Bible Dictionary S 3


In the O.T. we find there were courses of singers, and there were some who were 'taught to sing praise.' Instruments were also appointed for the singers. 1 Kings 10:12. In Hab. 3:19, at the end of the prophet's poetical 'prayer,' it says, "To the chief singer on my stringed instruments." "The singers went before, the players on instruments followed after; among them were the damsels playing with timbrels." Ps. 68:25.

Such organised choirs have no place in the N.T.  They that worship God "must worship him in spirit and in truth." This also applies to the singing: "I will sing with the spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also." 1 Cor. 14:15: cf. 1 Cor. 14:26. "Be filled with the Spirit, speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody [or chanting] in your heart to the Lord." Eph. 5:19. "In psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord." Col. 3:16. There will be singing in heaven. Rev. 5:9.  Singing and PRAISE naturally go together. At the institution of the Lord's supper they 'sang a hymn,' margin 'psalm,' ὑμνέω. Matt. 26:30. The same word is translated 'sang praises' unto God, when Paul and Silas were in prison, Acts 16:25; and the Lord sings praise in the midst of the assembly. Ps. 22:22; Heb. 2:12.


A remote place from which some will be brought when in a future day God is blessing Israel. The LXX has "the land of the Persians." The land of the Sinae, who settled in Western China, has been suggested: this would not clash with 'north' and 'west,' which are also mentioned in the same passage. Isa. 49:12.


A tribe of unknown Canaanites probably in the far north. Gen. 10:17; 1 Chr. 1:15.  The Targums give Orthosia, a town on the coast to the north-east of Tripolis.

Sion. [Si'on]

1.  Deut. 4:48; same as HERMON, q.v.

2. For a part of Jerusalem, see ZION.

Siphmoth. [Siph'moth]

City in the south of Judah, to the elders of which David sent some of the spoil he had taken from the Amalekites. 1 Sam. 30:28. Not identified.

Sippai. [Sippa'i]



In Gen. 43:20 the word is adon, often translated 'Lord.' In the Acts (except in Acts 16:30) the word is ἀνίρ, 'man,' and is used as a term of respect. In all other places in the N.T. the word is κύριος, commonly translated 'Lord': in these cases the context determines how it should be rendered.

Sirah. [Si'rah]

A well near Hebron from which Abner was recalled by Joab. 2 Sam. 3:26. There is a spring and reservoir near the ancient road which Abner would naturally have taken, called Ain Sareh, about a mile from Hebron.

Sirion. [Siri'on]


Sisamai. [Sisama'i]

Son of Eleasah, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:40.

Sisera. [Si'sera]

1.  Captain of the army of Jabin king of the northern Canaanites. His army was overthrown with great destruction, through God's intervention, by Deborah and Barak. Sisera, thirsty and weary, sought shelter in the tent of Jael, who killed him with a tent peg driven through his head with a hammer — showing how God can energise a feeble instrument to work out His deliverance. See JAEL. Judges 4:2-22; Judges 5:20-31; 1 Sam. 12:9; Ps. 83:9.

2. Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:53; Neh. 7:55.


Simply 'since.' Ezek. 35:6.

Sitnah. [Sit'nah]

Name given to a well dug by Isaac's servants because it was seized by the servants of Abimelech. Gen. 26:21. F├╝rst says it signifies 'strife'; Gesenius says 'contention,' and in Ezra 4:6, where the same word occurs as a common noun, it is 'accusation.'






This word occurs in the A.V. only in Rev. 18:13, where it should read 'bodies,' as in the margin. See SERVANTS.


The word is chemar, and signifies 'bitumen.' It is found on the shores of the Salt Sea and elsewhere in SLIME-PITS. When mixed with tar it forms a hard cement impervious to water. Gen. 11:3; Gen.14:10; Ex. 2:3.


A simple weapon with which stones were thrown. It could easily be formed of a piece of leather with a small hole in the centre, and having two strings attached. A stone was placed in the hole in the leather, and swung round forcibly, when, by releasing one of the strings, the stone would fly away. It was used by shepherds to keep off such animals as wolves; David had one with which he smote Goliath. We read of some who were so skilled in its use as to throw a stone to a hair's breadth. It is mentioned among the weapons of war. Judges 20:16; 1 Sam. 17:40, 50; 2 Kings 3:25; 2 Chr. 26:14. On the Egyptian monuments men are portrayed using the sling.


The well-known worker in metal. When the Philistines were oppressing Israel we read "there was no smith found throughout all the land of Israel: for the Philistines said, Lest the Hebrews make them swords or spears." Thus the people of God were unarmed before their enemies. They had to resort to the Philistines even to sharpen their agricultural tools. 1 Sam. 13:19-20. This was different afterwards, for when the people were carried into captivity, smiths are named among the captives. 2 Kings 24:14, 16.

Smyrna. [Smyr'na]

Ancient city in the west of Asia Minor, about forty miles north of Ephesus. No mention is made of Paul having visited the city; but we know an assembly was gathered there by its being one of the seven churches in Asia, to which addresses were sent through the apostle John. See REVELATION 2.  History calls Polycarp the first bishop of Smyrna, and it was there he suffered martyrdom. Christian writers have often pointed out in connection with the allusion to "the synagogue of Satan" in Rev. 2:9, the eagerness with which the Jews sought to aid in the martyrdom of Polycarp.  It was of old an important city, and modern Smyrna is a large town. Rev. 1:11; Rev. 2:8. The name means 'myrrh.'


In Lev. 11:30 it is supposed that the word chomet refers to some kind of lizard: the R.V. has 'sand-lizard.' In Ps. 58:8 the word is shablul, of which it says it 'melteth.' It was erroneously supposed by the Jews that by the slime which a snail leaves on its trail it gradually wasted away. The passage simply means that when dead the snail seems to melt entirely away: it is used as a symbol of the wicked passing away.


Several words are employed to point out the snares or pits by which animals are caught. They are also used symbolically for the snares men lay for one another, and especially for those that Satan lays to entrap man into his power. Snares to be effectual must be hidden. It is in vain to set a net in the sight of any bird, Prov. 1:17; in like manner the hook in fishing is always concealed. The baits that Satan uses are things that men like, and which may not always be moral evils in themselves, as riches, honour, etc., but which may end in the loss of the soul. 1 Tim. 3:7; 1 Tim. 6:9; 2 Tim. 2:26. "The fear of the Lord is a fountain of life, to depart from the snares of death." Prov. 14:27. Nehemiah, led of God, wisely avoided all the snares that were laid for him by the enemy. Neh. 6. So the Christian, taught of God, and led by the Holy Spirit, will not be ignorant of Satan's devices, and will not fall thereby.


This is taken in scripture as a symbol of 'whiteness.' The sins as scarlet become as white as snow; the raiment of the Lord in the transfiguration was as white as snow, etc. Ps. 51:7; Isa. 1:18; Lam. 4:7; Dan. 7:9; Matt. 28:3; Rev. 1:14.


King of Egypt.  See EGYPT.

Soap, Sope.

Spoken of as used for cleansing the person, and as employed by the fuller. Jer. 2:22; Mal. 3:2. What its composition was is not now known.

Socho. [So'cho]

Son of, or city founded by, Heber. 1 Chr. 4:18. Perhaps the same as one of the two following.

Sochoh, [So'choh] Socoh, [So'coh] Shocho, [Sho'cho] Shochoh, [Sho'choh] Shoco. [Sho'co]

City in the shephelah, or plain of Judah. Joshua 15:35; 1 Sam. 17:1; 1 Kings 4:10; 2 Chr. 11:7; 2 Chr. 28:18.  Identified with ruins at Shuweikeh, 31 41' N, 34 58' E.

Socoh. [So'coh]

City in the hill country of Judah. Joshua 15:48. Identified with ruins at Shuweikeh, 31 25' N, 35 E.


The preterite of seethe, to boil. Gen. 25:29; Ex. 12:9; Num. 6:19.


Same as soldering, joining by a fused metal. Isa. 41:7.

Sodi. [So'di]

A Zebulonite, father of Gaddiel. Num. 13:10.

Sodom, [Sod'om] Sodoma. [Sod'oma]

This city is first mentioned as a boundary of the Canaanites. Gen. 10:19. Lot pitched his tent toward Sodom, but it is recorded that the men of Sodom were exceedingly wicked before the Lord. Afterwards he dwelt therein, and was carried away captive when Sodom was taken by the five kings from the East. It is related that about the time when God fulfilled His promise of a son to Abraham, the cry of Sodom and their grievous sin had come up to Him, and He communicated to Abraham His intention to destroy the city; but, on the pleading of Abraham, He said He would not destroy it if there were ten righteous persons found therein; ten, however, were not found. Lot, his wife, and two daughters were rescued by two angels, and God rained down fire and brimstone on the place, and it was utterly destroyed. Though it was doubtless in the vicinity of the Salt Sea, its site cannot be identified. Gen. 14:2-22; Gen. 18:16-32; Gen. 19:1-28.

Sodom is regarded in scripture as a symbol of wickedness. Isaiah calls the heads of Judah the 'rulers of Sodom.' Isa. 1:10; cf. Ezek. 16:46-56; Rev. 11:8. The Lord, to show the exceeding wickedness of rejecting Him, after hearing His gracious words and seeing His mighty works, declared that it would be more tolerable in a day of judgement for Sodom than for the cities that rejected Him. Luke 10:12. The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrha, both as to its suddenness and completeness, is held up as a warning to sinners of coming judgements. Luke 17:29; Jude 7. In Rom. 9:29 it is called SODOMA.

Sodomites. [Sod'omites]

Those guilty of the sin of Sodom. Some were found in Israel. Deut. 23:17; 1 Kings 14:24; 1 Kings 15:12; 1 Kings 22:46; 2 Kings 23:7.


Apart from the common application of this term (for which see ARMY, ARMOUR, etc.) it is used in the N.T. for the service of a Christian. Two things are said of the Christian soldier. He must "endure hardness," that is, share in the suffering incident to warfare; and he must not entangle "himself with the affairs of this life, that he may please him who hath chosen him to be a soldier": that is, be quite free to obey his Captain in all things. As explained by the centurion, "I say to this man Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh;" so the Christian servant is under authority, and unhesitating obedience is what should characterise the soldier of Jesus Christ: he must be prepared to endure hardships, and to suffer with his Captain. Matt. 8:9; 2 Tim. 2:3-4.

Solomon. [Sol'omon]

Son of David and Bathsheba. [Bath-sheba] He reigned forty years over the united kingdom from B.C. 1015 to 975. David when near his death appointed Solomon his son, whom God had chosen to sit upon the throne of the kingdom of Jehovah, to be his successor, and he began his reign by executing righteous judgement, as Christ will when He comes to reign, followed by a reign of peace. He put to death Adonijah who had usurped the throne, and Joab who had shed innocent blood; and he cast Abiathar out of the priesthood. His marriage with the daughter of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, is symbolical of Christ having the church (mainly Gentiles) with Him when He comes to reign.

Solomon loved the Lord, and worshipped Him at the altar at Gibeon, and there the Lord appeared to him in a dream, and said, "Ask what I shall give thee." Solomon asked for an understanding heart to judge the people wisely. The choice pleased God, and He gave him wisdom such as no king before nor since has had, and added to it both riches and honour beyond all others. If he would be obedient God would lengthen his days. His wisdom soon became apparent by his judgement in the case of the two women with the living and dead child. And people came from all the kings of the earth to hear his wisdom. The queen of Sheba came also. This is again symbolical of the reign of Christ during the millennium. It is further exemplified by all dwelling in safety, "every man under his vine and under his fig tree . . . . all the days of Solomon."

He was occupied for seven years in building the temple, for which David had made preparation. He built also his own house and one for Pharaoh's daughter. When the temple was dedicated, Solomon sacrificed and prayed to Jehovah. In answer to which Jehovah appeared to him a second time, and said, He had hallowed the house, had put His name there, and His heart should be there perpetually. God would continue to bless him and establish his house in Israel, on the condition that Solomon was obedient, and turned not to other gods.

Everything for a time was ordered wisely. The riches of Solomon increased so much that silver was of little value in his days. He had his navy of ships, which brought him riches, and he increased his chariots and his horsemen, and brought horses out of Egypt (an act that had been forbidden in the law, Deut. 17:16). He tells us that he had tried everything under the sun, but had to declare that all was vanity and vexation of spirit. The Lord declared that Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed as a simple lily of the field. His fall, alas, followed, for he loved many strange women, which turned his heart away, and he went after their gods, and built high places for them.

God then stirred up adversaries against Solomon, and by the prophet Ahijah He foretold that Jeroboam would reign over ten of the tribes. He would reserve two to keep in memorial before Him the name of David. Still Solomon did not repent, but sought the life of Jeroboam. God did not prolong Solomon's days, for he died at about the age of 58.

We read of Solomon that he spake three thousand proverbs, and his songs were a thousand and five. He was the writer of the books of the Proverbs, the Ecclesiastes, and the Canticles. His reign is given in 1 Kings 1 - 1 Kings 12; 2 Chr. 1 - 2 Chr. 9.

Solomon's Porch.

Some porch or colonnade attached to the temple built by Herod. The Lord 'walked' therein, where there was room for the Jews to gather round Him. John 10:23. When Peter and John had cured the lame man, the people congregated in the same place, and Peter addressed them. It was probably an unfrequented part of the outer temple, for the believers met there in the earliest days of the church. Acts 3:11; Acts 5:12.

Sometime, Sometimes.

At one time, once. Eph. 2:13; Eph. 5:8; Col. 1:21; Col. 3:7; Titus 3:3; 1 Peter 3:20.


Besides the application of this term to natural generation, it is used metaphorically in scripture. The appellation 'son' implies 'likeness.' The term is employed thus to mark moral likeness, as of a son to a father, so 'a son of Belial,' 1 Sam. 25:17; 'thou son (υἱός) of the devil,' Acts 13:10; 'sons of disobedience,' Eph. 5:6; Col. 3:6; also 'sons of light' and 'sons of day.' 1 Thess. 5:5. It is also used to signify physical likeness: strong men are 'sons of strength.' 2 Kings 2:16, margin; etc.

The idea of sonship differs somewhat in the case of Christians from that of being 'children.' The thought of 'children' is more of a generation which is of God. "Now are we the children of God." 1 John 3:2. 'Sons' expresses the height of God's calling, and properly refers to heaven and glory. It implies intelligently entering into the purpose of God. God is bringing many sons to glory. Heb. 2:10. Christians are represented as being both children and sons of God. The distinction between these two words is not always clearly maintained in the A.V.  In Rom. 9:26-27; 2 Cor. 3:7, 13; Gal. 3:7, 26; Eph. 2:2; Eph. 5:6; Col. 3:6; 1 Thess. 5:5; Heb. 11:22; Heb. 12:5; Rev. 2:14; Rev. 7:4; Rev. 12:5; Rev. 21:12 (and often in the Gospels and the Acts) 'sons' (υἱός) should be read instead of 'children,' On the other hand, in John 1:12; 1 Cor. 4:14, 17; Phil. 2:15, 22; 1 Tim. 1:2, 18; 2 Tim. 1:2; 2 Tim. 2:1; Titus 1:4; Philemon 10; 1 John 3:1-2, 'children' (τέκνον) should be read instead of 'sons.' Both words are employed in the Epistles of Paul, but "τέκνον" only, as regards believers, in the writings of John, except Rev. 21:7. See SONS OF GOD.

Son, The; Son of God.

That the Lord Jesus is a divine Person is of the very foundation of scripture. In the commencement of the Gospel by John is the statement "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." Again, "Unto the Son he saith, "Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever." Psalm 45:6; Heb. 1:8.  Baptism is "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." Matt. 28:19. Christ is spoken of as 'the Son' in distinction from the Father, and glory attaches to Him as such. In many places, when the Lord was speaking of the Father, He spoke of Himself as relatively 'the Son.' Matt. 11:27; etc. He was necessarily in the consciousness of the unity of the Godhead. Christ is also spoken of as God's 'only begotten Son.' John 1:14, 18; John 3:16, 18; 1 John 4:9. The word is μονογενής, and is equivalent to the Hebrew word yachid, which signifies 'only one,' and hence 'darling.' Ps. 22:20; Ps. 35:17; etc. It is a term of endearment.

When the angel appeared to Mary, foretelling the birth of Jesus, he said, "That holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God." Luke 1:35. Thus the word was to be fulfilled: "Jehovah hath said unto me, Thou art my Son: this day have I begotten thee." Ps. 2:7; Acts 13:33 (where the word 'again' should be omitted); Heb. 1:5; Heb. 5:5. The Lord spoke of Himself as the Son of God. John 5:25; John 9:35; etc.: He confessed it before the Jewish council, Luke 22:70. Having died on the cross to work out redemption (John 17:1, 4; John 19:30), He was "declared to be the Son of God with power . . . . by the resurrection of [the] dead." Rom. 1:4.

Son of Man, The.

The Lord constantly spoke of Himself as 'the Son of man,' a title that connected Him with universal headship, and not merely with Israel, especially in view of His sufferings and resurrection and kingdom. Though walking about this earth He could say, "The Son of man which is in heaven." John 3:13. He, though God, became truly man: could be weary and hungry, and sleep. He prayed as one in dependence on God; was forsaken of God, and died. Yet He was the righteous One — of another order morally from all other men: the Second man — out of heaven. 1 Cor. 15:47.

According to Heb. 2 Christ became Son of man in order to

1. 'taste death for every thing;'

2. to annul 'him that had the power of death, that is, the devil;'

3. 'to make propitiation for the sins of the people'; and

4. to be 'able to succour them that are tempted.'

He is set as Son of man over all the works of God's hands, heir of all things, according to the counsels of God; He will reign until all enemies are under His feet, and be hailed as "King of kings and Lord of lords." The Lord said, "The Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father, with his angels." Matt. 16:27. In the meantime we do not find the title used in the Epistles and the Revelation except in Heb. 2:6, a quotation from Psalm 8, which speaks of His universal dominion; and in Rev. 1:13; Rev. 14:14, where He is ready for judgement. See JESUS CHRIST.

Sons of God.

This title is susceptible of considerable latitude of meaning and has various applications in scripture.

1. There were 'sons of God' who took wives of 'the daughters of men.' Gen. 6:4. These are believed by some to have been angels, permitted to take human form: cf. Jude 6, 7.  Others judge the descendants of Seth to be alluded to.

2. The angels who came to present themselves to God in the days of Job, and who shouted for joy when the foundations of the earth were laid, are called 'sons of God.' Job 1:6; Job 2: l; Job 38:7.

3. The Gentiles, who had no place at all as God's people, were to be called 'sons of the living God.' Hosea 1:10.

4. Christians, those led of God's Spirit, in the present dispensation are declared to be 'sons of God.' Rom. 8:14, 19; Gal. 4:6. It is their calling according to God's purpose. See SON.

Song of Solomon.

This is also called "the Song of Songs, or The Canticles," though it is one poem, and not a collection of poems. The first verse states that it is by Solomon. The book stands alone, and has been variously interpreted. A favourite theory of German theologians and of many English is that it is literally a love story: that Solomon sought to draw away a lowly maiden from a shepherd, to whom she was betrothed; but to whom she remained faithful. That such a poem, with no higher teaching than this, should find a place in holy scripture, is impossible for the Christian who believes in inspiration to accept. With others it is held to represent 'the pure love and mystical union and marriage of Christ and His church,' which will be seen to be the idea in the headings of the chapters in the A.V.  Passages in the N.T. that refer to the union of Christ and the church are referred to as bearing out this interpretation.

But a great deal of damage has been done to the right understanding of the O.T. by supposing that wherever blessing is there spoken of, it must refer to the church. God has blessed and will bless others besides the church, especially His ancient people Israel. He uses also endearing terms to Israel. He says to her, "I will betroth thee unto me for ever; yea, I will betroth thee unto me in righteousness, and in judgement, and in loving-kindness, and in mercies." This declaration is associated with a day when she will call Jehovah Ishi (that is, husband), and shall no more call Him Baali (that is, master). Hosea 2:16, 19. This is doubtless the key to the Song of Solomon. This is the union spoken of, with which the words of affection, that pass between Christ as Jehovah and the remnant of Israel that will be brought into blessing, are in accord. The song is prophetic, but does not reach to Christ and the church, though, when its right interpretation is seen, the Christian can apply some of its language as his own to the same Lord, who will also be manifested as the Bridegroom of the church. There is however this important difference: in the Canticles the result is more in anticipation, while with the Christian there is present realisation of relationship: in other words, more of desire than of satisfaction.

From the above it will be seen that the bride is not simply a person, but symbolic of the earthly Jerusalem and the remnant whose names are registered as connected with God's foundation, embracing all the faithful of Israel, looked upon as 'the daughters of Jerusalem,' which represents the whole nation. This agrees with the language in many parts: for instance, "Draw me, we will run after thee. The king hath brought me into his chambers; we will be glad . . . . the upright [plural] love thee." Cant. 1:4.  Further, it is helpful to see who is the speaker in the various parts of the Song. As far as the bridegroom and the bride are concerned this is pointed out by the gender in the Hebrew. It seems evident too that a company, usually called virgins, also take part in the Song. The heart of Jerusalem is now being turned to the One they once refused: comp. Matt. 23:37.

Cant. 1:2. BRIDE AND VIRGINS.  They value the love of the bridegroom more than wine. The bride owns that she is dark, but she is comely: the rays of affliction have scorched her like the sun: cf. Isa. 3:24. She has been keeping the vineyards of the nations, not her own.

Cant. 1:8. BRIDEGROOM.  He delights in her, and esteems her as the fairest among women.

Cant. 1:12. BRIDE.  The bridegroom is 'the king:' her spikenard sends forth a perfume: cf. John 12:1-8.

Cant. 1:15. BRIDEGROOM. He acknowledges her beauty: cf. Ezek. 16:14.

Cant. 1:16. BRIDE.  She admires her Lord, and appreciates her relationship: she says, 'our house.'

Cant. 2:1. BRIDE.  She is a rose of Sharon, and a lily of the valleys.

Cant. 2:2. BRIDEGROOM.  His loved one is as a lily among thorns.

Cant. 2:3. BRIDE.  She calls him 'my beloved,' and charges the daughters of Jerusalem not to disturb her loved one until he please. 'Behold he cometh:' she does not yet possess him.

Cant. 2:10. BRIDEGROOM.  He invites her to partake of the pleasant fruits. The foxes must be caught that spoil the tender fruit. The joy must be full.

Cant. 2:16. BRIDE.  She is conscious of the relationship. He is hers, and she is his.

Cant. 3.  BRIDE. She is alone and in darkness; she seeks her beloved, but does not find him. She questions the watchmen, and as soon as she passes them she finds him. King Solomon is described, his bed, his chariot, etc.: it is he who will bring in peace.

Cant. 4:1. BRIDEGROOM.  He declares what she is in his sight. She is the garden of his delights. He calls upon the north and the south winds to cause the fragrance to come forth. (Some believe Cant. 4:6 to be the language of the bride.)

Cant. 4:16. BRIDE.  She responds, "Let my beloved come into his garden, and eat his pleasant fruits."

Cant. 5:1. BRIDEGROOM.  He has come into his garden and tasted its delights: he calls his friends to share his joys: cf. John 3:29.

Cant. 5:2. BRIDE.  She has slept, and he is outside.

Cant. 5:2. BRIDEGROOM. He asks to be admitted: his locks are wet with the drops of the night.

Cant. 5:3. BRIDE.  She is slothful and makes excuses. When she opens the door she finds he is gone. She goes about the city in search of him, and is smitten and shamed. She charges the daughters of Jerusalem that if they find him they will tell him that she is 'sick of love.' They ask her what her beloved is more than another. She declares that he is "the chiefest among ten thousand;" "yea, he is altogether lovely."

Cant. 6:1. The bride is asked whither he is gone: they will seek him with her.

Cant. 6:2. BRIDE.  She says he is gone into his garden. She declares her confidence that she is her beloved's, and her beloved is hers.

Cant. 6:4. BRIDEGROOM. He describes her as beautiful and undefiled: she exceeds all; she is the only one of her mother.

When Israel is thus brought into blessing she will be, as the virgins say in Cant. 6:10, "terrible as an army with banners."

Cant. 6:11. BRIDEGROOM.  He goes to look for the fruits, and before he is aware he is carried up on the chariots of Ammi-nadib, 'my willing people: ' cf. Ps. 110:3.

In Cant. 6:13 the bride is called upon to return under the name of Shulamite, 'peaceable' (the feminine of Shalom, from which is also Solomon); and in the Shulamite they see, as it were, the company of two armies, doubtless alluding to the union in a future day of Judah and Israel.

Cant. 7:1. BRIDEGROOM.  He now describes his beloved as what she is to him.

Cant. 7:9. "And the roof of thy mouth like the best wine." . . . .

BRIDE (interposing). "That goeth down smoothly for my beloved, and stealeth over the lips of them that are asleep." (N.T.)

Cant. 7:10. BRIDE.  The bride's experience has advanced: she responds, "I am my beloved's, and his desire is toward me." She invites him to come forth among the pleasant fruits — mutual enjoyment.

Cant. 8:1. This is a recapitulation of the whole book. The bride speaks as if she was only longing after him.

Cant. 8:5. The virgins ask who it is that comes up from the wilderness leaning upon her beloved.

Cant. 8:5. BRIDEGROOM. He raised her up under the apple tree (which the bridegroom is called in Cant. 2:3). The remnant will be recovered under Christ under the new covenant.

Cant. 8:6. BRIDE. She asks to be set as a seal upon his heart and upon his arm: his love and his power will be for her.

Cant. 8:8. The virgins speak of their 'little sister:' what shall be done for her? This is doubtless an allusion to the ten tribes, who did not have to do with Christ when on earth, and who will be dealt with differently from the two tribes; but will be brought into the land and blessed there.

Cant. 8:9. BRIDE.  If the little sister be a wall, she shall be built upon; if a door, she shall be enclosed; but the bride is a wall, and is grown to maturity. She has a vineyard of her own, but Solomon must have a vineyard, from which he will receive fruit: not like Israel of old, which yielded no fruit.

Cant. 8:13. BRIDEGROOM.  He desires to hear the voice of her that walks in the gardens.

Cant. 8:14. BRIDE.  She responds, and bids her beloved to come without delay.

The whole Song has been otherwise divided into six parts, beginning at Cant. 1:1; Cant. 2:8; Cant. 3:6; Cant. 5:2; Cant. 6:13; and Cant. 8:5.

It is worthy of remark that whereas the bridegroom describes the bride to herself, the bride describes the bridegroom, not to himself, but to others. This is surely becoming of her. He tells her plainly of her preciousness in his sight, and of the perfection he beholds in her. This calls forth her assurance, and she declares his preciousness in her eyes. As said above, the interpretation of the book is that it embraces the union of Christ and the Jewish remnant in a future day. But it is the same Christ that loves the church, and His love demands the deepest affection in return. He cares for her love, and in Rev. 2:4-5, reproaches the Ephesian assembly that they had left their first love.

As a matter of interest it may be added that in the Alexandrian copy of the LXX some of the above divisions are made, and the speaker pointed out. In the Codex Sinaiticus these intimations are much more numerous than in the Alexandrian copy.



Songs of Degrees.





Morsel. John 13:26-30.

Sopater. [So'pater]

A believer of Berea who accompanied Paul from Greece into Asia. Acts 20:4. The Editors of the Greek Testament add '[son] of Pyrrhus.'



Sophereth. [Sopher'eth]

Servant of Solomon, whose descendants returned from exile. Ezra 2:35; Neh. 7:57.



Sorek. [So'rek]

Valley in the land of the Philistines. Judges 16:4. Identified with Wady es Surar, which has its source near BEEROTH.

Sosipater. [Sosi'pater]

Kinsman of Paul, whose salutations were sent to Rome. Rom. 16:21.

Sosthenes. [Sos'thenes]

1.  Chief ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, who was beaten by the rabble. Acts 18:17.

2. One whom Paul (when at Ephesus) unites with himself in the First Epistle to the Corinthians. 1 Cor. 1:1.

Sotai. [Sota'i]

Servant of Solomon, whose descendants returned from exile. Ezra 2:55: Neh. 7:57.


Foolish. Jer. 4:22. Anglo-Saxon, sot, stupid.

Soul, Spirit.

Man is composed of soul and body, though in certain cases the term 'spirit' is added. Both soul and spirit are put in contrast to the body, as signifying the incorporeal part of man; but there is a distinction between soul and spirit. Soul is often employed to express the moral undying part of man's being, and it is used sometimes to signify the person: as "all the souls that came with Jacob into Egypt," Gen. 46:26; "eight souls" were saved in the ark. 1 Peter 3:20. "The soul that sinneth, it shall die." Ezek. 18:4, 20.

The Hebrew word commonly translated 'soul' is nephesh: in many instances this is translated 'life' in the A.V., as in Jonah 1:14; "Let us not perish for this man's life," or soul. In the N.T. the word ψυχή stands for both 'life' and 'soul:'  "Whosoever will save his 'life' shall lose it; and whosoever will lose his 'life' for my sake shall find it. For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own 'soul'? or what shall a man give in exchange for his 'soul'?" Matt. 16:25-26.

The soul, as distinguished from the spirit, is the seat of appetites and desires. The rich man said, "I will say to my soul, Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many years; take thine ease, eat, drink, and be merry." Luke 12:19. That night his 'soul' was required of him. The salvation of the soul cannot be distinguished from the salvation of the person.

The SPIRIT is distinctively the higher part of man, it marks the conscious individuality, and distinguishes man thus from the inferior creation. God breathed into man's nostrils the breath of life, and by this man was set in relation with God, and cannot be really happy separated from Him, either in present existence or eternally. The words are ruach, πνεῦμα, and are the same as constantly used for God's Spirit, the Holy Spirit, or Holy Ghost, and for the angels as spirits, and for evil spirits.

The word of God is sharp, and able to divide asunder the soul and spirit of a man, though it may not be easy for the human mind to see the division. The apostle prayed for the Thessalonians that spirit (which is probably viewed as the seat of God's work), as well as soul and body might be sanctified. 1 Thess. 5:23. In the Epistle to the Hebrews we read of the 'spirits' of just men made perfect: their place is with God through redemption. Here 'spirits' apparently signifies the persons apart from their bodies.

The Holy Spirit being given to the Christian, as the spring in him of life in Christ, he is exhorted to pray with the spirit, sing with the spirit, walk in the Spirit, so that in some cases it is difficult to distinguish between the Spirit of God and the Christian's spirit.


In the Bible, as we might expect, the points of the compass are spoken of as they refer to the land of Palestine. The south would therefore indicate the part of the land which contained Judah's and Simeon's portions, or to the district still further south, a country little known. Gen. 12:9. It is called negeb in the Hebrew. Two other words are yamin and teman, signifying 'the right hand,' and are translated 'south' because the Israelites considered themselves as looking toward the East when speaking of the points of the compass. 1 Sam. 23:19, 24; Ps. 89:12; Joshua 12:3; Joshua 13:4; Ps. 78:26; Isa. 43:6. Another word is darom, 'bright, sunny region,' hence 'the south.' Deut. 33:23; Job 37:17; Ezek. 40:24-45. In the N.T., except in Acts 8:26 (where the word is μεσημβρία, 'mid-day,' because the sun is then in the south: as the Latin meridies, 'mid-day,' also signifies 'south'), the word is νότος, 'the south.' Matt. 12:42; etc.

South Ramoth.  [South Ram'oth]




Sower, Sowing.

Besides the common reference to agriculture (for which see SEASONS), sowing is used symbolically for spreading the gospel, as in the parable of the Sower, of which the Lord graciously gave His own explanation. When He came to Israel He found no fruit, and He became the Sower, and sowed the good seed, which fell upon different descriptions of ground, with varied results, as the Lord explains. Notwithstanding the influence of Satan to hinder any seed taking root, some fell upon good ground (not good by nature, but prepared by God), and fruit was the result.  Matt. 13:3-43. Whenever the gospel is preached, the seed is being sown, and doubtless falls upon different sorts of ground as in the parable. Blessed are they that sow beside all waters: God's servant will reap if he does not faint.

Sowing is also the beautiful figure used as to placing the body in the ground. For the Christian it is sown a natural body, in corruption, dishonour, and weakness; but will be raised a spiritual body, in incorruption, in glory, and in power. 1 Cor. 15:36-44.


The well-known country in Europe. It is mentioned in the N.T. only in relation to Paul's purpose to visit it; but it is not known whether he went there between his first and second imprisonments or not. Rom. 15:24, 28.




tsippor, στρουθίον. It is supposed that various kinds of small birds are alluded to by these names, being so called because of their 'chirping,' which would include the sparrow. The Hebrew word is often translated 'bird,' but only twice 'sparrow.' It is alluded to in the Psalms as a lonely one upon the housetop, and as such finding a house in the courts of God's house. Ps. 84:3; Ps. 102:7.  In Palestine sparrows are plentiful, and five were sold for two farthings, and yet the Lord said not one fell without His Father's knowledge, adding "Ye are of more value than many sparrows." If God cares for the birds (and here the diminutive is employed), surely He will care for His own beloved ones. Matt. 10:29, 31; Luke 12:6-7. There are several species of sparrow in Palestine, the Passer cisalpinus, etc. The Petrocossyphus cyaneus, or blue thrush, may be alluded to.


Paul was sent to Caesarea in the custody of two hundred of these troops. They are supposed to have been armed with a light lance. Acts 23:23.




Succeeded. Judges 5:30. From the Anglo-Saxon spedan, to hasten, prosper.


These were much used in the East, and were of different kinds. See the various names by which they are designated, as myrrh, aloes, cassia, galbanum, stacte, etc.


1.  akkabish. This is known to be the spider by the web being referred to, which, as being very frail, illustrates the trust of the hypocrite, also the weaving of the wicked, which will not supply them with a garment. Job 8:14; Isa. 59:5.

2. semamith. This is supposed to refer to a lizard, which has wide feet like hands, by which it holds fast to the wall while pursuing its prey. It is translated 'lizard' in the R.V. but others prefer some species of spider. Prov. 30:28.


The sending of spies to ascertain the strength or state of an enemy's country was known as early as Gen. 42, when Joseph treated his brethren as such. Twelve were sent by Moses to search out the land of Palestine, the adoption of this means being first desired by the people, and afterwards ordered by God. Only two brought up a faithful report, and had faith in God that He would give them possession. Num. 13. Two were also sent by Joshua, who were hidden by Rahab. Joshua 2; Joshua 6:23; Heb. 11:31. David and Absalom both used this stratagem. 1 Sam. 26:4; 2 Sam. 15:10; cf. Judges 1:24.

Those are called 'spies' whom the rulers of Israel sent to entrap the Lord. They were secret agents who, by feigning themselves just men, hoped to catch the Lord in His replies; but they were themselves put to shame, and confounded by His wisdom. Luke 20:20.


nerd, νάρδος. A plant that grows in India: so called, it is said, because of the 'spikes' that grow out of its roots. Its root and leaves are imported. A costly ointment was made of it, giving off a sweet perfume. Cant. 1:12; Cant. 4:13-14; Mark 14:3; John 12:3. It has been identified with the Nardostachys jatamansi.



Spirit, The Holy.



This word occurs often in the N.T.  It stands in contrast to what is earthly, Rom. 15:27; and to what is carnal, or of the flesh. 1 Cor. 3:1. In short it may be said to be that which is of the Holy Spirit, in contrast to what is of the natural man.


The booty that was seized upon by an army when a city was taken. Except when forbidden by God, as in the case of Jericho, it was considered a lawful prize; and it was thus the Israelites suffered when their cities were captured by their enemies. Deut. 20:14; 2 Kings 21:14; Isa. 42:22; etc.

Spoil, To.

The kingdom of Satan was spoiled by One stronger than he when the Lord Jesus cast out demons from those possessed, and also especially when Satan's power was annulled on the cross. Matt. 12:29; Mark 3:27; Col. 2:15; Heb. 2:14. The Hebrew believers had taken joyfully the plunder of their goods. Heb. 10:34. The Colossians were warned lest any should spoil (make a prey of) them through philosophy (Col. 2:8), a caution surely needed in the present day.




This mode of applying blood as a witness of death was

1. For protection. when all the firstborn in Egypt were to be smitten, the Israelites were told to 'strike,' that is 'sprinkle,' the side posts and lintels of their doors with the blood of a lamb, and Jehovah said, "When I see the blood I will pass over you." Death had already nullified the power of death. Ex. 12:7, 13.

2. For purification. Aaron and his sons were sprinkled with blood. Moses "sprinkled with blood both the tabernacle and all the vessels of the ministry, and almost all things are by the law purged with blood." Death separated the priestly family from their own associations. Ex. 29:21; Heb. 9:21-22.

3. For presentation. In the burnt offering, the blood was sprinkled round about upon the altar; in the sin offering the blood was sprinkled seven times before the Lord before the vail of the sanctuary; and on the day of atonement the blood was sprinkled upon the mercy-seat eastward, and before the mercy-seat seven times. Lev. 1:5; Lev. 4:6; Lev. 16:14. Death became the means of God accomplishing His purposes of grace. The believer is redeemed, purified, and sanctified by the precious blood of Christ, and is ever before God 'perfected' according to the preciousness of that blood. Heb. 9:14; Heb. 10:10, 14; 1 Peter 1:19.

4.  For confirmation. The covenant was sealed, and the people bound to it, by blood.  Moses "sprinkled both the book and all the people." Heb. 9:19.

Stachys. [Stach'ys]

A believer in Rome to whom Paul sent a salutation. Rom. 16:9.


The word nataph signifies 'a drop' and is so translated in Job 36:27. Hence stacte is doubtless a spice that oozes from a tree in drops: it formed a part of the holy incense. Ex. 30:34. The R.V. has in its margin 'opobalsamum.' It is probably the gum from the storax tree, Styrax officinalis.


Each tribe had its own standard, degel, and each family its own ensign, oth. In the camp the twelve tribes were arranged with three on each side, one of each three giving the name to that side or camp. Thus the standard of Judah is called the standard of the camp of Judah, which was on the east; the camp of Reuben on the south; the camp of Ephraim on the west; and the camp of Dan on the north. See CAMP.

Scripture does not state the form of the standards and ensigns. The Rabbis say that the standard of Judah resembled a lion (cf. Gen. 49:9; Rev. 5:5); of Reuben a man; of Ephraim an ox (cf. Deut. 33:17); and of Dan an eagle. If this were so, the same characters appear in the faces of the living creatures in Ezek. 1:10 and in Rev. 4:4-7.  For the Christian, CHRIST is the only standard, and His banner (degel) is LOVE.

Star in the East.

From the account given of this star it is evident that it was one specially sent for the nativity, for it not only appeared to the Magi in the East, but guided them from Jerusalem to Bethlehem, and 'stood over' where the young child was. Faith in the power of God dispels all difficulty as to the star. Matt. 2:1-10. There were traditions that God would raise up a deliverer, and the Magi may have heard of the O.T. prophecies as to Messiah; but whether this be so or not, God, who provided the star, sent the Magi to find out the King of the Jews, and instructed them not to return to Herod.

Star, The Morning.

This heralds in 'the day.' The Lord Jesus is the bright and morning star, and He makes Himself known to the saints in that heavenly character, and Peter speaks of its rising in their hearts, though they wait for His appearing, to usher in full blessing on earth, when He will shine forth as the SUN OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. Rev. 2:28; Rev. 22:16; Mal. 4:2.



Stars, Seven.

Amos 5:8. See PLEIADES.




The words are nechosheth or nechushah, and are often translated 'brass.' Either copper, or some alloy is most probable, not what is now known as steel, though in the first three passages it is 'a bow of steel.' 2 Sam. 22:35; Job 20:24; Ps. 18:34; Jer. 15:12.

Stephanas. [Steph'anas]

Christian convert at Corinth, who with his household was baptised by Paul: he was 'the firstfruits of Achaia.' 1 Cor. 1:16; 1 Cor. 16:15, 17.


One of the seven chosen in the church at Jerusalem to minister the alms of the saints. He was a Greek-speaking Jew, who, though appointed to an office, yet in the energy of the Holy Ghost, bore witness of the power consequent on Christ being glorified, and the Holy Spirit here. 1 Tim. 3:13. Stephen was able to speak with such wisdom and power that his hearers could not withstand him. They suborned evil men to falsely accuse him, and he was dragged before the Jewish council, to whom his face appeared like that of an angel. He sketched the history of the people from Abraham, with which they were all familiar; but he laid bare from the outset the opposition of the Jews and of their fathers. Joseph they had refused; Moses they had repelled; they had turned to idolatry; had slain the prophets; had always resisted the Holy Ghost; and had been the betrayers and murderers of the Just One. Such was man's history under culture and probation.

His hearers were cut to the heart, but did not repent: they gnashed their teeth at him. He, lifting up his eyes to heaven, saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God, and bore testimony to this. But they rushed upon him, cast him out of the city, and stoned him. He, like Jesus, prayed that their sin might not be laid to their charge, and, commending his spirit to the Lord, fell asleep.

Stephen's martyrdom formed an epoch in the history of the church. Being a Hellenist, he in this respect differed from the apostles. He was chosen for the first martyr. To him the heaven was opened, and he bore witness to Jesus, the second Man, being at the right hand of God. It is at this juncture that Saul, who was destined to carry on the ministry of the gospel of the glory of Christ, is brought into view. He was then a young man, at whose feet the witnesses laid their clothes. Acts 6:5-15; Acts 7; Acts 8:2; Acts 11:19; Acts 22:20.

It has been asserted, by some critics, that Stephen made several mistakes in his address to the council! It is said, however, in scripture that he was "full of the Holy Ghost." See SHECHEM.


Various words are used for these instruments of punishment.

1.  mahpecheth, a wooden frame in which the feet, hands, and neck of a person were so fastened that his body was kept bent. Jeremiah was subjected to this punishment. Jer. 20:2-3.

2. sad: stocks in which the feet were shut up. Job 13:27; Job 33:11; Acts 16:24 (ξύλον).

3.  tsinoq: stocks which confined the hands and the feet. Jer. 29:26.

4.  ekes, 'a fetter or ankle-band.' Prov. 7:22.


A sect of the philosophers of Greece, founded by Zeno, and named after the Stoa, the porch at Athens where the philosopher assembled his pupils. He taught that there was one Supreme Being, but many subordinate gods, and that man had similar faculties to the gods. Intellect was to be their guide, and pleasures and pains of the body were not to be regarded. From this sect the English word 'stoic' is derived. Pantheism, fatalism, and pride were the leading features of the stoics. Some of such were among the audience Paul addressed at Athens. Acts 17:18.




PRECIOUS STONES were much valued in Palestine. They were used in the breastplate of the high priest, Solomon garnished the temple with them, and they also abound in the description of the New Jerusalem in the Revelation. As the most costly things on earth they are selected to typify the graces of Christ as reflected in His saints. Ex. 28:17-20; 1 Chr. 29:2; Rev. 21:18-21.

MEMORIAL STONES.  Large stones, or heaps of stones, were often raised to commemorate an event, or to be a witness of some compact. Gen. 28:18; Gen. 31:45-46; Joshua 7:26; Joshua 15:6; 1 Sam. 6:15; 1 Sam. 7:12.  In the exploration of Palestine many large stones have been found, which apparently had been erected as memorial stones. Heaps of stones are also found where some enemy was defeated, and if the circumstances are known to the Arabs, every passer by is expected to add a stone.

BUILDING STONES. For the foundation of the temple Solomon ordered "great stones, costly stones, and hewed stones." As Jerusalem was built on two or three hills, to obtain a level place for the temple much stonework had to be erected on the shelving rock, before any part of the temple itself could be commenced. Some of such stonework is still to be seen in situ. Some are 'great stones:' one measures 38 feet 9 inches. They are so beautifully squared that they need no cement between them; they have a narrow draft cut along the edges. There is a quarry under Jerusalem, from which much stone had anciently been taken.  See JERUSALEM.

Stones were also used for other purposes. In early days they were made into weapons; circumcision was practised with sharp stones. Ex. 4:25; Joshua 5:2-3.  The law was engraven on stones. Ex. 24:12; Joshua 8:32; 2 Cor. 3:7. Stones were cast upon land to spoil it for agriculture. 2 Kings 3:19, 25. They were used in the punishment of stoning. John 10:31-33. And given as a token of approval, as the white stone in Rev. 2:17.

Metaphorically stones represent hardness, strength, firmness: as the 'stony heart.' Ezek. 11:19; Ezek. 36:26. The Lord Jesus is the 'stone' which the Jewish builders refused, but He became the head stone of the corner. Matt. 21:42. He is also the 'living stone,' to whom the saints come as 'living stones,' and are built up 'a spiritual house.' 1 Peter 2:4-5.

Stone, Corner.



This was a capital punishment enjoined in the law for certain offences. Stones were thrown at the person until he was dead. In the case of Stephen he kneeled down. If the stones were aimed at the head a person would soon be stunned and fall. Paul was stoned and left for dead, but revived as the disciples stood around him. More than once the Jews took up stones to kill the Lord, but He escaped out of their hands; His death must be by being 'lifted up' from the earth. Num. 15:35; John 10:31; Acts 7:58-59; 2 Cor. 11:25.


chasidah. There are three particulars mentioned in scripture respecting this bird.

1. It makes its nest in the fir trees. Ps. 104:17. This agrees with the stork; it is a large bird, and selects a tree that is high and yet one that will well support its nest.

2. It is represented as in the heaven. Jer. 8:7. The stork flies very high, especially when migrating.

3. It has powerful wings. Zech. 5:9. This also agrees with the stork, its wings extending to more than six feet. The same Hebrew word occurs in Job 39:13; see margin.

The word chasidah is kindred to the word translated 'merciful,' and the bird is remarkable for its tender care, not only of its young, but of the aged. In the Levitical list it is classed among the unclean birds. Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18. This we might expect, as it feeds upon mice, snakes, and other reptiles, etc.

Both the black stork (ciconia nigra), and the white stork (c. alba) are numerous in Palestine. The former associate together in secluded and marshy districts, often in flocks. White storks prefer the habitations of man, where they roam about the streets, devouring the offal. They are much respected, and it would fare ill with any one who would injure them. In some places they are of much value on account of their attacks upon the serpents.


1.  This term was applied to any sojourning among the Israelites, who were not descendants of Israel. The law gave injunctions against the oppression of such. Num. 15:14-30.

2. Gentiles are also called 'strangers' from the covenants of promise (Eph. 2:12), showing that the covenants made with Israel did in no wise embrace the Gentiles, though God's grace at all times extended to them.

3. Those called strangers in 1 Peter 1:1 were Jews away from their own land: sojourners of the dispersion.

4. Both the O.T. and the N.T. saints were and are strangers upon earth. David said, "I am a stranger with thee, and a sojourner, as all my fathers were." Ps. 39:12. They "confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth." Heb. 11:13. The same is true of the saints now. 1 Peter 2:11. Their citizenship is in heaven, and this earth is no longer their home or their rest.


This is spoken of as being eaten by the cattle, and it is foretold that it will be the food even of the lion in a future day. This agrees with the practice in the East where the straw is cut up or crushed, and used as food for cattle. 1 Kings 4:28; Isa. 11:7. It was used in Egypt for mixing with the clay in making bricks: in some of the ancient Egyptian bricks the straw can be seen.

Stumbling Block,

mikshol, πρόσκομμα. Anything placed in the way of another over which he might stumble and fall. It was forbidden in the law, and such things were to be removed out of the way of Israel. Lev. 19:14; Isa. 57:14. Their iniquity, however, became a stumbling block to them. Ezek. 7:19; Ezek. 14:3-7. In the church there should be care that nothing is practised by one that might cause another to stumble. Rom. 14:13; 1 Cor. 8:9.

Jehovah of hosts was to be a sanctuary for the believing remnant, but He would be "for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence to both the houses of Israel," that is, He would become such through their unbelief in Jehovah's intervention through the virgin's child. Isa. 8:14 (where the word is negeph, 'the act of stumbling'). When the Lord was on earth He became this stone of stumbling to the Jews, and remains the same to them and to the house of Israel where, through disobedient unbelief, He is still rejected. Rom. 9:32-33; 1 Peter 2:8.  Any who through grace receive the gospel become Christians and are merged in the church. In connection with the same, the word σκάνδαλον is employed: this is literally 'the catch of a trap,' which being touched ensnares. Rom. 9:33 (offence); Rom. 11:9; 1 Cor. 1:23; 1 Peter 2:8 (offence).

The same word is used for the snare that Balaam taught Balak to lay for the Israelites. Rev. 2:14.  It is also the word employed for the 'offences,' or snares, that must, by the nature of things, exist in the world for the feet of the saints. Matt. 18:7; Luke 17:1; and in the remarkable instance when the Lord said to Peter, "Thou art an 'offence' unto me." Matt. 16:23.

Suah. [Su'ah]

Son of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:36.

Suborn, To.

To procure witnesses secretly for the purpose of false declarations. Acts 6:11.

Succoth. [Suc'coth]

1.  Canaanite city on the east of the Jordan, allotted to the tribe of Gad. Here Jacob built a house for himself and booths for his cattle. The elders of the city were punished by Gideon for not helping him when he was faint in pursuing the Midianites. Gen. 33:17; Joshua 13:27; Judges 8:5-16; 1 Kings 7:46; 2 Chr. 4:17; Ps. 60:6; Ps. 108:7. Identified by some with Tell Darala, 32 12' N, 35 38' E.

2. First halting place of the Israelites when they left Rameses. Ex. 12:37; Ex. 13:20; Num. 33:5-6.  Not identified.

Succothbenoth.  [Suc'coth-benoth']

A goddess whose worship was established at Samaria by the heathen of Babylon who were settled there. 2 Kings 17:30. The name has been traced to Zarpanit, the goddess of wisdom, the lady of the deep, and wife of Bel-merodach. [see Mero'dach]

Suchathites. [Sucha'thites]

A family of scribes at Jabez. 1 Chr. 2:55. The signification of the name is not known.

Sukkiims. [Sukki'ims]

Some unknown people who furnished troops to Shishak when he invaded Judah. 2 Chr. 12:3. Gesenius suggests the meaning to be 'dwellers in tents.' If so, some tribe of Arabs may be alluded to.




The sun was the greater light given to rule the day. The Israelites particularly observed this by beginning their day-time at sunrise (in distinction from 12 o'clock at night), and closing it at sunset, which necessarily made their days and their hours in summer much longer than in winter. Ps. 19:1-6; Ps. 113:3; Ps. 136:8.

SUN WORSHIP. The Israelites were cautioned against worshipping the sun, nevertheless they fell into that idolatry, and set up high places for the sun in Jerusalem. Deut. 4:19; 2 Kings 23:5, 11.

SUN STANDING STILL,  Joshua 10:12-27. No legitimate objection can be made to the statement that the sun 'stood still;' for though it is now known that it is the earth that moves, yet astronomers still speak of the sun rising and setting, and use the word 'solstice,' which signifies 'sun standing still.' They would doubtless say the same as Joshua said if they were placed in similar circumstances.

The shadow of the gnomon going back ten degrees on the sun-dial in the days of Hezekiah, 2 Kings 20:10, may, as well as the above, have been produced by the light of the sun passing through a more dense medium; but in whatever way God may have chosen to accomplish these miracles, they are wonderful and divinely-given signs.

SIGNS IN THE SUN. These are probably symbolical of the eclipse and change of those in supreme authority over the earth in the latter days. Luke 21:25; Acts 2:20; Rev. 6:12.

Sun of Righteousness.





In the East this is the chief meal of the day; it is enjoyed in the evening when the labours of the day are over and the partakers have only rest before them. Mark 6:21; John 12:2. It is typical of the fulness of grace set forth in our Lord Jesus Christ, to enjoy which Israel were first invited, and afterwards the poor and outcast were compelled to come and taste in God's house. Luke 14:16-24. See LORD'S SUPPER. The destruction of the two beasts and their armies is spoken of as providing a supper for the birds that fly in mid-heaven. Rev. 19:17.


Gate of the temple, or the king's house. 2 Kings 11:6. Apparently the same that is called 'gate of the foundation' in 2 Chr. 23:5.


To become surety for another is condemned in the Proverbs as being unwise: "he that hateth suretiship is sure." To be surety for a stranger is totally condemned. Prov. 6:1; Prov. 11:15; Prov. 17:18; Prov. 22:26.  Many a Christian has suffered by being surety for a friend. It may be difficult to refuse, but it is unrighteousness unless the one who is surety can bear the loss if it should fall upon him.

The Psalmist asks God to be surety for him for good, Ps. 119:122; and the Lord Jesus is made surety of a better testament, or covenant, than that made with Israel. Heb. 7:22. He is the powerful One who is certain of being able to bring to pass in its due time all that is foretold that He will do in carrying out the purpose of God.


In scripture this means an additional or added name, not a family name, as the word now implies. Isa. 44:5; Isa. 45:4; Matt. 10:3: Mark 3:16-17; etc.

Susa. [Su'sa]


Susanchites. [Susanch'ites]

Persons whom the Assyrians imported into Samaria. Ezra 4:9. They are supposed to have been from Susa.

Susanna. [Susan'na]

One of the women who had the honour of ministering to the Lord of their substance. Luke 8:3.

Susi. [Su'si]

Father of Gaddi, of the tribe of Manasseh. Num. 13:11.


1.  deror. This is interpreted 'roving about,' which agrees well with the habits of the swallow or swift. They come and go, and are not domesticated. Prov. 26:2.  In Ps. 84:3 it is typical of the wanderer finding rest and protection in God's house.

2. agur, mentioned with the word sis, translated 'crane' and 'swallow;' but sis doubtless refers to the swallow, and agur to the crane. The swallow (or perhaps the swift) is mentioned as 'chattering,' or having a 'garrulous note,' and it is migratory. Isa. 38:14; Jer. 8:7.  Several species of the swallow frequent Palestine: the Hirundo rustica, H. rufula, etc. A species of swift finds the Jordan valley warm enough in the winter, and need not migrate.


The Hebrew word is tanshemeth, and is mentioned among the unclean birds. The swan has been seen in Palestine, but it is rare, and, as it feeds on vegetation, it is supposed that some other bird is alluded to. The LXX and the Vulgate have the porphyrio and ibis. The R.V. has 'horned owl.' Lev. 11:18; Deut. 14:16.  Probably some water fowl is referred to, and the purple waterhen, of the Rallidae family, is a bird that would necessarily be condemned as unclean because of its feeding upon reptiles as well as birds: it seizes its prey by its long toes and conveys it to its mouth. It frequents the marshes bordering the Mediterranean.




One of the animals classed among the unclean, and which is supposed to have been held in abhorrence as food by the Jews. The prophet Isaiah, however, charges them with eating swine's flesh; and their apostasy was such that he says when they offered an oblation, it was as if they had offered swine's blood: their heartless profession was abhorrent to God. Isa. 65:4; Isa. 66:3, 17. It is not recorded whether the Gadarenes were Jews or Gentiles, who lost their swine by the demons' possession of them. Matt. 8:32; Mark 5:13. The swine are typical of the most defiled and degraded, to whom apostates are compared, and before whom holy things should not be cast. Matt. 7:6; 2 Peter 2:22. The prodigal had reached the lowest point of degradation when he would fain have satisfied his hunger with the swine's food. Luke 15:16.


This is constantly referred to in scripture as the instrument of death, and is mentioned in the N.T. as being borne by the magistrate, Rom. 13:4, showing that the gospel does not set aside God's governmental principle of capital punishment which was enjoined after the flood. Gen. 9:5-6.  See ARMOUR, ARMS.

SWORD OF THE SPIRIT.  This is the word (ῥῆμα) of God, what His mouth has spoken, and is the only offensive weapon given to Christians with which to fight the Lord's battles. Eph. 6:17. The word (λόγος) of God is likened to a two-edged sword, Heb. 4:12, and the words of the Lord Jesus when He will come forth in judgement on Christendom and the world are compared to a "sharp two-edged sword." Rev. 1:16; Rev. 19:15.

Sycamine, συκάμινος.

This is mentioned only in Luke 17:6; and as the same writer speaks also of the sycamore tree, the two are deemed to be distinct. The sycamine is supposed to be the mulberry, still called in Greece sycamenia.  Both the black and white mulberry (Morus nigra and alba) are common in Palestine, their leaves being the food of silkworms.


shiqmah, συκομωραία. This is a tree large enough for a man to rest in its branches, as Zacchaeus did. Luke 19:4. It was known in Egypt, and was plentiful in Palestine. Amos was a 'gatherer of sycamore fruit.' David had a special overseer of such trees. 1 Kings 10:27; 1 Chr. 27:28; Ps. 78:47; Isa. 9:10; Amos 7:14. It is supposed to be the sycamore-fig, or fig-mulberry (Ficus sycomorus). Its wood is very durable. The Egyptian mummy coffins made of it have remained sound after the entombment of thousands of years.

Sychar. [Sy'char]

City of Samaria in the vicinity of which was Jacob's well, where the Lord met the woman of Samaria, and where He stayed two days, and many of the Samaritans believed on Him. John 4:5. Identified with Askur, 32 13' N, 35 17 E. Jacob's well is about half a mile from the village.

Sychem. [Sy'chem]


Syene. [Sye'ne]

Town in the south of Egypt, bordering on Ethiopia. Ezek. 29:10; Ezek. 30:6. The expression, 'from the tower of Syene,' is better translated 'from Migdol to Syene,' even unto the border of Ethiopia, as it is in the margin. The word is really SEVENEH, as in the R.V.  It is now called Assuan, about 24 N, 33 E.


Scripture abounds with symbols, some parts containing far more than others. Ezekiel, Daniel, and the Revelation are especially full of them. Symbols present, in a concrete form and image, abstract qualities and facts to the mind. In reading scripture, it is necessary to follow carefully the general use of such and such a symbol, throughout the inspired oracles. Thus a lion represents 'force;' the sun represents 'supreme authority;' eagles, 'rapidity of judgement,' etc. There is doubtless an abstract idea in each symbol, though it may not always be easy to discover it, and it might vary somewhat in being applied to different subjects. This principle is altogether violated by taking leaven to signify 'evil' in the offerings in Leviticus, and what is 'good' in the parable of 'the leaven hid in the meal' in Matthew and Luke, as is often done.


This word occurs but once in the A.V. of the Old Testament, Ps. 74:8, but the same Hebrew word (moed) is many times translated 'congregation.'  Mr. Darby, and the R.V. margin translate in Ps. 74:8 "places of assembly." The word συναγωγή occurs very often in the LXX, but as a translation of some twenty different Hebrew words: 'congregation' or 'gathering' is the main thought. As far as is known there were no buildings called synagogues in Old Testament times. It has been judged that they arose after the captivity, and may perhaps have been occasioned by a desire to perpetuate the work begun by the people calling upon Ezra to read to them the book of the law, when those who heard were deeply affected. Neh. 8, Neh. 9.

In the exploration of Palestine remains of buildings have been discovered, which are judged to have been synagogues. They are uniform in plan, and differ from the ruins of churches, temples, and mosques. In two of them an inscription in Hebrew was over the main entrance, one in connection with a seven-branched candlestick, and the other with figures of the paschal lamb. A plain rectangular building answered the purpose. They were often erected by general contributions, though at times by a rich Jew, or in some instances by a Gentile, as the one built by the centurion at Capernaum. Luke 7:5.

An ark was placed at one end, in which were deposited the sacred books. Near this was the place of honour, or the 'chief seats,' which some sought after, Matt. 23:6, and James 2:2-3 (where the word translated 'assembly' is 'synagogue'). Nearer the centre of the building was a raised platform with a kind of desk or pulpit, where the reader stood. A screen separated the women from the men.

It is known that a portion of the law and of the prophets was read every Sabbath, and it is clear from Acts 13:15 that if any one was present who had a "word of exhortation for the people," the opportunity was given for its delivery. Prayers also were doubtless offered, but how far these resembled the modern Jewish ritual is not known. The Lord spoke of the hypocrites who loved to pray standing in the synagogues, where they also ostentatiously offered their alms. Matt. 6:2, 5.

It was the custom of the Lord to visit the synagogues, and in them He wrought some of His miracles and taught the people. Matt. 4:23.  In Luke 4 the Lord, in the synagogue at Nazareth, stood up to read, and there was handed to Him the book of the prophet Isaiah. After reading a portion which set forth His own attitude among them (stopping in the middle of a sentence), He sat down and spake "gracious words" to them. His exposition of the passage is not given except "This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears." It is recorded that the people were in the habit of freely expressing their opinions respecting what was taught, and here they said, "Is not this Joseph's son?" In Acts 13:45 the Jews "spake against those things which were spoken by Paul, contradicting and blaspheming."

Paul also was permitted to speak in the synagogue at Damascus, when he showed the Jews that Jesus was the Son of God, Acts 9:20; and often afterwards he 'reasoned' or 'disputed' (διαλέγομαι) with the Jews in their synagogues. Acts 18:4, 19; Acts 19:8.

It is important to see that everywhere in their own buildings a clear testimony was borne by the Lord Himself as to the significance of His appearance among them; and afterwards by Paul and others to the work He had accomplished by His death and resurrection for them — reference being constantly made to the scriptures which they professed to reverence and to follow. The reality of the testimony was happily proved by the salvation of many, and which left those who refused it without excuse.

To be "put out of the synagogue" was the Jewish excommunication. The Lord told His disciples that this would be enforced towards them. John 9:22; John 16:2. The only case recorded is that of the man born blind, when he bore testimony to Christ. It was a happy exchange for him, for the Lord thereupon revealed Himself to him as the Son of God. John 9:34-38. Of others we read that many of the chief rulers believed on the Lord, but feared to confess Him lest they should be cast out, "for they loved the praise of men more than the praise of God." John 12:42-43.

It is evident from what Pilate said to the Jews in reference to the Lord — "Take ye him, and judge him according to your law" — that they were allowed to judge certain matters and to inflict limited punishments. John 18:31. This appears to have been carried out wherever there was a synagogue, though it is not clear who were the judges, probably the 'elders' mentioned in Luke 7:3. The Lord told His disciples that they would be scourged in the synagogues, Matt. 10:17; and Paul confessed that when persecuting the church he had imprisoned and beaten in every synagogue those that believed on the Lord. Acts 22:19.  Paul himself doubtless suffered the like punishment in the same buildings. 2 Cor. 11:24. Thus a very undignified use was made of their places of worship.

The officials connected with the synagogues were

1.  the zaqenim, πρεσβύτεροι, the elders. Luke 7. These were presided over by

2. an ἀρχισυνάγωγος, ruler of the synagogue. Mark 5:22, 35, 36, 38; Luke 8:49; Luke 13:14; Acts 13:15; Acts 18:8, 17.  In the last two passages the A.V. has 'chief ruler,' but the Greek is the same.

3. the sheliach, a delegate of the congregation, who acted as chief reader: he is not mentioned in the New Testament.

4. the chazzan, ὑπηρέτης, translated in the A.V. 'servant, minister, officer,' only once mentioned in connection with the synagogue as the 'attendant' to whom the Lord gave the book when He had done reading. Luke 4:20.

5. the batlanim, described as 'leisure men,' who attended meetings regularly. There were at least ten of these attached to each synagogue, so as to form a quorum, ten being the lowest number to form a congregation.

SYNAGOGUE OF SATAN.  Some who professed, like Jews, to have a claim to be considered the people of God on the ground of hereditary right. These are declared to be liars, for they really form a congregation of Satan, doing his work in seducing the saints from their heavenly character. Rev. 2:9; Rev. 3:9. In both cases they may be Jews actually, though disowned of God.

Syntyche. [Syn'tyche]

A believing woman at Philippi whom Paul exhorted along with Euodias to be of the same mind. Phil. 4:2.

Syracuse. [Sy'racuse]

City on the eastern coast of Sicily, at which port the ship touched that conveyed Paul to Rome. Acts 28:12.

Syria, [Syr'ia] Syrian. [Syr'ian]

In scripture this name mostly signifies the district lying north and north-east of Palestine, the inhabitants of which were Syrians. If from Dan to Beersheba be taken as the boundaries of Palestine, it leaves for Syria a district quite as large on its north, besides extending also to the Euphrates on the east. For the sub-divisions of Syria mentioned in scripture see ARAM.

There are but few references to the Syrians in the early part of scripture. In connection with Rebekah the wife of Isaac, Laban (grandson of Nahor, Abraham's brother) 'the Syrian' is introduced, Gen. 25:20; Gen. 28:5; Gen. 31:20, 24; and an Israelite, in presenting his basket of first-fruits, was instructed to confess before the Lord, "A Syrian ready to perish was my father," followed by a rehearsal of what God had done for the descendants of Jacob, and how He had brought them into the promised land. Deut. 26:5. The only reference to the name in the New Testament is in Luke 4:27, where it is stated that there were many lepers in Israel in the days of Elisha, but none were cured but Naaman the Syrian.

Damascus was the capital of the part of Syria which was often in conflict with Israel. It was conquered in David's reign and was subject to Solomon; but after the division of the kingdom it revolted and was again hostile to Israel. It became merged into the Assyrian and Babylonian empires. After that it passed to the Persians, and then submitted to Alexander the Great. On his death it came under the power of Seleucus Nicator, who built Antioch and made it his capital. For many years his successors contended with the Ptolemies for the possession of Palestine. See ANTIOCHUS.  In B.C. 63 Syria was conquered by Pompey, and Palestine became subject to Rome. After the decline of Rome, Syria and Palestine had many different masters, and eventually fell into the hands of the Turks before obtaining independence.

The only governor of Syria mentioned in the New Testament is Cyrenius, q.v. Luke 2:2. Palestine was divided into sub-provinces after the death of Herod. The Lord in His journeys visited some of the borders of Syria, and His fame went throughout all Syria. Matt. 4:24. After Antioch had become a sort of central station from whence the gospel went out to the Gentiles, Paul travelled throughout Syria and Cilicia confirming the churches. Acts 15:23, 41.

The physical features of Western Syria and Palestine are very similar — their natural contour indeed being the same.

Syriac, Syrian Tongue.

The language that was spoken in Syria was substantially the same as Chaldee. The Hebrew word is aramith. See ARAMAIC. 2 Kings 18:26; Ezra 4:7; Isa. 36:11; Dan. 2:4.

Syriamaachah.  [Syria-ma'achah]

See MAACHAH, No. 10.

Syrophenician. [Syrophenic'ian]

The designation of the woman whose daughter was possessed by a demon. She belonged to Phenice in Syria: the name embraced both these proper names. By birth she was a Greek, which here probably means simply 'Gentile.' Mark 7:26. In Matt. 15:22 she is called 'a woman of Canaan.'

Taanach, [Ta'anach] Tanach. [Ta'nach]

Ancient Canaanite city: its king was slain by Joshua, but the inhabitants were not driven out. It fell to the lot of Issachar or Asher, but was occupied by Manasseh and given to the Levites. The kings of Canaan under Sisera fought there against Deborah and Barak, but were overcome. Joshua 12:21; Joshua 17:11-12; Joshua 21:25; Judges 1:27; Judges 5:19; 1 Kings 4:12; 1 Chr. 7:29. Identified with Tannuk, 32 31' N, 35 13' E.

Taanathshiloh.  [Ta'anath-shi'loh]

City on the boundary of Ephraim. Joshua 16:5. Identified with Tana, 32 11' N, 35 22' E.

Tabbaoth. [Tab'baoth]

Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:43; Neh. 7:46.

Tabbath. [Tab'bath]

Place near the Jordan whither the Midianites fled when defeated by Gideon. Judges 7:22. Not identified.

Tabeal. [Tab'eal]

Father of one whom the kings of Syria and Israel proposed to make king of Judah. Isa. 7:6.

Tabeel. [Tab'eel]

Persian officer, who, with others, wrote to Artaxerxes against the Jews. Ezra 4:7.

Taber, To.

'To tap or beat.' The word is used of the Ninevite maids when led into captivity. They should mourn as doves tabering upon their breasts. Nahum 2:7.

Taberah. [Tabe'rah]

Name given to a place in the wilderness of Paran, where the Israelites murmured and were consumed by the fire of the Lord until Moses prayed for them. The name signifies 'burning.' Num. 11:1-3; Deut. 9:22. Not identified.

Tabernacle, The.

This is variously styled the 'tabernacle of testimony, or of witness,' the 'tabernacle of the congregation,' or 'tent of meeting.' It was the place recognised by Jehovah, where, as dwelling among them, He met His people, and where in separation from the outer world His will was made known. It was to be made after the pattern shown to Moses in the mount, and when it was completed Moses bore witness that it had been constructed as the Lord had commanded. It is worthy of notice that none of its details were left to the ingenuity of Moses: he had simply to carry out his instructions. We read in the N.T. that the things made were patterns of things in the heavens, but not the very image of them; they were patterns of things that were before God, which were not to be materialised.

The tabernacle with its sacrifices was God's way of displaying Himself, and His way for man's approach to Himself. Any one drawing near to the tabernacle would see first its court, a space enclosed with curtains hanging from pillars. This was a hundred cubits long and fifty cubits broad. On entering the court by its one gate the first thing approached was the brazen altar. This altar was the place of approach for the people. The burnt offering was the ground of acceptance for a people on earth. The place of approach for the priestly family was the golden altar in the holy (place); but the way into the holiest was not yet made manifest. Heb. 9:8.

Between the brazen altar and the holy (place) stood the laver, at which the priests washed their hands and feet whenever they drew near to minister. The holy (place) contained the table of showbread on the north, the golden candlestick on the south, and the altar of incense 'before the vail' in the centre. Here the priests ministered daily, burning sweet incense: type of Christ's intercession, and of the perfections of His Person and work, not seen here as meeting man's need, but as for the delight of God, His Father. The lamps were burning 'continually,' but apparently only in the night: cf. Ex. 30:7-8; Lev. 24:2-3; 2 Chr. 13:11. The light typified the manifestation of God by the Spirit, the seven lamps being figurative of heavenly completeness. Twelve loaves were constantly on the table, typical of Israel in association with Christ before God, and of God's bounty which will be administered through Israel (twelve loaves) to the earth in the kingdom. The holy (place), or 'first tabernacle' refers to the things of Israel. Inside the second veil was the holy of holies, in which was the ark (q.v.) with the cherubim, typical of the throne of God. It figured the approach which Christians now have to the presence of God, because Christ has made a new and living way for them by entering in Himself as their great Priest. Heb. 10:19.

The tabernacle was a rectangle, measuring ten cubits in breadth, and thirty cubits in length, which was divided into ten cubits for the holy of holies and twenty for the holy (place). The sides were formed of boards of acacia wood, ten cubits in height, set by tenons into silver sockets, each board having two sockets. The boards were kept together by horizontal bars throughout, and were all covered with gold. If the whole tabernacle be taken as typical of Christ, then the gold and the wood may point to His divinity and His humanity, or the gold may be taken as typical of divine righteousness. Internally all was gold and embroidered work: the wood was not seen.

The whole was covered with curtains, the innermost being of rich embroidered work of various colours; then curtains of woven goats' hair; then coverings of rams' skins and badgers' skins — typical of entire preservation from outward evil. There were three distinct parts in the entire covering: the tabernacle, the tent, and the covering. Ex. 35:11. The inner curtains, which were of such widths that the junctions of each set did not fall in the same place as the one next to it, formed the tabernacle (mishkan); the set of curtains of goats' hair were the tent (ohel) of the tabernacle (see TENT); and the rams' skins and badgers' skins formed the covering (mikseh). An embroidered hanging formed the door, or the first veil. Ex. 25 — Ex. 27 gives God's approach to man; Ex. 28 -Ex. 30, man's approach to God; and Ex. 35 — Ex. 40 the gifts for the tabernacle and its construction.

The tabernacle as a whole may be said to typify

1.  God coming forth in a Man (His own Son) and on the basis of redemption, filling the universe with the light of His glory.

2.  The provision made by God for approach to Himself by a redeemed people. Much light is thrown on the tabernacle in the Epistle to the Hebrews, but what is there taught presents often a contrast rather than a comparison to what pertained to the earthly tabernacle.

The tabernacle may also be considered as God's house, and thus a type of the saints in their present place. The temple was for the ordered and established kingdom. In Rev. 21, after alluding to the kingdom and the eternal state, the Spirit goes back to the thought of the tabernacle.

The tabernacle was carried about during the forty years in the wilderness (see CAMP), and when the Israelites entered the land it was apparently placed first at Gilgal. Joshua 9:6. Afterwards it was at Shiloh. Joshua 18:1. While here it was forsaken of God because of the idolatry and wickedness of the people. Ps. 78:60; Jer. 7:12, 14; Jer. 26:6, 9. The ark was taken by the Philistines and was not returned to the tabernacle; nor, when David removed the ark, did he restore it to the tabernacle, but placed it on Mount Zion. We next read of the tabernacle as being at Nob.  1 Sam. 21:1-6. Afterwards it was at Gibeon. 1 Chr. 16:39; 1 Chr. 21:29; 2 Chr. 1:3-6. When the temple was built, the tabernacle was brought up, with the ark and the holy vessels. The ark was placed in the most holy place, and the staves drawn out, for it had found its settled rest. The tabernacle gave place to the house, the latter glory of which will yet be greater than ever. 2 Chr. 5:4-9; Hag. 2:9.

Amid the coming judgements, we read of "the temple [or shrine, that is, the holy place] of the tabernacle of the testimony" being opened in heaven, and out of the temple proceed the seven angels having the seven vials. Rev. 15:5-6.

Tabernacles, Feast of.

This fell on the fifteenth day of the seventh month and continued seven days, with a holy convocation on the eighth day. Israel dwelt in booths during the feast, in remembrance of their having lived in tents when brought out of Egypt. Lev. 23:34; Num. 29:12; Deut. 16:13; 2 Chr. 8:13; Ezra 3:4; John 7:2. It was at the end of their harvest and vintage, when they enjoyed the fruits of God's goodness. The feast prefigures the millennium, when the people will enter into full blessing, and the eighth day, the great day, the communion of the heavenly and the earthly. Zech. 14:16. See FEASTS and SEASONS.

Tabitha. [Tab'itha]

A disciple at Joppa, who made clothes for the poor and was "full of good works." She was raised to life by Peter. Acts 9:36-41. She was also named DORCAS, which is the Greek form of the Syriac Tabitha.


In a few places this term refers to a tablet which could be written on, as in Hab. 2:2; Luke 1:63; 2 Cor. 3:3. In Mark 7:4 the word translated 'table' is κλίνη, 'a couch,' often translated 'bed' in

the A.V.

Table of Showbread.

This was made of shittim wood overlaid with gold. For the tabernacle it was two cubits in length, one cubit in breadth, and a cubit and a half in height. It had an ornamental crown and border, with another crown around its edge. The table was put in the holy place on the north side. Besides the twelve loaves there were on the table, dishes, spoons, bowls, and covers. Ex. 37:10-16; 1 Kings 7:48. Frankincense was to be placed on the loaves, and this would need dishes; the spoons were for the incense, and probably the basins for the drink offerings.

This table was typical of Israel's place before God in the acceptability of Christ, who, as the true Aaron, maintains them even now before God: it is a perpetual covenant, Lev. 24:8; and possibly also of God's bounty to man through His people Israel. This was foreshadowed also in the Lord feeding the people through His twelve apostles, and in twelve baskets of fragments remaining.


In the O.T. the word kumaz signifies ornaments. Ex. 35:22; Num. 31:50. In Isa. 3:20 they are supposed to be receptacles for perfume. The margin reads 'houses of the soul,' which agrees with the Hebrew beth nephesh. See TABLE.

Tabor. [Ta'bor]

1.  A conspicuous mountain in Galilee, about seven miles east of Nazareth. It formed a boundary to Issachar and Zebulon. Its sides are well wooded, and on the summit is an irregular plain of about a mile in circuit, with ruins of fortifications. The height of it is 1,843 feet. Joshua 19:22; Judges 4:6-14; Judges 8:18; Ps. 89:12; Jer. 46:18; Hosea 5:1.   It is now called Jebel et Tor, 32 41' N, 35 23' E. Tradition makes this the mount of Transfiguration; but it is more probable that some part of mount Hermon was chosen for the transfiguration. This has good moral associations (cf. Ps. 133:3), and would be more private than Tabor.

2. The 'plain of Tabor' in 1 Sam. 10:3 should be read the 'oak of Tabor' as in the R.V.

3. Levitical city in the tribe of Zebulun. 1 Chr. 6:77. The list of Levitical cities in Joshua 21 does not contain this name. See CHESULLOTH.

Tabret, Timbrel,

toph. A musical instrument with loose pieces of metal attached, similar to the modern tambourine. This instrument is still a favourite in the East. It is tapped with the fingers. Gen. 31:27; Ex. 15:20; Judges 11:34; 1 Sam. 10:5; 2 Sam. 6:5; Ps. 68:25; Ps. 81:2; Ps. 149:3; Ps. 150:4; Isa. 30:32; etc.

Tabrimon. [Tabrim'on]

Father of Ben-hadad 1, king of Syria. 1 Kings 15:18.


Some form of fastening with which the curtains of the tabernacle and of the tent were coupled together, as is often done with a hook and a loop, so that they could be easily separated. Ex. 26:6, 11, 33; etc.

Tachmonite. [Tach'monite]


Tadmor. [Tad'mor]

City built in the wilderness by Solomon. 2 Chr. 8:4.  Josephus (Ant. viii. 6, 1) says it was the same as that which the Greeks called PALMYRA, and that it was built so far away because there were springs there, but no water nearer in that direction. Palmyra was situated about midway between Damascus and Tiphsah or Thapsacus on the Euphrates. It is still called Tadmur, about 34 40' N, 38 15' E. In the time of the Romans it was a large and splendid city, of which there are columns still standing and remarkable ruins.

In 1 Kings 9:18 a city is called in the A.V. Tadmor; but the Hebrew text is TAMAR, as in the R.V. (Tadmor being the reading of the Keri). Though this was also built by Solomon in the wilderness, it is added 'in the land,' whereas Tadmor was outside. The towns also mentioned in this passage are connected with the south of the land, so that it is doubtless a different place, and may be the same as Tamar in Ezek. 47:19; Ezek. 48:28.

Tahan, [Ta'han] Tahanites. [Ta'hanites]

Son of Telah, an Ephraimite, and his descendants. Num. 26:35; 1 Chr. 7:25.

Tahapanes, [Tahap'anes] Tahpanhes, [Tah'panhes] Tehaphnehes.

City in Lower Egypt, where Pharaoh had a house, and whither in disobedience the people of Judah fled after the murder of Gedaliah, taking Jeremiah and Baruch with them. Jeremiah prophesied that the king of Babylon should set his throne in that city and smite the land of Egypt. Jer. 2:16; Jer. 43:7-9; Jer. 44:1; Jer. 46:14; Ezek. 30:18.

It has been identified with the ancient Daphnae, identified with ruins at Tell Defenneh, about  30 52' N, 32 7' E.  During some explorations there the name of a mound was asked, and it was said to be Kasr Bint el Yehudi, 'the palace of the Jew's daughter.' This agrees with Jer. 43:6, which says that the king's daughters were carried to Tahpanhes by Johanan. On digging among the ruins many relics of Grecian pottery were found, there evidently having been a Greek colony on the spot at some period, and this would account for the Greek name Daphnae.

Tahath. [Ta'hath]

1.  One of the halting stations of the Israelites. Num. 33:26-27.

2. Son of Assir, a Kohathite. 1 Chr. 6:24, 37.

3, 4.  Son of Bered and a son of Eladah, descendants of Ephraim. 1 Chr. 7:20.