How to Study the New Testament.

1869 284 LUKE. The Dean appears to seize the bearing of this third gospel more distinctly than that of the first two. Pages 79 — 95 are a fair account of his leading characteristics in sketching the general course of the gospel. One of the few notices which must be excepted is the use made of the Pharisee and the publican, in chapter 18, where he still teaches, as in his larger work, that the latter "went down to his house justified." "How sweet an echo there is here of the doctrine of justification by grace through faith, for which St. Luke's great companion, himself in his own estimation 'the chief of sinners,' argued and toiled." (p. 83.) This, as an exact interpretation and not a mere accommodation for evangelical purposes, is quite unfounded. It ought to have been left to the late Mr. J. Walker, in whose "Remains" the idea is given. There are many reasons for rejecting the notion. One is the very point of the parable, that though so deeply overwhelmed by his sins, he went down to his house justified rather than (exceeding) the other; for such is the regular force of para with the accusative. Here it could be nothing else. But this excludes justification (in the doctrinal sense of St. Paul), which does not admit of comparison or degree. "By him all who believe are justified." Besides, if this were meant, the participle ought to dikaiotheis, and not dedikaiomenos. The perfect is only used by the apostle to express, not justification by faith, by which we have peace with God, but justification from sin — the state in which the believer is set as knowing himself dead to the old man, which has been crucified with Christ. This, clearly, is in no way intended in the parable, as it is unfolded in Romans 6 and not Romans 5. And this lands the Dean, in his earlier work, in the mischievous conclusion that "he who would seek justification before God must seek it by humility and not by self-righteousness." It is very sure that every converted man is broken down; but is it sound doctrine that the soul must seek justification by humility? What confusion results from jumbling together the meanings of a word in God's book!

The Dean's first list suggests the omission (with N and B.) in Luke 1:28, of "blessed art thou among women;" verse 29, of "when she saw him;" and verse 35, "of thee." In Luke 2:14, "Peace among men of good pleasure" (i.e., God's elect); verse 22, "their (for her) purification;" verse 35, "his father and mother;" and verse 40, omit "in spirit." In Luke 4:4, omit "but by every word of God;" verse 5, read "And taking him up, he showed him;" verse 8, omit "get thee behind me, Satan; for;" and verse 18, "to heal the broken-hearted." Omit "Christ" in verse 41; and for "Galilee," in verse 44, read "Judea." In Luke 5:33, omit "why do;" verse 38, "and both are preserved;" 39, "straightway," and for "better," read "good." I need not say that some of these changes seem precarious. But the omission of the "second-first" (or second after the first") in Luke 6:1, though not given by some of the most ancient copies, is due to the difficulty of the phrase. The Dean thinks it has never been satisfactorily explained. It really means the first sabbath after the first sheaf was waved before the Lord; not the first sabbath of the paschal week, which was a high day, and followed by the day of waving the firstfruits. The next sabbath was this "second-first," the earliest sabbath when a pious Israelite would venture to eat from a cornfield. In verse 25, read "full now;" verse 36, omit "therefore;" and verse 48, "for it was founded upon a rock," should be "because it was well-built." In Luke 7:19, "the Lord," for "Jesus;" and verse 31, omit "and the Lord said." In Luke 8:3, "him" should be "them," verse 37, "the country round about the Gadarenes;" verse 48, omit "be of good comfort;" and verse 54, "put them all out," etc. In Luke 9:1, "the twelve;" verse 7, omit "by him;" verse 10, "to a city called Bethsaida;" verse 35, "chosen" for "beloved;" verse 48, "is" for "shall be;" verse 54, omit "even as Elias did." He admits the omission of MSS. in verses 55, 56 (from "and said … save them") is contrary to the evidence of the oldest versions and very ancient writers, and so the question is doubtful. In Luke 10:15, read "And thou, Capernaum, shalt thou be exalted to heaven? thou," etc.; verse 19, "have given;" verse 20, omit "rather;" verse 21, read "in the Holy Spirit;" and verse 39, "the Lord's feet." In Luke 11:2–4, "Father, hallowed be thy name; thy kingdom come; give us day by day our daily bread; and forgive us our sins, for we also forgive every one that is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation." In verse 44, omit "Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites;" and verse 48, "their sepulchres;" verse 53, read "when he was gone out;" and omit "seeking" with last clause in verse 54. In Luke 12:15, insert "all" before "covetousness;" and in verse 31, omit "all." In Luke 13:15, "ye hypocrites;" verse 24, "the narrow door;" verse 31, "in that hour;" and verse 35, omit "desolate" and "verily." In Luke 14:3, add "or not;" verse 5, should be "a son(!) or an ox;" verse 34, "salt therefore is good; but if even the salt," etc. In Luke 15:22, add "quickly." In Luke 16:9, "it fails;" verse 25, "he is comforted here, and," etc. In Luke 17:3, "if thy brother sin;" verse 9, omit "I trow not;" and verse 36 altogether. In Luke 19:45, omit "and them that bought." In Luke 20:30, omit "took her to wife, and died childless." In Luke 21:4, omit "of God;" and verse 8, "therefore;" verse 25, "distress of nations, in despair at the roaring of the sea and the waves;" and verse 36, "may be able." In Luke 22:64, omit "struck him on the face." In Luke 23:8, omit "many things;" (verse 17, doubtful;) verse 35, "the Christ of God, the chosen," or "the chosen Christ of God;" verse 39, "art thou not the Christ?" verse 42, "Jesus, remember me;" and verse 51, omit "also himself." In Luke 24:1, omit "and certain others with them;" and perhaps 42, "and of an honeycomb;" verse 46, read "Thus it is written that Christ should suffer and should rise," etc.; verse 49, omit "of Jerusalem."

As to the second list of better translations, there are given the following: — In Luke 1:1, "narrative concerning;" verse 3, "traced down accurately;" verse 4, "those sayings wherein thou wert instructed;" verse 48, "shall congratulate me," or "account me happy;" and verse 59, "were calling." In Luke 2:1-2, 3, 5, "enrolled" and "enrolment;" verse 10, "all the people;" verse 12, "a babe;" verse 19, "kept all these words, pondering them;" verse 33, "concerning him;" verse 35, "that reasonings out of many hearts may be revealed;" verse 38, "she coming in at the same hour;" verse 40, "becoming filled;" verse 43, "boy" or "lad;" verse 49, "among my Father's matters." In Luke 3:7, "He said therefore" and "offspring;" verse 23, "was about thirty years of age when he began (his ministry)." In Luke 4:9, "the pinnacle." In Luke 5:6, "were bursting;" verse 22, "reasonings;" verse 34, "sons" (and in Luke 6:35; Luke 16:8, twice). In Luke 6:11, "folly;" verse 15, "son" is not expressed (nor "brother," nor sister, nor mother — Luke 24:10); verse 17, "upon a level place … number of the people;" verse 19, "power" (also ver. 46); verse 20, for "be" read "are;" verse 48, "he is like a man building an house, who digged and went deep." In Luke 7:5, "and himself built us our synagogue;" verse 24, "multitudes," as in Matthew 11:7, and "gaze upon;" verse 30, "towards." In Luke 8:4, "coming;" verse 19, "multitude;" verse 29, "was commanding," and "demon" (as Luke 9:42); verse 33, "precipice;" verse 40, omit "gladly," and verse 44,"hem," as in Matthew 9:32. In Luke 9:32, "but having kept awake;" verse 43, "majesty;" verse 45, "that they might not perceive it;" and verse 51, "And it came to pass, as the days of his receiving up were being accomplished, he himself," etc. In Luke 10:22, "is pleased to reveal." In Luke 11:8, "shamelessness;" verse 12, "give;" verse 13, "the Father from heaven;" verses 31, 32, "more than," twice; verse 34, "candle," as in verse 33. In Luke 12:15, "For not because a man hath abundance, doth his life consist in the things which he possesseth;" verses 18, 19, "good things;" verses 22, 25, 26, "anxious thoughts;" verse 37, "their lord;" and verse 49, "what will I? would that it were already kindled." Those from Luke 13 to the end are of no great moment. Nor do these given here call for particular remark.