'not having obtained mercy,' to signify the state of Israel; but in Hosea 1:11 he speaks of restoration, so that Ruhamah apparently refers to the remnant, those who entered into the spirit and mind of the prophet, and in that sense were his 'sisters.' Hosea 2:1: cf. Matt. 12:50.

Rumah. [Ru'mah]

Native place of Pedaiah. 2 Kings 23:36. Not identified.

Ruth, Book of.

This book is of great interest, giving, when Israel was nationally very low, a vivid picture of individual piety, as well as of courtesies in which in those days God-fearing men in various conditions in rustic life were not deficient. Ruth was a Moabitess, the wife of Mahlon, one of the sons of Elimelech and Naomi, who because of a famine in Israel had gone to sojourn in Moab. On the death of Elimelech and his sons, Naomi the widow returned to Bethlehem, accompanied by Ruth, who clave to her, declaring that Naomi's God should be her God, and Naomi's people should be her people.

In the time of barley harvest Ruth went to glean in the field of Boaz, a near kinsman of Elimelech and a rich man. Boaz observed and was gracious to her. She continued thus during the barley and wheat harvests. On the barley being winnowed, Boaz, after eating and drinking, lay down in a barn; and Ruth, instructed by Naomi, went and lay down at his feet. On his awaking, she declared that he was a near kinsman. He owned to this, but said there was one nearer than himself. On the circumstances being made known to the latter, and on his declining to redeem the inheritance, Boaz redeemed all that had belonged to Elimelech and his two sons, and took Ruth to be his wife. She bare a son named Obed, the father of Jesse, the father of David.

Ruth is mentioned in Matt. 1:5, and in her and in Rahab we have a Moabitess and a woman of Canaan in the genealogy of Christ. The genealogy reflects no honour on Israel after the flesh.

The Book of Ruth may be taken as having a prophetic force: Naomi may represent Israel separated by death from 'God my king' (Elimelech), a widow and desolate among the Gentiles: Ruth, the remnant in which, on the ground of mercy, the nation will bear a son. Christ who as Israel's kinsman has the right of redemption, will take their cause in hand and bring it to a glorious issue.


See RIE.

Sabachthani. [Sabachtha'ni]

An Aramaic word, signifying, "hast thou forsaken me?" uttered by the Lord when on the cross as the sin-bearer. Matt. 27:46; Mark 15:34.

Sabaoth. [Saba'oth]



The first time the Sabbath is specifically mentioned in scripture is in Ex. 16:23, after the manna had been given from heaven; but the Sabbath clearly had its origin in the sanctification and blessing of the seventh day after the six days of creative work. And a hebdomadal division of days apparently existed up to the flood, since it is very distinctly mentioned in connection with Noah. We are also told in Mark 2:27 that the Sabbath was made for man. It was an institution which expressed God's merciful consideration for man.

The words 'rest' and 'Sabbath' in the passage in Exodus have no article, so that the sentence may be translated "To-morrow is [a] rest, [a] holy Sabbath unto the Lord." So in Ex. 16:25-26 there is no article: there is in Ex. 16:29. The Sabbath was soon after definitely enacted in the ten commandments, Ex. 20:8-11, and reference is there made to God having rested on the seventh day after the work of creation as the basis of the institution.

The Sabbath had a peculiar place in relation to Israel: thus in Lev. 23, in the feasts of Jehovah, in the holy convocations, the Sabbath of Jehovah is first mentioned as showing the great intention of God. God had delivered Israel out of the slavery of Egypt, therefore God commanded them to keep the Sabbath. Deut. 5:15. The Sabbath was the sign of God's covenant with them, and it may be that the Lord in repeatedly offending the Jews by (in their view) breaking the Sabbath by acts of mercy foreshadowed the approaching dissolution of the legal covenant. Ex. 31:13, 17; Ezek. 20:12, 20. The Sabbath foreshadowed their being brought into the rest of God; but, because of the sin of those who started to go thither (who despised the promised land), God sware in His wrath that they should not enter into His rest. Ps. 95:11. God has purposed to bring His people into His rest, for whom there remains therefore the keeping of a Sabbath. Heb. 4:9.

The Sabbath was never given to the nations in the same way as to Israel, and amid all the sins enumerated against the Gentiles, we do not find Sabbath-breaking ever mentioned. Nevertheless, it appears to be a principle of God's government of the earth that man and beast should have one day in seven as a respite from labour, all needing it physically.

The Christian's Sabbath is designated the LORD'S DAY — and is as distinct in principle from the Jewish legal Sabbath as the opening, or first day of a new week is from the close of a past one. The Lord lay in death on the Jewish Sabbath: the Christian keeps the first day of the week, the resurrection day.  See LORD'S DAY.

Sabbath-day's Journey.

This is mentioned as the greatest distance a Jew was allowed to travel on the Sabbath. There is no injunction as to this in the law, but when some of the people went out to gather manna on the Sabbath, Moses enjoined, "Abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day." Ex. 16:29. In N.T. times it was understood that a person might travel two thousand cubits (about five furlongs); this extent had been fixed on because when the Israelites were marching they were commanded to keep the above named distance from the ark, and it was concluded that when they were encamped, there was the same distance between the tabernacle and the tents, and that this space was constantly travelled for worship. When they were in the land the distance was reckoned from the gate of the city from which the traveller started. Acts 1:12. The Lord perhaps referred to this custom when He bade the disciples pray that, in the judgement of Jerusalem, their flight should not be "on the Sabbath-day." Matt. 24:20.

Sabbatical Year.

The Sabbath being the sign of God's covenant with Israel (See SABBATH), and that He purposed that they should enjoy His rest, even the land must keep its Sabbath every seventh year. God promised that the produce of the sixth year should be enough for three years, so that the land resting a full year should cause no scarcity. Ex. 23:10-11; Lev. 25:2-7. Apparently the Sabbatical years were not observed. Lev. 26:33-35. See JUBILEE.

Sabeans. [Sabe'ans]

There are four persons who have been regarded as progenitors of the Sabeans.

1. Seba, son of Cush. Gen. 10:7.

2. Sheba, grandson of Cush. Gen. 10:7.

3. Sheba, descendant of Joktan. Gen. 10:28.

4. Sheba, son of Jokshan. Gen. 25:3.

The first two are descendants of Ham, and the last two descendants of Shem. For their localities see SEBA and SHEBA. Some were marauders who swept away the oxen and asses of Job. Job 1:15.  In Isa. 45:14 they were travelling merchants. In Joel 3:8 they are represented as a people 'far off,' to whom Judah will sell their enemies. These passages may not all refer to the same people. In Ezek. 23:42 the chethib reads 'drunkards,' as in the margin of the A.V. and the text of the R.V.

Sabta, [Sab'ta] Sabtah. [Sab'tah]

Third son of Cush. Gen. 10:7; 1 Chr. 1:9. Where he was located is not known.

Sabtecha, [Sab'techa] Sabtechah. [Sab'techah]

Fifth son of Cush. Gen. 10:7; 1 Chr. 1:9.  It is not known where he was located.

Sacar. [Sa'car]

1.  A Hararite, father of Ahiam, one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:35. Called SHARAR in 2 Sam. 23:33.

2. Fourth son of Obededom. 1 Chr. 26:4.


The Hebrew word sabka is judged to refer to a stringed musical instrument (not a wind instrument, as the name sackbut implies). Dan. 3:5-15. It was probably the same as the sambuca of the Greeks and Romans. This was a triangular harp.


A rough cloth made of hair, of which sacks and coarse clothing was made. When put on as a symbol of sorrow or repentance it was worn next the skin, and not taken off at night: it was often associated with ashes. 1 Kings 21:27; 2 Kings 6:30; Job 16:15; Joel 1:13; Rev. 6:12; etc.


As a technical religious term, 'sacrifice' designates anything which, having been devoted to a holy purpose, cannot be called back. In the generality of sacrifices offered to God under the law the consciousness is supposed in the offerer that death, as God's judgement, was on him; hence the sacrifice had to be killed that it might be accepted of God at his hand. In fact the word sacrifice often refers to the act of killing.

The first sacrifice we read of was that offered by Abel, though there is an indication of the death of victims in the fact that Adam and Eve were clothed by God with coats of skins. Doubtless in some way God had instructed man that, the penalty of the fall and of his own sin being that his life was forfeited, he could only appropriately approach God by the death of a substitute not chargeable with his offence; for it was by faith that Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain. Heb. 11:4. God afterward instructed Cain that if he did not well, sin, or a sin offering, lay at the door.

The subject was more fully explained under the law: "The life of the flesh is in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls: for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul." Lev. 17:11. Not that the blood of bulls and of goats had any inherent efficacy to take away sins; but it was typical of the blood of Christ which is the witness that they have been taken away for the believer by Christ's sacrifice.

Christ appeared once in the end of the world "to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself;" and He having once died, there remains no more sacrifice for sins. Eph. 5:2; Heb. 9:26; Heb. 10:4, 12, 26. Without faith in the sacrificial death of Christ there is no salvation, as is taught in Rom. 3:25; Rom. 4:24-25; 1 Cor. 15:1-4.

The Christian is exhorted to present his body a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is his intelligent service, Rom. 12:1: cf. 2 Cor. 8:5; Phil. 4:18. He offers by Christ the sacrifice of praise to God, and even to do good and to communicate are sacrifices well pleasing to God. Heb. 13:15-16: cf. 1 Peter 2:5.  For the sacrifices under the law see OFFERINGS.


Next to the Pharisees, the Sadducees were the most prominent sect of the Jews. The Pharisees made proselytes, but the Sadducees were much more exclusive, and therefore remained fewer in number. They did not believe in the resurrection, nor in angels, nor in spirits: they held that the soul perished with the body. Matt. 22:23; Acts 4:1-2; Acts 23:8. Though strict in regard to the written law of Moses, they repudiated the traditions of the elders, or what is called the oral law. They believed that God punished a man's sins during his life, and that man's will was free, and he had power to restrain his passions. In consequence of this they were severe judges. The Lord Jesus warned His disciples against their doctrines, and denounced them as the 'offspring of vipers.' The tenets of the modern rationalists have much in common with the Sadducees.

Sadoc. [Sa'doc]

Son of Azor, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Matt. 1:14.


A common odoriferous plant. The Hebrew karkom agrees with the Arabic karkum and points to the Crocus sativus, or saffron crocus. Cant. 4:14. In the East it is pressed into small cakes and sold in the bazaars.


Two words are employed in the Hebrew.

1.   chasid, 'pious toward God,' also translated 'holy' and 'godly.' The word occurs frequently in the Psalms, where God speaks of His saints. Ps. 31:23; Ps. 50:5; Ps. 116:15; Ps. 149:1, 5, 9; etc.

2.  qadosh, 'consecrated, set apart, holy.' Deut. 33:3; Job 15:15; Ps. 16:3; Ps. 34:9; Ps. 89:5, 7; Dan. 7:18-27; Dan. 8:13; Hosea 11:12; Zech. 14:5.  Aaron is called 'the saint of Jehovah.' Ps. 106:16.

In the N.T. the word used is ἅγιος, which means 'holy one.' A saint is one set apart for God; he is such by calling (not 'called to be a saint'). Rom. 1:7; 1 Cor. 1:2; cf. Heb. 3:1.  Saints are thus a distinct, recognised class of persons belonging to God — His saints. Acts 9:13; Col 1:26; 1 Thess. 3:13; Jude 14. All Christians are embraced in this class, so that the apostle could speak of 'all saints.' Eph. 1:15; Eph. 3:18; Col. 1:4; Philemon 5. Christians therefore need not shrink from acknowledging the designation by which God has been pleased to distinguish them, and should ever remember that there is a line of conduct that 'becometh saints.' Rom. 16:2; Eph. 5:3. The word ἅγιος corresponds with the Hebrew qadosh. The word chasid corresponds more with ὅσιος, translated 'holy' in 1 Tim. 2:8; Titus 1:8; Heb. 7:26; Rev. 15:4; and 'Holy One' in Acts 2:27; Acts 13:35.

As there were many saints on the earth in O.T. times, so we read in the Revelation that there will be saints on the earth after the church has been taken to heaven. Ignorance of this has often led to a mistaken application of the prophecies to the church. Rev. 13:10; Rev. 14:12; Rev. 18:24; Rev. 20:9; etc.

Sala, [Sa'la] Salah. [Sa'lah]

Son of Arphaxad and father of Eber. Gen. 10:24; Gen. 11:12-15; Luke 3:35. Called SHELAH in 1 Chr. 1:18, 24, which agrees with the Hebrew in Genesis.

Salamis. [Sal'amis]

City in the east of Cyprus, visited by Paul and Barnabas Acts 13:5. Its ruins are a little south of Hagios Sergis.

Salathiel, [Sala'thiel] Shealtiel. [Sheal'tiel]

Son or grandson of Jehoiachin or Jeconiah, king of Judah. 1 Chr. 3:17; Ezra 3:2, 8; Ezra 5:2; Neh. 12:1; Hag. 1:1, 12, 14; Hag. 2:2, 23; Matt. 1:12.

In Luke 3:27, Salathiel is called the son of Neri, and this is supposed to be the true descent, and that Salathiel was the heir of Jehoiachin. The royal line would thus revert from the descendants of Solomon (Jer. 22:30), to those of David through Nathan.

Salcah, [Sal'cah] Salchah. [Sal'chah]

City and district on the border of Bashan allotted to Gad. Deut. 3:10; Joshua 12:5; Joshua 13:11; 1 Chr. 5:11. The city is identified with Salkhad, 32 32' N, 36 40' E.

Salem. [Sa'lem]

1.  Symbolical name given to Jerusalem. Ps. 76:2.

2. Probably the title of Melchisedec as king of peace, Gen. 14:18; Heb. 7:1-2. Various cities, however, have been suggested. Some consider that Jerusalem is alluded to; Jerome was convinced that a town near Scythopolis, named Salem, was the true place; but others judge it to be a title.

Salim. [Sa'lim]

Place near to AEnon where John was baptising. John 3:23.  Supposed to be a village east of Shechem, still called Salim, 32 12' N, 35 19' E.

Sallai. [Salla'i]

1.  Benjamite who returned from exile. Neh. 11:8.

2. Priest who returned from exile. Neh. 12:20. Apparently called SALLU in Neh. 12:7.

Sallu. [Sal'lu]

1.  Priest who returned from exile. Neh. 12:7. See SALLAI.

2. Son of Meshullam: he returned from exile. 1 Chr. 9:7; Neh. 11:7.

Salma. [Sal'ma]

Son of Caleb, and father or founder of Bethlehem. 1 Chr. 2:51, 54.

Salma, [Sal'ma] Salmon. [Sal'mon]

Son of Nahshon and father of Boaz, the husband of Ruth. Ruth 4:20-21; 1 Chr. 2:11; Matt. 1:4-5; Luke 3:32.


When the Almighty scattered kings in some place (probably Palestine) it is compared to "snow in Salmon." Ps. 68:14 (an obscure passage). It is perhaps the same as Mount ZALMON in Judges 9:48, the Hebrew being the same, a wooded mountain near Shechem.

Salmone. [Salmo'ne]

The most eastern point of Crete. Acts 27:7.  It still bears the same name.

Salome. [Salo'me]

1.  One of the women who witnessed the crucifixion of the Lord, and brought spices to anoint His body. Mark 15:40; Mark 16:1.  By comparing Matt. 27:56 with Mark 15:40, it appears that Salome was the wife of Zebedee; and if so, she came with her two sons, James and John, when they asked that they might sit on the right hand and on the left of the Lord in His kingdom. Matt. 20:20; Mark 10:35.

2.  Though not mentioned by name in scripture, this Salome is therein spoken of as the daughter of Herodias (by her first husband, Herod Philip). She danced before Herod Antipas, and, by the request of her guilty mother, asked the head of John the Baptist. She became wife of her uncle Philip, tetrarch of Trachonitis, and afterwards of Aristobulus the king of Chalcis, Mark 6:22-28, etc.


This well known and valuable condiment is found in abundance near the Dead Sea. In scripture salt is used as symbolical of moral savour and thus of a preservative. Every oblation of the meat offering was to be seasoned with salt. Lev. 2:13. The heave offerings given to the priest are called 'a covenant of salt.' Num. 18:19.

Christians are the salt of the earth, but if the salt have lost its savour it is of no use whatever.* Matt. 5:13; Mark 9:50; Luke 14:34-35. It is typical of freshness and savour in a Christian, his heart being maintained in the sense of grace, the loss of which nothing else can supply.

* Salt in the East is not pure chloride of sodium, but mostly mixed with vegetable and earthy substances, and has been found at times, after being exposed to the sun and rain, to be quite tasteless, and perfectly useless.

The Christian's speech should be with grace, seasoned with salt (Col. 4:6), not characterised by asperity, nor lacking unction, and yet morally wholesome in its character. "Every one shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt." Mark 9:49. God puts all to the proof , but with the saint it is the dross that is consumed. Every sacrifice being salted with salt refers to the preservation of that which is set apart for God from corruption and impurity.

To 'eat the salt' of their masters, is used by the Persians and Hindus to imply that they are fed by their employers. This idea is found in Ezra 4:14, where the opposers of the Jews say, "We eat the salt of the palace," as the passage is more literally translated: see margin. With reference to an infant being 'salted,' Ezek. 16:4, Galen records that this was done to render the skin tighter and firmer.