Serpent of Brass.
The serpent of brass that Moses made and raised on a pole when the Israelites were bitten of serpents (Num. 21:9) may, in the light of John 3:14, be regarded as symbolic of God's way out of death into life, as well as of the condemnation of sin in the death of Christ: cf. Rom. 8:3. As the bite of the serpents typified the venom of sin, and was incurable by natural means, so in the death of the Lord Jesus we see not only the ground of forgiveness of sins, but the condemnation of the state with which sin was connected: then they who looked lived. In the history of Israel the brazen serpent came near the end of their wanderings, when their perverseness was fully manifest. In Christianity what is typified is the condemnation of sin in the flesh, as the ground of the communication of the Spirit as living water to the believer.
When the brazen serpent had become an object of worship, Hezekiah broke it in pieces, and called it Nehushtan, 'a piece of brass.' 2 Kings 18:4.
Son of Reu, a son of Peleg. Gen. 11:20-23; 1 Chr. 1:26. He is called SARUCH, son of Ragau, in Luke 3:35.
1. The words ebed and δοῦλος (those most commonly used for 'servant') convey the idea of bondmen or slaves. Some were bought with money and some were taken in war: cf. also Ex. 22:3. Such a servant, if circumcised, might among the Israelites eat of the Passover — as bought he belonged to the family; but a hired servant might not. Ex. 12:44-45: cf. Lev. 22:11. (So Gentiles, though aliens, bought with the blood of Christ, have all the privilege of grace.) Children born of these would also be the property of the master. Ex. 21:4. This form of servitude, though a result of sin, was recognised by the Mosaic law, and rules were given respecting it, and for the protection of the slaves.
In the N.T. Paul sent back Onesimus, a runaway slave, to his master, who was a Christian, and did not demand his liberation: but he beautifully puts before Philemon that he should possess Onesimus no longer as a slave, but as a brother beloved. The effects of sin were in the world, and God did not introduce Christianity in order to set the world right; but, while shedding light upon everything, and proclaiming grace to all, God's purpose was "to take out of the nations a people for his name." Christianity inculcated equal treatment of slaves, as we see in several of the epistles in which masters are addressed: 'men-stealers' are condemned. 1 Tim. 1:10.
Christian bondservants are declared to be the Lord's 'freemen,' 1 Cor. 7:22, and words of encouragement are addressed to them.
Paul, James, Peter, and Jude all call themselves 'bondmen of the Lord,' and Christians generally are thus designated. The Lord Himself said, "I am among you as he that serveth," Luke 22:27; and now in heaven He serves His own as Intercessor and Advocate. He speaks also of a future day when He will gird Himself, make His servants sit down, and will come forth and serve them, thus being a minister to servants! Luke 12:37.
2. παῖς, 'a child,' irrespective of age, and hence used for servant. Matt. 8:6, 8, 13; Matt. 14:2; Luke 7:7; Luke 12:45; Luke 15:26; Acts 4:25. The word is applied to Christ in Matt. 12:18; Acts 3:13, 26 (translated 'Son'); Acts 4:27, 30 (translated 'child'); and to Israel and to David in Luke 1:54, 69.
3. οἰκέτης, 'household servant.' Luke 16:13; Acts 10:7; Rom. 14:4; 1 Peter 2:18.
4. ὑπηρέτης, 'one under authority,' an official servant. Matt. 26:58; Mark 14:54, 65; John 18:36. Also translated 'minister' and officer.'
5. θεράπων, 'retainer, servant.' Heb. 3:5.
6. μισθωτός, μίσθιος, 'hired servant.' Mark 1:20; Luke 15:17, 19; cf. Matt. 20. The word is translated 'hireling' in John 10:12-13. See DEACON, and SLAVE.
Son of Adam and Eve, born after the death of Abel, and father of Enos. His name signifies 'appointed': God thus continued the line of Abel, whom Cain slew, through the appointment of Seth. Hence, in Gen. 4:25-26 it is said in connection with Seth, "Then began men to call upon the name of the Lord." This is immediately followed by "This is the book of the generations of Adam," giving the lineage through Seth and his descendants, and making no mention of Cain and his descendants. From Seth the genealogy is traced to Noah, and the flood swept away all else. Gen. 5:3-8; Luke 3:38. He is called SHETH in 1 Chr. 1:1.
Son of Michael, of the tribe of Asher. Num. 13:13.
Apparently ledges or borders round the future altar of burnt offering, as described by Ezekiel in Ezek. 43:14, 17, 20; Ezek. 45:19.
See NUMBERS AS SYMBOLS.
There were seven assemblies in Asia, to which the vision of the Son of Man, inspecting the candlesticks, was to be communicated, and to each of which a separate address was given. These addresses dealt with the state those churches were in at that time. A perfect number was chosen out of the many assemblies then existing, showing that they were symbolical of the church generally, and prophetical of the history of the church to the end. The assemblies were at Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea, places comparatively near together in the west of Asia Minor. See REVELATION.
Seventy Weeks of Daniel.
This period is taken from an important prophecy in Daniel 9:25-27. The seventy weeks are divided into three parts, namely, seven, sixty-two, and one. We shall see in the sequel that 'weeks of years' are evidently intended. The first period of seven weeks refers to the building of the street and the wall, or moat, in troublous times, of which times an account is found in the book of Nehemiah. The second period of sixty-two weeks extends to the times of Messiah the Prince, after which He should be cut off and have nothing (margin) — nothing of His Messianic glory. To reconcile with this the dates of history, it must be noticed that these weeks do not date from the commandment to build the temple (which was in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, Ezra 1:1), but from the commandment to restore and build the city of Jerusalem, which was given in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes. Neh. 2:1.
The date commonly given for this is B.C. 445; but Usher gave 455, and Hengstenberg and others contend that this is the true date. Hengstenberg shows in his "Christiology" how the mistake arose. Vitringa rectified the date, and Krüger, by an independent enquiry, also proved that the old date was wrong. Some hieroglyphic inscriptions in Egypt have shown that Artaxerxes was associated with his father in the twelfth year of the reign of Xerxes, and this information confirms the date given by Usher and others.
We start then from B.C. 455.
7 weeks are 49 years
62 weeks are 434 "
Add 1 year to adjust the eras B.C. and A.D.
The year A.D. 29 is the date now commonly given for the crucifixion. It is generally agreed that the Lord lived on the earth thirty-three and a half years, but if He was born B.C. 4, and was crucified A.D. 33 (as given in the A.V.), He must have lived here 37 or 38 years; hence there must be a discrepancy somewhere. Early christian writers appealed confidently to a document called "The Acts of Pilate," which, though now considered spurious as far as Pilate is concerned, must have been an early writing, and this points to the date A.D. 29 for the crucifixion. Clement and Origen place the destruction of Jerusalem as forty-two years after the crucifixion. The destruction was in A.D. 70, which confirms the date of the latter as not later than 29. The definite time may be Christ's triumphant entry into Jerusalem, about a week before the last passover, agreeing with "Thy King cometh unto thee" in Zech. 9:9.
It is judged however by some that the sixty-nine weeks reach only up to Messiah the Prince as entering on His ministry; after which (indefinitely) He was cut off: and therefore the sixty-nine weeks should end at least three years earlier. This is probably the true view, though it may be impossible now to precisely adjust dates.
This leaves the last week of the seventy. The rest of the prophecy in Dan. 9:26 agrees with the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, and foretells a determined period of desolation till war against it will end. Then Dan. 9:27 takes up the outward circumstances of the last week, which is future, though probably one half of it has been, for faith, fulfilled in the ministry of Christ. The prophecy is concerning Israel; the present period (during which the church is being formed) comes in parenthetically, and occupies no part of the seventy weeks. The last week, in agreement with the above, will occupy a period of seven years.
Dan. 9:26-27 speak of 'the prince that shall come,' who shall confirm a covenant with the many for one week. He will no doubt be the head of the resuscitated Roman Empire: this is confirmed by Rev. 17:9-12, in speaking of a kingdom that 'was, and is not,' and shall come. This head makes a covenant with Israel for seven years, but breaks it in the middle of the week; causes the sacrifice and the oblation to cease; and dire desolation by the Assyrian closes the scene. See ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION. The most momentous events will take place during the latter half of the week, as detailed in the Revelation. This will be a period of three and a half years, and if this interpretation is correct, we might expect to find such a period definitely mentioned. And so it is: the period of three and a half years is pointed out no fewer than seven times, as follows:
Dan. 7:25; "time, times, and dividing of times " (that the word 'times' refers to 'years' cf. Dan. 11:13 margin).
Dan. 12:7; Rev. 12:14; "time, times, and half a time."
Rev. 11:2; Rev. 13:5; "42 months."
Rev. 11:3; Rev. 12:6; "1,260 days."
Thus the half week is given in years, 3½; in months, 42; and in days, 1,260.
As already stated, the church does not appear in the above: it has nothing to do with times and seasons — they belong to Israel and to the earth. The church is heavenly, and its hope is the coming of the Lord according to His promise to present it to Himself, and this He may do at any moment. He said, "Surely I come quickly:" to which the response of the church is, "Even so, come, Lord Jesus."
Seeing however that the Lord Jesus is referred to in the Seventy Weeks, not only in His being 'cut off' but also in His coming again to subdue His enemies, to bless His ancient people Israel, and to establish His kingdom on earth, it becomes His saints to study such a prophecy as this, and to be assured that nothing can happen to hinder or set aside the purposes of God: all is being ordered, and is hastening on to the time when the Lord Jesus will be acknowledged on earth as King of kings and Lord of lords.
Shaalabbin, [Shaalab'bin] Shaalbim. [Shaal'bim]
City in Dan. Joshua 19:42; Judges 1:35; 1 Kings 4:9. Identified with Selbit, 31 52' N, 34 59' E.
Designation of Eliahba as belonging to the city of Shaalbim. 2 Sam. 23:32; 1 Chr. 11:33.
1. Son of Jahdai. 1 Chr. 2:47.
2. Son of Caleb and father or founder of Madmannah. 1 Chr. 2:49.
1. City in the lowlands of Judah. 1 Sam. 17:52. Called SHARAIM in Joshua 15:36. Identified by some with es Saireh, 31 44' N, 35 1' E.
2. City in Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:31. Not identified.
Chamberlain or eunuch of Ahasuerus, king of Persia. Esther 2:14.
One or more Levites who returned from exile and assisted Ezra. Ezra 10:15; Neh. 8:7: Neh. 11:16.
Son of Shaharaim, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:10. In the pointed Hebrew the name is 'Shabiah,' but several Hebrew MSS have CH instead of B.
Name given to HANANIAH in Babylon, one of the three faithful ones who refused to worship the golden image of Nebuchadnezzar, and were cast into the fiery furnace, and there miraculously preserved. Dan. 1:7; Dan. 2:49; Dan. 3:12-30.
A Hararite, father of Jonathan. 1 Chr. 11:34.
A Benjamite who begat children in the land of Moab. 1 Chr. 8:8.
City of Issachar. Joshua 19:22. Not identified.
This is judged to be not a proper name, but that the passage should read, Jacob came 'safely' to the city of Shechem. Gen. 33:18. The R.V. has 'came in peace.'
Shalim [Sha'lim] and Shalisha. [Shal'isha]
Two unknown districts through which Saul passed in quest of his father's asses. 1 Sam. 9:4.
A gate 'by the causeway of the going up.' 1 Chr. 26:16. The 'going up' doubtless alluded to a pathway that ascended from the lower part of the city to some entrance of the temple: cf. 1 Kings 10:5. Such a causeway can still be traced, but it is hidden, under the houses built in the valley.
1. Son of Jabesh: he slew Zachariah king of Israel, and reigned in his stead; but after one month he was killed by Menahem, who succeeded him on the throne. 2 Kings 15:10-15.
2. Husband of Huldah the prophetess. 2 Kings 22:14; 2 Chr. 34:22.
3. Son of Sisamai, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:40-41.
4. Son of Josiah king of Judah: he succeeded his father, but after a reign of three months he was deposed by Pharaoh-necho, and taken to Egypt, where he died. 1 Chr. 3:15; Jer. 22:11-12. He is called JEHOAHAZ in 2 Kings 23:30-34; 2 Chr. 36:1-4. The margin of 1 Chr. 3:15 identifies Johanan with Jehoahaz, but Jer. 22:11-12 shows it was Shallum who reigned under the name of Jehoahaz. He was evidently not the youngest son, though last on the list.
5. Son of Shaul, a son of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:25.
6. Son of Zadok the priest. 1 Chr. 6:12-13; Ezra 7:2. Probably the same as MESHULLAM in Neh. 11:11.
7. Son of Naphtali. 1 Chr. 7:13. Called SHILLEM in Gen. 46:24; Num. 26:49.
8. A Levite gate-keeper of the tabernacle whose descendants returned from exile. 1 Chr. 9:17; Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45.
9. Son of Kore: a keeper of the gates of the tabernacle. 1 Chr. 9:19, 31.
10. Father of Jehizkiah, one of the 'heads' of Ephraim. 2 Chr. 28:12.
11, 12. Two who had married strange wives. Ezra 10:24, 42.
13. Son of Halohesh: he repaired the wall of Jerusalem, apparently assisted by his daughters. Neh. 3:12.
14. Father of Hanameel and uncle of Jeremiah. Jer. 32:7.
15. Father of Maaseiah. Jer. 35:4.
Son of Col-hozeh: he helped to build the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:15.
Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:46; Neh. 7:48.
One who laid waste Beth-arbel. Hosea 10:14. Probably tile same person as SHALMANESER.
King of Assyria, successor to Tiglath-pileser, B.C. 727. He is sometimes called Shalmaneser 3, and sometimes 4. He made Hoshea, king of Israel, tributary; but Hoshea revolted, relying on So, king of Egypt. In the ninth year of Hoshea's reign, B.C. 722, Samaria was taken and the inhabitants were carried away captive. 2 Kings 17:3; 2 Kings 18:9. It may be noticed that Shalmaneser's name is mentioned only in these two passages, afterwards the term 'the king of Assyria' is employed; and in 2 Kings 18:10 it is said, "at the end of three years they took it." This leaves room for SARGON, the next king of Assyria, to have finished the siege, and to have carried away the captives. He succeeded to the Assyrian throne in the year B.C. 722, and on his monuments he claims to have taken Samaria in his first year.
Son of Hothan and one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:44.
Son of Rehoboam king of Judah. 2 Chr. 11:19.
Literally 'stalls on which meat was exposed for sale.' 1 Cor. 10:25.
Son of Elpaal, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:12.
1. Son of Mahli the grandson of Merari. 1 Chr. 6:46.
2. Son of Heber of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:34. Called SHOMER in 1 Chr. 7:32.
Son of Anath and a judge in Israel: he slew six hundred men with an ox-goad, and delivered Israel out of the hands of the Philistines. Judges 3:31; Judges 5:6.
An Izrahite, one of David's captains. 1 Chr. 27:8.
1. Son of Michah, a Levite. 1 Chr. 24:24.
2. City in the mountains of Judah. Joshua 15:48. Identified by some with ruins at Somerah, 31 25' N, 34 56' E.
3. City in Mount Ephraim, the residence of Tola, one of the judges. Judges 10:1-2. Not identified.
Son of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:37.
1. Son of Reuel, a son of Esau. Gen. 36:13, 17; 1 Chr. 1:37.
2. Son of Jesse and brother of David. 1 Sam. 16:9; 1 Sam. 17:13. Called SHIMEAH in 2 Sam. 13:3; and SHIMMA in 1 Chr. 2:13.
3. Son of Agee a Hararite and one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:11.
4, 5. Two of David's mighty men, one a Harodite and the other a Hararite. 2 Sam. 23:25, 33.
1. Son of Onam, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:28, 32.
2. Son of Rekem, and father or founder of Maon. 1 Chr. 2:44-45.
3. Brother of Miriam, in an obscure genealogy of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:17.
A Harorite, one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:27. Perhaps the same as SHAMMAH the Harodite in 2 Sam. 23:25.
Shammua, [Shammu'a] Shammuah. [Shammu'ah]
1. Son of Zaccur, a Reubenite. Num. 13:4.
2. Son of David. 2 Sam. 5:14; 1 Chr. 14:4. Called SHIMEA in 1 Chr. 3:5.
3. Son of Galal, a Levite. Neh. 11:17. Called SHEMAIAH in 1 Chr. 9:16.
4. Priest, 'of Bilgah,' who returned from exile. Neh. 12:18.
Son of Jeroham, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:26.
A chief of the tribe of Gad. 1 Chr. 5:12.
Son of Azaliah and perhaps father of Ahikam, Gemariah, Elasah, and Jaazaniah: he was scribe or secretary to king Josiah. He presented to the king the book of the law that had been found in the temple. 2 Kings 22:3-14; 2 Kings 25:22; 2 Chr. 34:8-20; Jer. 26:24; Jer. 29:3; Jer. 36:10-12; Jer. 39:14; Jer. 40:5-11; Jer. 41:2; Jer. 43:6; Ezek. 8:11.
1. Son of Hori, a Simeonite. Num. 13:5.
2. Father of Elisha the prophet. 1 Kings 19:16, 19; 2 Kings 3:11; 2 Kings 6:31.
3. Son of Shemaiah, a descendant of David. 1 Chr. 3:22.
4. A chief of the tribe of Gad. 1 Chr. 5:12.
5. Son of Adlai and one of David's chief herdsmen. 1 Chr. 27:29.
An encampment of the Israelites. Num. 33:23-24.
One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:40.
Son of Sennacherib and one of his murderers. 2 Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38.
1. A very fertile plain, near the Mediterranean, extending from near Joppa northward to Mount Carmel. Its excellency is spoken of, and the bride in Cant. 2:1 calls herself a 'rose of Sharon.' It formed part of the lots of Ephraim and of Manasseh. 1 Chr. 27:29; Isa. 33:9; Isa. 35:2; Isa. 65:10. It is called SARON in Acts 9:35.
2. Plain or city on the east of the Jordan. 1 Chr. 5:16. Not identified.
Designation of Shitrai, David's chief herdsman in Sharon. 1 Chr. 27:29.
City of Simeon. Joshua 19:6. Identified by some with Tell esh Sheriah, 31 24' N, 34 42' E.
One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:40.
Son of Beriah, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:14, 25.
1. Son of Simeon by a Canaanitish woman. Gen. 46:10, Ex. 6:15; Num. 26:13; 1 Chr. 4:24.
2. An ancient king of Edom. 1 Chr. 1:48-49. Called SAUL in Gen. 36:37-38.
3. Son of Uzziah, a Kohathite. 1 Chr. 6:24.
Descendants of Shaul, son of Simeon. Num. 26:13.
A valley 'which is the king's dale.' Gen. 14:17. Supposed to be somewhere near Jerusalem.
Shaveh Kiriathaim. [Sha'veh Kiriatha'im]
A place where the Emims dwelt who were smitten by Chedorlaomer. Gen. 14:5. Perhaps a plain in connection with Kiriathaim, as in the margin.
David's scribe or secretary. 1 Chr. 18:16. Apparently called SERAIAH in 2 Sam. 8:17; SHISHA in 1 Kings 4:3; and SHEVA in 2 Sam. 20:25.
One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:29.
Son of Azel, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:38; 1 Chr. 9:44.
Place where Jehu slew forty-two of the royal family of Judah. 2 Kings 10:12, 14. Some translate "shepherds' meeting-place."
Symbolical name given to the elder son of the prophet Isaiah, signifying 'a remnant shall return.' Isa. 7:3.
1. Son of Raamah, a son of Cush. Gen. 10:7; 1 Chr. 1:9. His descendants are generally held to have settled on the shores of the Persian Gulf.
2. Son of Joktan, a descendant of Shem. Gen. 10:28; 1 Chr. 1:22. His descendants have been traced to Southern Arabia, or Arabia Felix. The metropolis of the district was at or near the modern Mareb, about 15 45' N, 45 35' E.
3. Son of Jokshan, a son of Abraham and Keturah. Gen. 25:3; 1 Chr. 1:32. Some judge his descendants to have settled 'far north'; others place them 'somewhere in Arabia.' (The name 'Sheba' occurs also in Job 6:19; Ps. 72:10, 15; Isa. 60:6; Jer. 6:20; Ezek. 27:22-23; Ezek. 38:13; but it is uncertain to which of the above three races each passage refers.)
4. The country from whence the queen came who visited Solomon. She brought gold, precious stones, and a great store of spices. The Lord spoke of her as 'the queen of the south.' 1 Kings 10:1-13; 2 Chr. 9:1, 3, 9, 12; Matt. 12:42; Luke 11:31. The 'south' well agrees with the locality of the descendants of Sheba, the son of Joktan.
1. Son of Bichri, a Benjamite: he revolted against David after Absalom. David said, "Sheba, the son of Bichri, shall do us more harm than did Absalom," but he was pursued by Joab, and was beheaded at Abel. 2 Sam. 20:1-22.
2. A chief of the Gadites. 1 Chr. 5:13.
3. City in Simeon. Joshua 19:2. Identified with Tell es Seba, 31 15' N, 34 50' E.
A well, dug by the servants of Isaac, and named Shebah, signifying 'an oath.' Gen. 26:33. See BEER-SHEBA.
1. Priest who aided in bringing up the ark to Jerusalem. 1 Chr. 15:24.
2. Levite who assisted Ezra and sealed the covenant. Neh. 9:4-5; Neh. 10:10.
3. Priest who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:4; Neh. 12:14.
4. Levite who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:12.
Place to which the men of Ai chased the Israelites. Joshua 7:5.
Son of Caleb and Maachah. 1 Chr. 2:48.
Treasurer to Hezekiah. He was denounced by God through the prophet Isaiah; apparently he afterwards became scribe or secretary. 2 Kings 18:18, 26, 37; 2 Kings 19:2; Isa. 22:15; Isa. 36:3, 11, 22; Isa. 37:2.
1. Son of Gershom and 'ruler of the treasures' of the house of God. 1 Chr. 23:16; 1 Chr. 26:24.
2. Son of Heman: appointed to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:4. Called SHUBAEL in 1 Chr. 25:20.
1. Head of the tenth priestly course. 1 Chr. 24:11.
2. Priest in the time of Hezekiah. 2 Chr. 31:15.
1. Descendant of David through Jeconiah. 1 Chr. 3:21-22.
2, 3. Two ancestors of some who returned from exile. Ezra 8:3, 5.
4. Son of Jehiel: he confessed that the people had taken strange wives. Ezra 10:2.
5. Father of Shemaiah, who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:29.
6. Son of Arah and father-in-law to Tobiah. Neh. 6:18.
7. Priest who returned from exile. Neh. 12:3.
1. The first city of Canaan visited by Abram, Gen. 12:6, where it is called SICHEM. When Jacob returned to Palestine, Hamor the Hivite was its king. It was attacked and plundered by Simeon and Levi. The bones of Joseph were buried there. At the distribution of the land it fell to the lot of Ephraim, and became a Levitical city and a city of refuge. It was there that Joshua delivered his last address to the people. Under the Judges the city was taken by Abimelech, when about a thousand men and women took refuge in the tower, which was destroyed by fire. The tribes assembled there to crown Rehoboam, and, on the division of the kingdom, it became the headquarters of Jeroboam. Gen. 33:18; Gen. 37:12-14; Joshua 20:7; Joshua 21:21; Joshua 24:1, 25, 32; Judges 9:1-57; 1 Kings 12:1, 25; 2 Chr. 10:1; Ps. 60:6; Ps. 108:7; Jer. 41:5.
Shechem was called Neapolis by the Romans, of which its present name, Nablus, is supposed to be a corruption. It lies 32 13' N, 35 16' E. Its vicinity is luxurious in fruit and flowers. It is still partially inhabited by Samaritans, who have a synagogue there, and yearly keep the Passover.
It is called SYCHEM in Acts 7:16, where it says that Abraham bought a sepulchre there. This is thought to clash with Gen. 33:19, which speaks of Jacob buying it. But nothing is said in the latter passage about a sepulchre: Jacob bought a piece of ground to spread his tent in. Bengel says of this alleged discrepancy in Stephen's address, that "the brevity which was best suited to the ardour of the Spirit gave Stephen just occasion, in the case of a fact so well known, to compress these details in the way he has done."*
* For further details concerning Stephen's address see "Bible Handbook, New Testament," pages 144-6.
2. Son of Hamor the chief of the city of Shechem — from whom the city appears to have derived its name — killed with his father and household by Simeon and Levi because he had dishonoured their sister Dinah. Gen. 33:19; Gen. 34:2-26; Joshua 24:32; Judges 9:28.
3. Descendant of Gilead, a grandson of Manasseh. Num. 26:31; Joshua 17:2.
4. Son of Shemidah, a descendant of Manasseh. 1 Chr. 7:19: cf. Joshua 17:2.
Descendants of Shechem, a descendant of Gilead. Num. 26:31.
Shechinah, [Shechi'nah] Shekinah. [Sheki'nah]
A name not found in scripture, but used by the Rabbis and others for the visible symbol of the presence of God, as was seen at the dedication of the temple built by Solomon, and at the Transfiguration. See CLOUD.
Father of Elizur, a chief of the Reubenites. Num. 1:5; Num. 2:10; Num. 7:30, 35; Num. 10:18.
Sheep were bred in great numbers in Palestine, and formed a large part of the property of the Israelites. The species common there was the broad tailed sheep with horns (Ovis laticaudatus and Ovis aries). In Palestine they follow the shepherd and know his voice, and will not follow a stranger. Sheep and lambs were constantly offered in sacrifice. The morning and evening lamb and the passover lambs were all types of the sacred One who was called "the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world."
Symbolically sheep are figurative of mankind, as being prone to wander: "All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way." Isa. 53:6; Luke 15:4-7. The Lord said, "My sheep shall never perish." The Good Shepherd calls His own sheep by name, and when brought into His own company they have perfect security, liberty, and sustenance. John 10:9. The Lord led His sheep out of the Jewish fold: these were united with His 'other sheep' (Gentile believers), that they all should become 'one flock' with one Shepherd. John 10:3, 16. In the future judgement of the nations, those saved are called 'sheep,' in distinction from the lost, who are called 'goats.' Matt. 25:31-46.
The same as 'sheepfold,' in which the sheep were sheltered at night. 1 Sam. 24:3; 2 Sam. 7:8; 1 Chr. 17:7.
This occurs only in John 5:2, and the word 'market' has been added. It was probably at the sheep gate (as in the margin) mentioned in the O.T, but which cannot now be identified.
Son of Jeroham, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:26.
See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
1. Youngest son of Judah by the daughter of Shuah, a Canaanite. Gen. 38:5-26; Gen. 46:12; Num. 26:20; 1 Chr. 2:3; 1 Chr. 4:21.
2. Son of Arphaxad. 1 Chr. 1:18, 24. See SALA.
Descendants of Shelah, son of Judah. Num. 26:20. Apparently called Shilonites in 1 Chr. 9:5.
1. Levite gatekeeper in the time of David. 1 Chr. 26:14. Called MESHELEMIAH in 1 Chr. 26:1, and perhaps SHALLUM in 1 Chr. 9:17.
2, 3. Two who had married strange wives. Ezra 10:39, 41.
4. Father of Hananiah who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:30.
5. Priest who was made a treasurer on the return from exile. Neh. 13:13.
6. Son of Cushi. Jer. 36:14.
7. Son of Abdeel: he was ordered by Jehoiakim to arrest Baruch and Jeremiah. Jer. 36:26.
8. Father of Jehucal, or Jucal. Jer. 37:3; Jer. 38:1.
9. Son of Hananiah. Jer. 37:13.
Son of Joktan, of the family of Shem. Gen. 10:26; 1 Chr. 1:20. His descendants have been traced to Southern Arabia, where the tribe of Shelif or Shulaf has been found.
Son of Helem, a descendant of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:35.
Father of Ahihud, a prince of Asher. Num. 34:27.
1. Daughter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan. Lev. 24:11. Her son blasphemed the name of Jehovah and was stoned to death.
2. Daughter of Zerubbabel. 1 Chr. 3:19.
3. Son of Shimei, a Gershonite. 1 Chr. 23:9.
4. Son of Izhar, a Kohathite. 1 Chr. 23:18. Called SHELOMOTH an Izharite in 1 Chr. 24:22.
5. Son of Zichri, a Levite: he had the care of the treasures and dedicated things in the time of David. 1 Chr. 26:25-26, 28.
6. Son or daughter of Rehoboam. 2 Chr. 11:20.
7. Ancestor of some who returned from exile. Ezra 8:10.
See SHELOMITH No. 4.
Son of Zurishaddai and a prince of the Simeonites. Num. 1. 6; Num. 2:12; Num. 7:36, 41; Num. 10:19.
Eldest son of Noah and one of the three heads of mankind after the flood. Shem is specially blessed: "Blessed be Jehovah, the God of Shem, and Canaan shall be his servant. God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem." Gen. 9:26-27. This was verified by Jehovah being the God of the descendants of Shem through Abraham; the sons of Japheth (Gentiles) came into the tents for blessing.
The portions of the earth occupied by the descendants of Shem intersect as it were the portions of Ham and Japheth, and stretch from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean. Shem had five sons:
ELAM — originally settled in the province of Persia, of which Susa was the capital.
ASSHUR — strictly Assyria, but in an extended sense may have included Babylonia and the land of the Chaldees.
ARPHAXAD — recognised by Josephus and others as the father of the Chaldees. The name is supposed to have been preserved in the province Arrapachitis in northern Assyria.
LUD — said by Josephus to have been the father of the Lydians of Asia Minor (these are distinct from the Lud and Ludim in Africa).
ARAM — the name of Syria, but more especially, referring to the high land of Lebanon. Gen. 5:32; Gen. 9:18-27; Gen. 10:21-31; Gen. 11:10-11; 1 Chr. 17:24. In Luke 3:36 the same name is called SEM.
1. City in Judah. Joshua 15:26. Not identified.
2. Son of Hebron, a descendant of Caleb. 1 Chr. 2:43-44.
3. Son of Joel, a Reubenite. 1 Chr. 5:8. Apparently the same as SHEMAIAH in 1 Chr. 5:4.
4. Son of Elpaal and one of the 'heads' of the Benjamites. 1 Chr. 8:13. Perhaps the same as SHIMHI in 1 Chr. 8:21.
5. One who stood by Ezra when the law was read. Neh. 8:4.
A Benjamite, father of Ahiezer and Joash who joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:3.
1. Prophet who stayed Rehoboam from warring against Israel. He was also sent by God to tell Rehoboam and the princes of Judah that because of their sins God had left them in the hands of Shishak, king of Egypt, who had come to attack them; but on their repentance they were told he should not destroy them. Shishak seized their treasures, and they became tributary to Egypt. Shemaiah wrote a 'book' concerning genealogies. 1 Kings 12:22-24; 2 Chr. 11:2-4; 2 Chr. 12:5-15.
2. Son of Shechaniah, a descendant of David. 1 Chr. 3:22; Neh. 3:29.
3. A Simeonite, father of Shimri. 1 Chr. 4:37.
4. Son of Joel, a Reubenite. 1 Chr. 5:4.
5. Son of Hasshub, a Levite. 1 Chr. 9:14; Neh. 11:15.
6. Son of Galal, a Levite. 1 Chr. 9:16, Called SHAMMUA in Neh. 6:17.
7. Son of Elizaphan, a Levite. 1 Chr. 15:8, 11.
8. Son of Nethaneel, a Levite. 1 Chr. 24:6.
9. Son of Obed-edom, a Korhite. 1 Chr. 26:4-7.
10. Levite whom Jehoshaphat sent to teach the people. 2 Chr. 17:8.
11. Descendant of Jeduthun, a Levite. 2 Chr. 29:14.
12. Levite set over the freewill offerings of God. 2 Chr. 31:15.
13. Levite in the days of Josiah. 2 Chr. 35:9.
14. Son of Adonikam. Ezra 8:13.
15. One whom Ezra sent for Levites. Ezra 8:16.
16. Priest who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:21.
17. One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:31.
18. Son of Delaiah: he sought to entrap Nehemiah. Neh. 6:10.
19. Priest who sealed the covenant, Neh. 10:8; his family went up with Zerubbabel. Neh. 12:6, 18.
20. One with Ezra at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:34.
21. Son of Mattaniah, a priest. Neh. 12:35.
22. Apparently a Levite who took part in the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:36.
23. Priest who assisted on the same occasion. Neh. 12:42.
24. Father of Urijah, a prophet. Jer. 26:20.
25. The Nehelamite, a false prophet, condemned by Jehovah through Jeremiah. Jer. 29:24-32.
26. Father of Delaiah. Jer. 36:12.
1. A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:5.
2, 3. Two who had married strange wives. Ezra 10:32, 41.
King of Zeboiim and an ally of the king of Sodom, Gen. 14:2.
Owner of the hill bought by Omri, on which he built Samaria. 1 Kings 16:24.
Shemida, [Shemi'da] Shemidah, [Shemi'dah] Shemidaites. [Shemi'daites]
Son of Gilead, and his descendants. Num. 26:32; Joshua 17:2; 1 Chr. 7:19.
A Hebrew word in the headings of Ps. 6 and Ps. 12, and in 1 Chr. 15:21. It will be seen that in the margin these passages read 'on the eighth,' with which the LXX agrees. It was probably an instrument of eight strings (from shemoneh, 'eight'). Gesenius says it means 'octave'; hence the lowest notes of the scale, and sung by men.
1. Levite appointed as musician and doorkeeper when David brought up the ark. 1 Chr. 15:18, 20; 1 Chr. 16:5.
2. Levite, sent by Jehoshaphat to instruct the people. 2 Chr. 17:8.
1. Son of Ammihud, a Simeonite. Num. 34:20.
2. The name of SAMUEL the prophet as given in 1 Chr. 6:33.
3. Son of Tola and a chief of Issachar. 1 Chr. 7:2.
Place near to which Samuel erected a stone and called it EBENEZER. 1 Sam. 7:12.
Descendant of Jeconiah. 1 Chr. 3:18.
Eastern boundary of Palestine. Num. 34:10-11. Not identified.
Son of Reuel, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 9:8. The Hebrew is Shephatiah.
1. Fifth son of David by Abital. 2 Sam. 3:4; 1 Chr. 3:3.
2. The Haruphite who joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:5.
3. Son of Maachah and a chief of the Simeonites. 1 Chr. 27:16.
4. Son of King Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr. 21:2.
5. Ancestor of some who returned from exile. Ezra 2:4; Ezra 8:8; Neh. 7:9.
6. Another ancestor of some who returned from exile. Ezra 2:57; Neh. 7:59.
7. Son of Mahalaleel. Neh. 11:4.
8. Son of Mattan: one of the princes who urged the king to put Jeremiah to death. Jer. 38:1.
A person's wealth in the East frequently consisted of flocks, the shepherd therefore held an important and honourable position. David was a keeper of sheep. Joseph instructed his brethren to tell Pharaoh that they were shepherds, and they asked permission to dwell in Goshen, for every shepherd was an abomination to the Egyptians. This is supposed to have been caused by some 'shepherd-kings' having usurped authority over Egypt. The difficulties and hardships of a shepherd's life in the East may be gathered from what Jacob passed through during the time he was with Laban. Gen. 31:39-40.
The sheep following the shepherd is a sight often witnessed in the East, and that each sheep has a name and knows the shepherd's voice, has been tested and proved again and again. All this is beautifully typical of the relation of Jehovah to Israel and of Christ to the church. The sheep of Christ know the good Shepherd's voice, and find salvation, liberty, and pasture in following the One who leads. The good Shepherd gives them eternal life, having given His life for the sheep. Christ is called the great Shepherd, for the work which He accomplished could have been done only by One who was Himself God, though become man to work out redemption.
In the church there are those who by reason of gift are called pastors, to feed and shepherd the sheep; but Christ is the chief Shepherd, who is over all, whose own the sheep are, and who has given His word that they shall never perish. Ps. 23; Zech. 13:7; John 10:2-16; Heb. 13:20; 1 Peter 5:4; etc.
Son of Shobal, a son of Seir. Gen. 36:23; 1 Chr. 1:40.
Son or descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:5. Supposed to be the same as SHUPHAM in Num. 26:39; and MUPPIM in Gen. 46:21.
Apparently the daughter of Ephraim: she built Beth-horon the nether and the upper, and Uzzen-sherah. 1 Chr. 7:24.
A fragment of earthenware, the same as 'potsherd.' Isa. 30:14; Ezek. 23:34.
A Levite who with his sons and brethren returned from exile: he assisted Ezra, sealed the covenant, and was a chief of the choir. Ezra 8:18; Neh. 8:7; Neh. 9:4-5; Neh. 10:12; Neh. 12:8, 24. In Ezra 8:24 apparently the same is called a priest.
Son of Machir, a son of Manasseh. 1 Chr. 7:16.
One of the messengers sent to the house of God in the fourth year of king Darius, to pray and to enquire concerning the continuation of fasting in the fifth month (probably in commemoration of the destruction of the temple, etc., 2 Kings 25:8-10). God's answer was that they had not fasted to Him. Zech. 7:2-5. The name is really Persian and is identical with that of Sharezer, son of Sennacherib in 2 Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38.
The word is tiphtaye: Fürst translates it 'judges,' and Gesenius 'those learned in the law': the word occurs only in Dan. 3:2-3.
Mystical name applied to Babylon. Jer. 25:26; Jer. 51:41; cf. Jer. 51:1. The meaning of the word is not known. According to Jerome the name Babylon, from Babel, was made up of the letters B B L (the 2nd and the 12th letters of the Hebrew alphabet) these were changed into SH SH CH (the 2nd and the 12th letters reckoning from the end of the same alphabet), a mode well known to later Jews. It has been supposed that the Jews made this alteration in the name in order that they might speak of the judgements coming upon Babylon without giving offence to those who had carried them away captive.
One of the Anakim chiefs driven from Hebron by Caleb and slain by the Israelites. Num. 13:22; Joshua 15:14; Judges 1:10.
A chief of Judah, whose family was sustained in the tribe by his daughter's marriage to his Egyptian servant. 1 Chr. 2:31, 34, 35.
Apparently the Chaldean or Persian name given to ZERUBBABEL, Ezra 1:8, 11; Ezra 5:14, 16.
Son of Adam. 1 Chr. 1:1. See SETH. The word occurs also in Num. 24:17, where, instead of 'children of Sheth,' it is better to read 'sons of tumult;' that is, 'tumultuous war will be destroyed:' cf. Jer. 48:45.
One of the seven princes of Persia and Media. Esther 1:14.
An official of the king of Persia who, instead of hindering the Jews, was ordered by Darius to help them in the building of the temple. Ezra 5:3, 6; Ezra 6:6, 13.
1. Scribe or secretary to David. 2 Sam. 20:25; cf. SHAVSHA.
2. Son of Caleb the son of Hezron, and father or founder of Machbenah and Gibea. 1 Chr. 2:49.
A word chosen by the Gileadites — apparently without any reference to its signification, which some take to be 'an ear of corn,' and others 'a stream' — by which to ascertain those that were Ephraimites, who pronounced the SH as S, making the word SIBBOLETH. As the men fled from the victorious Jephthah and approached the ford of the river, they were thus tested, and the Ephraimites, who had brought the conflict on themselves, were slain. Judges 12:6. From this has originated the calling any watchword of a party, or indeed any particular view of truth or doctrine held by a section of the church, a mere 'shibboleth.'
Boundary in the north-west of Judah. Joshua 15:11. Not identified.
As a protection for the body, see ARMOUR.
Shield of Faith.
That confidence in God and in His word that nullifies all the attacks of the wicked one. Eph. 6:16.
A word in the heading of Psalm 7, and (in the plural "upon Shigionoth") in the prayer of Habakkuk (Hab. 3:1): its meaning is not known.
City in Issachar. Joshua 19:19. Identified by some with Ayun esh Shain, 32 43' N, 35 20' E.
Shihor of Egypt.
Landmark at the boundary of Asher. Joshua 19:26. Identified by some with the stream Nahr Namein, 32 54' N, 35 5' E.
Father of Azubah the mother of Jehoshaphat. 1 Kings 22:42; 2 Chr. 20:31.
City in the south of Judah. Joshua 15:32.
Shillem, [Shil'lem] Shillemites. [Shil'lemites]
One of the sons of Naphtali and his descendants. Gen. 46:24; Num. 26:49; he is called SHALLUM in 1 Chr. 7:13.
Shiloah, [Shilo'ah] Waters of.
Title of the Messiah as 'Prince of Peace.' Gen. 49:10; cf. Isa. 9:6. See SCEPTRE.
A place within the territory of Ephraim (which tribe had the first-born's place), and where the tabernacle was located at the close of the life of Joshua (who was also of the tribe of Ephraim); Eli was priest there, and there Samuel began his ministry. The ark had been removed from Gilgal and remained at Shiloh until it was carried into the camp and captured by the Philistines. God had put His name there, but because of the wickedness of the Israelites He forsook the tabernacle at Shiloh, and the place was afterwards held up as a sign of desolation. The break-down of the flesh, represented by Ephraim the firstborn, in the day of battle, made way for the election of God, who chose the tribe of Judah and Mount Zion. Ps. 78:9, 60-68; Jer. 7:12, 14; Jer. 26:6-9.
When the sin of the tribe of Benjamin led to its being nearly destroyed (Judges 20), the virgins of Shiloh were allowed to be seized to furnish wives for the survivors. Judges 21.
On the division of the kingdom the prophet Ahijah was residing there. Joshua 18:1-10; Judges 18:31; Judges 21:12-21; 1 Sam. 1:3-24; 1 Sam. 4:3, 12; 1 Kings 14:2, 4; Jer. 41:5. Identified with the ruins at Seilun, 32 3' N, 35 17' E.
Father of Zechariah. Neh. 11:5. But the passage may be read "Zechariah, the son of the Shilonite," as in the R.V.
Designation of Ahijah the prophet, which (cf. 1 Kings 14:2, 4) points him out as a resident of Shiloh. 1 Kings 11:29; 1 Kings 12:15; 1 Kings 15:29; 2 Chr. 9:29; 2 Chr. 10:15.
Designation of Asaiah and his sons, probably as forming a part of the family of SHELAH, son of Judah. 1 Chr. 9:5; cf. Num. 26:20, where they are called SHELANITES.
Son of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:37.
1. Son of David and Bathsheba. See SHAMMUA.
2. A Merarite, father of Haggiah. 1 Chr. 6:30.
3. A Gershonite, father of Berachiah. 1 Chr. 6:39.
Shimea, [Shim'ea] Shimeah. [Shim'eah]
Son of Jesse and brother of David. 2 Sam. 13:3, 32; 2 Sam. 21:21; 1 Chr. 20:7. See SHAMMAH.
Shimeah, [Shim'eah] Shimeam. [Shim'eam]
Son of Mikloth, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:32; 1 Chr. 9:38.
An Ammonitess, mother of Jozachar, or Zabad. 2 Kings 12:21; 2 Chr. 24:26.
Family of scribes at Jabez. 1 Chr. 2:55.
1. Son of Gershon, the son of Levi. Num. 3:18; 1 Chr. 6:17; 1 Chr. 23:7, 9, 10. Called SHIMI in Ex. 6:17.
2. Son of Gera, a Benjamite, of the house of Saul: he cursed David, calling him 'a man of Belial,' and threw stones and dust at him, when he was hastening from Jerusalem at the rebellion of Absalom; but made submission on David's return, and was not then punished. David at his death reminded Solomon of Shimei's wickedness, for he had cursed the Lord's anointed king. Solomon promised Shimei his life on the condition that he did not go out of Jerusalem; but he broke the compact and was put to death. 2 Sam. 16:5-13; 2 Sam. 19:18-23; 1 Kings 2:8-46.
3. Officer of David who kept aloof from Adonijah on his usurpation. 1 Kings 1:8.
4. Son of Elah and one of Solomon's commissariat officers. 1 Kings 4:18.
5. Son of Pedaiah, a son of Jeconiah. 1 Chr. 3:19.
6. Son of Zacchur, of the tribe of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:26 27.
7. Son of Gog, of the tribe of Reuben. 1 Chr. 5:4.
8. Son of Libni, a Merarite. 1 Chr. 6:29.
9. Son of Jahath, a son of Gershon. 1 Chr. 6:42.
10. Chief of the tenth course in the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:17.
11. The Ramathite who was over the vineyards of David. 1 Chr. 27:27.
12. Son of Heman: he took part in the purification of the temple. 2 Chr. 29:14.
13. Levite who had charge of the offerings. 2 Chr. 31:12-13.
14. Levite who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:23.
15, 16. Two who had married strange wives. Ezra 10:33, 38.
17. Son of Kish, a Benjamite, and grandfather of Mordecai. Esther 2:5.
18. A family who will mourn apart on the repentance of Jerusalem. Zech. 12:13. This is by some associated with No. 1; but SIMEON is read in the margin, and in the LXX, the Arabic and Syriac versions. See under ZECHARIAH, Zech. 12.
One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:31.
Head of a family in Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:21. Perhaps the same as SHEMA in 1 Chr. 8:13.
See SHIMEI No. 1.
Family of Shimei, son of Gershon. Num. 3:21.
Head of a family in Judah. 1 Chr. 4:20.
Son of Shimhi, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:21.
1. Son of Shemaiah, a Simeonite. 1 Chr. 4:37.
2. Father of Jediael, one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 9:45.
3. Son of Elizaphan, a Levite. 2 Chr. 29:13.
See SHOMER No. 2.
Shimrom, [Shim'rom] Shimron, [Shim'ron] Shimronites. [Shim'ronites]
Fourth son of Issachar and his descendants. Gen. 46:13; Num. 26:24; 1 Chr. 7:1.
Canaanitish city conquered by Joshua and allotted to Zebulun. Joshua 11:1; Joshua 19:15. Identified with Semunieh, 32 42' N, 35 12' E.
City whose king was slain by Joshua. Joshua 12:20. Not identified.
Scribe or secretary to Rehum, who opposed the rebuilding of Jerusalem. Ezra 4:8-9, 17, 23.
King of Admah in the days of Abraham. Gen. 14:2.
Ancient name of the plain lying in the south between the Euphrates and the Tigris. It was where Nimrod established his kingdom, and where the tower of Babel was built. Amraphel, king of Shinar, was one of the four kings who fought against the five kings when Lot was taken prisoner. In later times it was known as Chaldea, or Babylonia (as in the LXX of Isa. 11:11), and thither some of the captives from Judah were carried. Gen. 10:10; Gen. 11:2; Gen. 14:1, 9; Isa. 11:11; Dan. 1:2; Zech. 5:11.
The Israelites were not a maritime people. Solomon had a 'navy of ships' at Ezion Geber, the eastern branch of the Red Sea; but Hiram sent his shipmen 'that had knowledge of the sea' with the servants of Solomon. Ships of Tharshish are also mentioned both in connection with Solomon and Jehoshaphat. 1 Kings 9:26-27; 1 Kings 10:11, 22; 1 Kings 22:48-49; 2 Chr. 20:36-37; Ps. 48:7. The ships so often mentioned on the Sea of Galilee in the Gospels were what are now called fishing boats, and were used as such. The ships in which Paul sailed on the Mediterranean were of course larger; those in which he was taken to Rome are well described by Luke in the Acts of the Apostles: the ship wrecked at Malta was evidently an Alexandrian wheat-ship. The nautical terms employed by Luke show that he was well acquainted with maritime subjects. Acts 27. The word for GALLEY in Isa. 33:21 is the same as that translated 'navy' in the Kings.
Son of Allon, a Simeonite. 1 Chr. 4:37.
Designation of Zabdi, possibly as a native of Shepham. 1 Chr. 27:27.
One of the Hebrew midwives in Egypt. Ex. 1:15.
An Ephraimite, father of Kemuel. Num. 34:24.
Sailors. 1 Kings 9:27; Acts 27:27.
Father of Elihoreph and Ahiah, royal scribes under Solomon. 1 Kings 4:3. See SHAVSHA.
King of Egypt, to whom Jeroboam fled for protection from Solomon. Shishak afterwards invaded Judah during the reign of Rehoboam, "because they had transgressed against the Lord." He came with an immense army, took fenced cities, and pillaged Jerusalem and the temple. Shishak left an account of this expedition. It gives a long list of places conquered, among which are the names of many Jewish towns, as Taanach, Rehob, Mahanaim, Gibeon, Beth-horon, Kedemoth, Aijalon and Megiddo. 1 Kings 11:40; 1 Kings 14:25-26; 2 Chr. 12:2-9. See EGYPT.
The Sharonite who was chief herdsman of David at Sharon. 1 Chr. 27:29.
See SHITTIM WOOD.
Plain on the east of the Jordan, where the Israelites encamped before they crossed the Jordan. The name signifies 'acacias.' Num. 25:1; Joshua 2:1; Joshua 3:1; Joel 3:18; Micah 6:5. In Num. 33:49 it is called ABEL-SHITTIM, q.v.
Shittim Wood, Shittah Tree.
This is generally understood to be the Acacia, which is adopted in the R.V. There are several varieties which grow in Egypt and Palestine, the Acacia seyal being the most common. They differ from the acacias known in England, which are from North America. The wood was extensively used in building the tabernacle, and the ark, the table of showbread, and the altars were also made of the same. Ex. 25 — Ex. 38; Deut. 10:3. It is called the SHITTAH TREE (after the Hebrew, which is shittah in the singular) in Isa. 41:19. The 'burning bush' (Heb. seneh), has been considered to be the wild acacia, A. nilotica. Livingstone judged that for the tabernacle the A. giraffa (Camel-thorn) was used, which he calls an 'imperishable' wood.
A Reubenite, father of Adina. 1 Chr. 11:42.
People mentioned among Israel's 'lovers,' whom God would bring against them on every side. Ezek. 23:23. Nothing is known of a people or place of this name. Some judge the Hebrew word not to be a proper name, and translate it 'prince,' 'noble,' etc.
1. Son of David and Bathsheba. 2 Sam. 5:14; 1 Chr. 3:5; 1 Chr. 14:4.
2. Son of Caleb, the son of Hezron. 1 Chr. 2:18.
Captain of the Syrian hosts of Hadarezer. Killed by David. 2 Sam. 10:16, 18. Called SHOPHACH in 1 Chr. 19:16, 18.
Ancestor of some of the Levite door-keepers who returned from exile. Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45.
1. Son of Seir, the Horite. Gen. 36:20-29; 1 Chr. 1:38, 40.
2. Son of Caleb, the son of Hur. 1 Chr. 2:50, 52.
3. Son of Judah and father of Reaiah 1 Chr. 4:1-2.
One who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:24.
Son of Nahash of Rabbah, of the children of Ammon: he sent succour to David when he fled from Absalom. 2 Sam. 17:27.
Shocho, [Sho'cho] Shochoh, [Sho'choh] Shoco. [Sho'co]
Shoe lace or thong. Gen. 14:23; Isa. 5:27; Mark 1:7.
Shoes are mentioned as early as Ex. 3:5, when Moses was told to put off his shoes, for the ground on which he stood was holy, for God was there. Acts 7:33. The same was said to Joshua. Joshua 5:15. It showed that as yet there was no welcome for man into the presence of God. A standing had not yet been made for him, whatever goodness and condescension God might show towards him. Under grace a standing is found, the shoes were put on the prodigal, he was welcome and at home. The priests ministered in the temple with bare feet, means being given to keep the feet clean. Cf. also John 13:1-17.
In transferring a possession it was customary to deliver a shoe. Ruth 4:7-8. Twice is it said, "Over Edom will I cast out my shoe:" signifying that Edom would be subdued and be taken possession of as a menial. Ps. 60:8; Ps. 108:9. We read that "all they of Edom became David's servants." 2 Sam. 8:14. For shoes of 'iron and brass,' Deut. 33:25, some translate 'bolts' instead of 'shoes.' But it may be figurative of treading down their enemies, as the Lord is represented having "feet like unto fine brass." Rev. 1:15.
The shoes of the East were mostly the same as 'sandals' — soles fastened to the feet by strings or thongs. John the Baptist declared he was not worthy to unloose the shoes of the Lord. Mark 1:7; Luke 3:16.
Son of Jaaziah, a Merarite 1 Chr. 24:27.
1. Son of Heber, of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:32. Called SHAMER in 1 Chr. 7:34.
2. The parent of Jehozabad. 2 Kings 12:21. Here the name is masculine, but perhaps the same is called SHIMRITH, a Moabitess, in 2 Chr. 24:26.
A word in the headings of Ps. 45, Ps. 69, and Ps. 80, with the word EDUTH, 'a testimony,' added. The first Hebrew word signifies 'lilies.' Gesenius refers it to the form of the instruments as resembling lilies. Fürst, as the name of one of the musical choirs. The LXX has 'for alternate [strains].' In the heading of Ps. 60 is a similar word: SHUSHAN-EDUTH, 'the lily of testimony.'
Often alluded to in scripture as the place of strength, on which burdens are borne. The high priest had the names of the twelve tribes on his shoulders, as in a place of safety. Ex. 28:12. Of Christ it is said, when He comes to reign, the 'government shall be on his shoulder,' Isa. 9:6; and, as the Good Shepherd, when He finds a lost sheep He places it on His shoulders. Luke 15:5. When God blesses Israel in their land the Gentiles will bring Israel's dispersed daughters upon their shoulders, that is, will give them substantial aid. Isa. 49:22.
Small representations of heathen temples, as at Ephesus or elsewhere. The word is ναός, often translated 'temple.' Acts 19:24.
The 'shadowing shroud' signifies the shelter given by the spreading boughs of a great tree: such as the one to which Assyria is compared. Ezek. 31:3.
Daughter of Heber, of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:32.
Shua, [Shu'a] Shuah. [Shu'ah]
A Canaanite, whose daughter became the wife of Judah. Gen. 38:2, 12; 1 Chr. 2:3.
1. Son of Abraham and Keturah. Gen. 25:2; 1 Chr. 1:32.
2. Descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:11.
1. District to which a company of Philistine spoilers turned when they were encamped against Israel. 1 Sam. 13:17. Not identified.
2. Son of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:36.
1. Son of Amram, a descendant of Levi. 1 Chr. 24:20.
2. Son of Heman and a chief in the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:20. Called SHEBUEL in 1 Chr. 25:4.
Shuham, [Shu'ham] Shuhamites. [Shu'hamites]
Son of Dan, and his descendants. Num. 26:42-43. Perhaps the same as HUSHIM in Gen. 46:23.
Designation of Bildad, one of Job's friends. Probably a descendant of Shuah, son of Abraham. Job 2:11; etc.
Name introduced in the Canticles. It is a feminine noun traceable, like Solomon, to Shalom, 'peace.' It is the virgins who use this term. The union of the bridegroom and bride is such that she can be called by the same name. The 'two armies' seen in the Shulamite doubtless refer to the union of Judah and Israel. Cant. 6:13.
One of the families that came from Kirjath-jearim. 1 Chr. 2:53. The term may be derived from some unknown place named Shumah.
Designation of an inhabitant of Shunem.
1. Abishag, the 'fair damsel' that was chosen to cherish David in his old age. 1 Kings 1:3, 15; 1 Kings 2:17-22.
2. The 'great woman' who provided Elisha with a lodging. She was rewarded with a son, but he died when a lad. She hastened to the prophet, and her faith was such that she could say, "It is well." This was answered by her son being raised to life again. 2 Kings 4:8-37.
City in Issachar, near to which the Philistines encamped previous to the fight on Gilboa. Also where a Shunammite showed hospitality to Elisha. Joshua 19:18; 1 Sam. 28:4; 2 Kings 4:8. Identified with Solam, 32 36' N, 35 20' E.
Shuni, [Shu'ni] Shunites. [Shu'nites]
Son of Gad, and his descendants. Gen. 46:16; Num. 26:15.
Shupham, [Shu'pham] Shuphamites. [Shu'phamites]
Descendant of Benjamin and his posterity. Num. 26:39. See SHEPHUPHAN.
1. Son of Ir, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 7:12, 15. Identified with SHUPHAM in 1 Chr. 7:12 margin.
2. A Levite and one of the gatekeepers. 1 Chr. 26:16.
Wilderness towards the north east of Egypt; its situation is clearly shown in the various passages. Gen. 16:7; Gen. 20:1; Gen. 25:18; Ex. 15:22; 1 Sam. 15:7; 1 Sam. 27:8.
Ancient city in the East, the capital of Elam, and which afterwards became the metropolis of Persia. Its first mention chronologically is in Dan. 8:2. Objections have been raised as to Daniel being at Shushan in the reign of Belshazzar; but the prophecy does not say definitely that he was there. It reads, "I saw in a vision; and it came to pass when I saw, that I was at Shushan." He may have been there in a vision, or he may have gone there on the business of the king.
Esther was queen of Ahasuerus (Xerxes), king of Persia, and resided at Shushan, and the various descriptions given in the book of Esther show that it was a place of wealth and luxury, and was of large extent. At a later date Nehemiah was cupbearer to the king at Shushan. Neh. 1:1.
Daniel speaks of the palace or fortress as being in the province of Elam, and he was by the river of Ulai. This agrees with the modern Susa, on the river Shapur, in Persia, where there are extensive ruins, embracing those of a magnificent palace, about 32 10' N, 48 26' E. Alexander the Great conquered the Persians, after which Shushan declined. The place is frequently mentioned in the Book of Esther, and is once called SUSA (this being the Greek form of the name) in Esther 11:3 of its apocryphal additions.
The ruins extend to a circumference of about seven miles. An inscription states that the palace there was founded by Darius and completed by Artaxerxes. It may have been the one occupied in the days of Esther.
The great feast that was held by Ahasuerus with his nobles and princes for seven days was not apparently held in any of the halls inside the palace, but in the open air, "in the court of the garden of the king's palace," surrounded by "white, green and blue hangings, fastened with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and pillars of marble."
Descendants of Shuthelah, son of Ephraim. Num. 26:35.
1. Son of Ephraim. Num. 26:35-36; 1 Chr. 7:20.
2. Son of Zabad, a descendant of Ephraim. 1 Chr. 7:21.
The well-known weaver's implement which carries a thread, mentioned as early as Job 7:6; it is referred to as an emblem of swiftness.
Sia, [Si'a] Siaha. [Si'aha]
Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:44; Neh. 7:47.
Sibbecai, [Sibbeca'i] Sibbechai. [Sibbecha'i]
The Hushathite who slew Saph, or Sippai, a Philistine giant. 2 Sam. 21:18; 1 Chr. 11:29; 1 Chr. 20:4; 1 Chr. 27:11.
City of Reuben on the east of the Jordan, famous for its vines. Joshua 13:19; Isa. 16:8-9; Jer. 48:32. It is called SHEBAM in Num. 32:3, and SHIBMAH in Num. 32:38. Identified by some with Sumia, 31 49' N, 35 46' E, where there are ancient rock-cut wine presses.
A northern landmark of Palestine, lying between Damascus and Hamath. Ezek. 47:16. Not identified.
Siddim, [Sid'dim] Vale of.
One passage reads "the vale of Siddim, which is the salt sea;" and another the vale was "full of slime-pits," that is, bitumen springs. Gen. 14:3, 8, 10. It was doubtless near the Salt Sea, but is not identified.
Sidon, [Si'don] Sidonians. [Sido'nians]
See ZIDON and ZIDONIANS.
1. The lights in the firmament of the heaven are said to be for 'signs' as well as for 'seasons.' Gen. 1:14. A false application has been made of this passage in using the varied positions of the sun, moon, and planets as a means to foretell events. Of what then are they signs? it may be asked. This is perhaps answered in Ps. 19:1-6. The stupendous distance and marvellous regularity in the movements of the heavenly bodies are a sign of the glory of the One that created them, as is stated of God in Rom, 1:20; "The invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead," or divinity.
2. Signs were wrought by Moses, first to convince the children of Israel that God had sent him; and then to attest and enforce on the Egyptians God's demands upon Pharaoh to let the Israelites go that they might serve Him. Ps. 78:43. So in other cases, signs were given to show the finger of God.
3. When Christ was on earth He wrought miracles, wonders, and signs, but the Pharisees and Sadducees demanded of Him 'a sign from heaven,' Matt. 16:1, and it is added that they did this 'tempting Him.' He was Himself God's sign, according to Isa. 7:14, as the manna was the sign of God to Israel in the wilderness. As they had not eyes to see God's signs, they should have no other sign than that of Jonah (Matt. 12:39-40), that is, of a man who was cast into the overwhelming judgement of God, and found deliverance from Him. Christ's death and resurrection is God's way of deliverance. In Matt. 16:4 the Lord does not mention the type being fulfilled in Himself for them, but we have the dreadful words, "He left them and departed": they were left in the judgement of Jonah. See MIRACLES.
King of the Amorites, who, after his victory over the Moabites, was defeated and slain, with his army, by the Israelites. His territory was on the east of the Jordan, from the Arnon to the Jabbok: it was possessed by the Israelites. The victory is commemorated in two of the Psalms. Num. 21:21-35; Num. 32:33; Deut. 1:4; Deut. 2:24-36; Deut. 3:2-6; Joshua 12:2; Judges 11:19-22; Ps. 135:11; Ps. 136:19; Jer. 48:45.
This refers to the river Nile. In Joshua 13:3 it is "Sihor which is before Egypt." In Isa. 23:3 the produce of the harvest of Egypt was brought to the sea by the river, and from thence was fetched by the Syrian merchants. In Jer. 2:18 Israel is warned against seeking the waters of the Nile; that is, trusting in Egypt instead of in God: cf. Jer. 2:36. In 1 Chr. 13:5 it is written SHIHOR, as the south-west boundary of Palestine. Some consider that Joshua 13:3 and 1 Chr. 13:5 refer to the Wady el Arish, which was also called 'the river of Egypt.'
A 'chief man' among the brethren and a prophet. He was sent to Antioch, with Paul and Barnabas, after the council of the church at Jerusalem concerning Gentiles keeping the law. He accompanied Paul in his second missionary journey, and was imprisoned with him at Philippi. Acts 15:22-40; Acts 16:19-25, 29; Acts 17:4-15; Acts 18:5. The name is an abbreviation of SILVANUS, q.v.
In Ezek. 16:10, 13 the word is meshi, and refers to some very fine substance like hair, fine silk. In Prov. 31:22 it is shesh, which is fine linen. In Rev. 18:12 it is σηρικόν, silk.
Place alluded to when Joash was murdered. It was apparently somewhere near Jerusalem. 2 Kings 12:20.
Siloah, [Silo'ah] Siloam. [Silo'am]
A pool on the south of Jerusalem near the west slope of the Kidron valley. It is mentioned in the Old Testament as being 'by the king's garden' when the walls of Jerusalem were being rebuilt by Nehemiah (Neh. 3:15). In Isa. 8:6, under the name of SHILOAH, it is used symbolically: the people refused its waters that went softly, preferring Syria and the king of Israel: the strong waters of Assyria should sweep them away. In the New Testament the man born blind, after being anointed with clay, was sent to wash at Siloam, which signifies 'sent.' Christ being the Sent One, we are figuratively taught that light comes when Christ in humiliation is known as the Sent One of God. John 9:7, 11.
The pool still exists under the name of the Birket Silwan. It is supplied with water from a fountain higher up the hill, called the Virgin's Fountain. Several travellers have passed through the passage that connects the two, in some parts walking erect, and sometimes stooping, sometimes kneeling, and sometimes crawling on all fours. A short inscription was found at the pool, but which merely said that the passage was begun at both ends simultaneously, and met in the middle. The letters are ancient, which has led to the supposition that the passage was made in the days of Hezekiah, who made alterations in the watercourses. 2 Chr. 32:3-4. The flow of the water is intermitting, as if regulated by an underground siphon. In the winter the water rises three or four times a day, but in the summer only once in several days. The superfluous water flows in a channel cut in the rock to the gardens below. The pool is about 53 feet long, 18 feet wide, and 19 feet deep.
Siloam, [Silo'am] Tower in.
Nothing is known of the falling of this tower except what the scripture states in Luke 13:4. The village of Siloam is on the east slope of the Kidron valley, curiously formed as if ancient tombs had been appropriated, so that the houses appear to be clinging to the sides of the hill; it is not, however, known whether the tower was in any way connected with this village.
A Christian who had laboured at Corinth, and who was there with Paul when he wrote the two Epistles to the Thessalonians. By comparing the following passages with the account of Paul's second missionary journey it is evident that the apostle refers by this name to SILAS, q.v. 2 Cor. 1:19; 1 Thess. 1:1; 2 Thess. 1:1. Whether Peter refers to the same person is not known. 1 Peter 5:12.
This was a source of wealth from early days. Abraham was rich in silver, Gen. 13:2; but with Solomon gold was so plentiful that silver was 'nothing accounted of.' 1 Kings 10:21. The silver and gold which he had amassed were, alas, afterwards carried away to enrich their enemies because of the sins of Israel. 2 Chr. 12:9. Silver was also the common specie of commerce, 'pieces of silver' being weighed long before money was coined. Gen. 23:16. Silver was used for the sockets, hooks, etc., in the tabernacle, the money paid for the redemption of the Israelites being applied to this purpose. Ex. 30:11-16; Ex. 38:25-28. The house of God is founded on redemption. Ex. 36:24-36; Ex. 38:10-17.
Silver is found in the earth (Job 28:1), and before it can be compared to 'the words of the Lord' it must be purified seven times. Ps. 12:6; Prov. 25:4.
THE SILVER CORD in Ecc. 12:6 seems to refer to 'the thread of life,' which is loosed, or removed, when death ensues.
Found only in Isa. 7:23, and the Hebrew is the same as 'silver,' and 'pieces of silver,' as money.
Only referred to in scripture as those who formed the silver representations of the temple at Ephesus. Acts 19:24.
1. The second son of Jacob and Leah, and head of the tribe bearing his name. Except the attack that he, with Levi, made on Shechem, and his being kept by Joseph as a hostage, nothing personally is recorded of Simeon. He entered Egypt with Jacob, taking his six sons with him. On leaving Egypt, those numbered of the tribe were 59,300, but on entering the land after the forty years' wanderings, there were only 22,200.
When Jacob blessed his sons he said, "Simeon and Levi are brethren; instruments of cruelty are in their habitations . . . . in their anger they slew a man, and in their selfwill they digged down a wall. Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their wrath, for it was cruel: I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel." Gen. 49:5-7. This scattering seems also intimated by the circumstance that when Moses blessed the tribes, Simeon is not mentioned.
The lot of Simeon was in the extreme south, having the Philistines on their west and the desert of Paran on their east. On the division of the kingdom they nominally belonged to the ten tribes, but were completely isolated from the other nine, so that they would have had either to coalesce with the two tribes (and of this we read nothing), or, according to the prophecy of Jacob, be 'scattered in Israel.' They were, in a sense, lost in the land. In the future day of which Ezekiel prophesies, when the twelve tribes will be restored and the land be re-divided, the tribe of Simeon has its portion. Ezek. 48:24-35. They are also mentioned in Rev. 7:7, when a remnant of them will be sealed for blessing.
2. A 'just and devout' man at Jerusalem, to whom it was revealed that he should not die until he had seen 'the Lord's Christ.' When the 'child Jesus' was presented in the temple Simeon took Him up in his arms, blessed God and asked that he might depart in peace, for he had seen God's salvation. Luke 2:25, 34. He was one of those that looked for redemption in Israel.
3. Son of Juda, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:30.
4. A disciple and prophet at Antioch, designated NIGER. Acts 13:1.
5. Name by which Simon Peter is called by James in Acts 15:14. In 2 Peter 1:1 also the name is Simeon in the Greek.
Descendants of Simeon, the son of Jacob. Num. 25:14; Num. 26:14; 1 Chr. 27:16.
1. demuth, 'likeness, representation.' 2 Chr. 4:3; Dan. 10:16; Hosea 12:10.
2. tabnith, 'pattern, form, structure.' Ps. 106:20; Ps. 144:12.
3. temunah, 'form, appearance,' which may not imply likeness. Num. 12:8; Deut. 4:12, 15, 16.
4. Three words derived from ὅμοιος, 'like, similar.' Rom. 5:14; Heb. 7:15; James 3:9.
1. Simon Peter. See PETER.
2. Simon the Canaanite, or rather Cananite, or Zealot, and therefore called SIMON ZELOTES; one of the twelve apostles, of whom nothing is specially recorded. Matt. 10:4; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13.
3. Simon, one of the brethren of the Lord. Matt. 13:55; Mark 6:3.
4. Simon the Leper, at whose house 'a woman' anointed the head of the Lord. Matt. 26:6; Mark 14:3. By comparing these passages with John 12:1-3 it seems evident that Martha and Mary lived in Simon's house (they were perhaps in some way related to him), and that Mary was the woman alluded to. There is no authority for associating this anointing of the Lord with that recorded in Luke 7:36-50, described as being by 'a sinner.'
5. Simon the Cyrenian, father of Alexander and Rufus: he was made to carry the Lord's cross. Matt. 27:32; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26.
6. Simon the Pharisee, who invited the Lord to his house, where a woman 'who was a sinner' anointed the feet of the Lord. The Pharisee judged that the Lord could not be a prophet, or He would have known that the woman was a sinner; but he was rebuked, and the woman was forgiven. Luke 7:36-50. There is no authority for supposing that this woman was Mary Magdalene.
7. Simon, father of Judas Iscariot. John 6:71, etc.
8. Simon the Tanner, at whose house Peter was lodging at Joppa when sent for by Cornelius. Acts 9:43; Acts 10:6, 17, 32.
9. Simon Magus, so called because he was a magician or sorcerer. He had misled the people at Samaria by his magical arts, but he professed to believe at the preaching of Philip. Subsequently he offered money to the apostles that he might purchase the power of imparting the gift of the Holy Spirit (from which has arisen the word 'simony'); but he was denounced by Peter. Acts 8:9-24. Historians relate that he did much mischief among the saints.
Son of Hosah, a Merarite. "Though he was not the firstborn, yet his father made him the chief." 1 Chr. 26:10.
City in Egypt: the LXX has Σάι>ς, and the Vulgate (as in the margin), Pelusium. Ezekiel calls it 'the strength of Egypt.' Ezek. 30:15-16. It is supposed to be identified with the modern Tineh, where a few ruins are found. It is close to the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile, about 31 4' N, 32 28' E.
Sin, Wilderness of.
The district lying between the Red Sea and Sinai, in some part of which the Israelites encamped. Ex. 16:1; Ex. 17:1; Num. 33:11-12.
There are many different words both in the O.T. and N.T. signifying 'sin,' 'iniquity,' 'wickedness,' etc., with various shades of meaning.
1. It is important to notice the scripture definition of sin. It is 'lawlessness.' 1 John 3:4. Hence the distinction made between 'sin' and 'transgression,' the latter being the infraction of a known command. From Adam to Moses man "had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression," yet men had sinned and died. Rom. 5:14. A positive law was given to Adam, which he disobeyed; but from Adam to Moses no definite law was proclaimed, consequently there was no transgression, yet there was sin in the sense of lawlessness, and such sin as called for the deluge. The same distinction is plainly involved in Rom. 4:15; "Where no law is, there is no transgression," yet there may be sin, and it is averred that "as many as have sinned without law shall also perish without law." Rom. 2:12.
The rendering of 1 John 3:4, in the A.V., "sin is the transgression of the law," is a mistranslation. The Greek word is ἀνομία, from ἀ, negative, and νόμος, law. This word occurs fourteen times, and in this verse only is it translated in the A.V. 'transgression of the law.' In 2 Cor. 6:14 it is 'unrighteousness,' and in eleven places it is rendered 'iniquity,' signifying any wickedness. Further, ἄνομος, from the same root, is translated 'without law' in 1 Cor. 9:21; 'unlawful' in 2 Peter 2:8; and 'lawless' in 1 Tim. 1:9. These passages clearly indicate that the meaning of 1 John 3:4 is "Every one that practises sin, practises also lawlessness; and sin is lawlessness: " that is, doing one's own will, regardless of all restraint of God and man. This applies whether there is a definite law or not, but when there is a definite law sin is also transgression.
The principal words used for 'sin' in the N.T. are ἁμαρτία, ἁμαρτημα, ἁμαρτάνω, to deviate from a right course: and for 'transgression,' 'transgressor,' παράβασις, παράβάτης, παράβαίνω, to pass by or over a boundary.
2. Sin did not originate in man, but with the devil. 1 John 3:8. It came into the world by man, and brought in death as its penalty.
3. An important point is to distinguish between 'sin' and 'sins,' a distinction which must exist after the first entrance of the principle. The 'sins' of a man are what he actually commits, and are the ground of judgement, while also proving the man to be the servant of sin. A Christian is one whose conscience has been perfected for ever by the one sacrifice for sins; the Spirit of God has brought him into the value of that one offering, hence his sins, having been borne by Christ on the cross, will never be brought to his charge as guilt upon him by God, but if he sins there is a holy gracious dealing with him on the ground of Christ's propitiation, so that he is led to confess the sin or sins, and has the joy of forgiveness. 'Sin' as to the principle, involving the alienation of all things from God since the fall of man, and especially seen in man's evil nature, has been judicially removed from before God in the cross of Christ. God has "condemned sin in the flesh" in the sacrifice of Christ, Rom. 8:3, and consequently the Spirit is given to the believer. The Lord Jesus is proclaimed as "the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world" ('not sins,' as it is often quoted). He will purge heaven and earth from sin, and in result there will be new heavens and a new earth, wherein will dwell righteousness. Though Christ tasted death for every one, or everything, He is not represented as bearing the 'sins' of all: His death as regards 'sins' being qualified by the words 'of many,' 'our sins,' etc.
4. In the important passage in Rom. 5:15-20, the word OFFENCE occurs. The Greek is παράπτωμα, from 'to fall off or away.' It is used for Adam's fall or sin, and God's free gift is in respect of many sins. "The law entered that the offence might abound," that is, that the offensiveness or heinousness of sin might be made manifest. The same word is translated 'fall, fault, trespass, and sin.'
This term is often used by theologians, but they are not agreed as to its signification. It is not found in scripture. Man has derived an evil nature from Adam, but his sins are his own. Death passed upon all men because of Adam's sin, but all have sinned. Rom. 5:12.
Sina, [Si'na] Sinai. [Si'nai]
This name is applied to both a mountain and to a wilderness. They lie between the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Akaba. The mountain is really a range of high hills and is sometimes called HOREB, which may be a more general name for the whole of the range. Mount Sinai is especially connected with the giving of the law. Moses and the elders went up into the mountain, and Moses there received the Ten Commandments written on two stones. The Israelites were located in the wilderness of Sinai, which must have been a large place capable of holding two million people. By comparing Ex. 19:1 with Num. 10:11, it will be seen that they continued there nearly a year.
The mountains in the locality have been surveyed in modern days, and a plain has been found, about two miles long and half a mile wide, affording ample room for the people to assemble, and where they could hear the thunder, and see the fire and smoke issuing from the mount. The plain is now called er Rahah. Adjoining this is a precipitous granite rock called Jebel Musa (Ras Sufsafeh) which is so formed that the elders who accompanied Moses part of the way up, could remain there while Moses proceeded to the summit, which cannot be seen from the plain. Ex. 19:1-23, etc.; Ps. 68:8, 17; Neh. 9:13; Acts 7:30, 38.
The term Sinai is frequently employed as representing 'the law,' and is used by Paul as a symbol of 'bondage,' for law and bondage cannot be separated, and stand in strong contrast to the 'liberty' wherewith Christ makes the believer free. Gal. 4:24-25, compare with Gal. 5:1.