Omicron (T. Oliver.).
The Greek word dike carries the thought of a judicial sentence, penalty, and is translated in N.T. as vengeance, judgment. By itself it occurs only four times-judgment against Paul, Acts 25:15; re Paul and the viper, vengeance, Acts 28:4; Punishment of the unbeliever, 2 Thess. 1:9, lit. "shall suffer the penalty," so in Jude 7, "the vengeance, lit. 'penalty,' of eternal fire." Dike is the parent word of the group, and underlies every aspect of righteousness imputed to the believer. This enhances God's gift; we do well to ponder the fact carefully. Dikaios, is the adjective = right, just, righteous. The best English equivalent is "righteous," chiefly when divine persons are mentioned, as in John 17:25; 2 Thess. 1:5; 2 Tim. 4:8; 1 John 1:9; 1 John 2:1, 29; 1 John 3:7, and in God's judicial dealings with the earth, etc., in Rev. 15:3 the Song of Moses and the Lamb), also Rev. 16:5, 7; Rev. 19:2. The Just (One) is a Messianic title, Acts 7:52; Acts 22:14. Both Pilate and his wife in Matt. 27; 19, 24, as well as the centurion (Luke 23:47), said of Jesus "that just (righteous) man." Dikaios is also used in Matt 27:19, etc., of a class or company, "the righteous." Dikaiosune, the noun (feminine), is always translated righteousness in our English version, and correctly so, as that relationship to dike which divinely fulfils its claims, i.e. , when used with regard to sinful man. In Rom. 1:17 "Righteousness (not 'the') of God," is revealed in the glad tidings. In this basic scripture there is no article before "R," which in this, and other instances, denotes that, of which there is but one in existence. This is practically equivalent to a proper name. There is but one righteousness! (See footnote, J. N. D's Trans. on Rom. 1:17). This righteousness becomes a reigning attribute in the hearts and lives of the saints (Rom. 14:17). This "R" is revealed (apokalupto), i.e., had not been before uncovered in this new and full character of divine blessing. In Rom. 3:21, it is manifested (phaneroo) a shining forth, radiance, Rom. 3:25-26 (endeixis) is the word, A. V. declare His "R" set forth, manifest, i.e. , a public declaration with proof. In Rom. 4:3-6; 8-11; 22-24, logizomai is the Greek word, counted, reckoned, imputed. The gift (doreas) of Righteousness in Rom. 5:17, is in reality, though not so treated here, a gift of love, and in v. 15 the free gift (charisma) a gift of Grace, and in same verse the gift (dorea) in Grace of Jesus Christ, abounding in unrestricted fulness. The strong relation to justification of the above is seen in Rom. 3:24, "being justified (dikaioumenoi) freely (dorean) or gratuitously by His Grace." Dikai-in this verse is a present participle and points to the abiding principle of justification, more than the process, which moreover is expressed in Rom. 4:25, "raised again for our justification" (dikaiosin), a verbal noun implying the act of justifying. The verb itself is dikaioo, in Rom. 4:5, its present participle expressing the abiding principle, "that justifies the ungodly." In this "unjustifiable" procedure God is just (dikaios), and the justifier (dikaioo) of him who is of the faith of Jesus. Christ has borne the penalty (dike) due to us, God has freely blessed us in Him and through Him, even constituted us righteous. God is love, for He so loved that He gave, and still gives in His abounding Grace. The adverb dikaios occurs in Luke 23:41; 1 Cor. 15:34; 1 Thess. 2:10; Titus 2:12; 1 Peter 2:23 — justly, righteously. Dikaioma — a neuter noun, ordinances, judgment, the significance and result of legal action and of justice as "the fine linen which is the righteousnesses of the saints," Rev. 19:8. (Luke 12:14; Acts 7:27, 35, etc., gives Dikastes (masculine noun) judge).