1 To Touch, Handle.|
2 Unlearned. Ignorant.
3 To Draw, Drag.
4 Old. Ancient.
5 Covetousness. Love Of Money.
6 Holiness. Sanctification.
7 To Eat.
8 To Love, Have Affection For.
9 Holy. Pious.
10 Forgiveness. Remission.
11 To Desire, Will, Purpose.
12 Rest. Liberty.
13 To Worship, Serve.
14 Word. Words.
15 Peculiar (People), Purchased Possession.
16 Image. Likeness. Similitude.
17 To Walk.
18 Accepted. Acceptable.
19 To Accomplish, Finish, Fulfil.
20 To Ask, Request.
21 Another. Different.
22 Envy. Zeal. Emulation. Jealousy.
23 Life. Living.
24 To Comfort, Encourage.
25 Burden. Weight.
26 True. The True.
27 To Corrupt, Handle Deceitfully.
28 To Feed, Shepherd.
29 Light. Lamp. Candle.
30 To Do, Practise.
31 To Do, Work, Labour.
33 Patience. Long-Suffering. Forbearance.
34 Meekness. Quietness.
35 Revelation. Appearing. Manifestation.
36 Ought. Must.
37 Slow. Slothful. Idle.
38 Murderer. Manslayer. Assassin.
39 War. Fighting.
40 Founded. Steadfast.
41 Common. Unclean. Defiled. Profane.
42 Evil. Wicked.
43 Builder. Maker. Artificer.
44 People. Nations. Gentiles.
45 Pain. Travail. Labour. Weariness.
46 Blameless. Unblameable. Unreproveable. Without Spot.
47 To Have Compassion, Sympathy, Forbearance.
48 To Know, Perceive, Understand.
A short list of Synonyms is added, embracing some Greek and English words which could not well be considered in the Dictionary. It is important that those who believe in the verbal inspiration of scripture should study the words used by the Holy Spirit as far as they have the means.
The few Synonyms here given may be regarded as samples, and may lead the reader into a new and interesting field of study, which if followed out would embrace the careful consideration of hundreds of other words. Such a study will not merely tend to the acquisition of a more correct knowledge of the letter of the divine oracles, but it will form the mind in the thoughts of the God who deigns to use human language to convey to our souls what the Holy Spirit Himself calls "the deep things of God." 1 Cor. 2:10. One who carefully studies such subjects in a proper spirit will be ever learning more of the mind of God as expressed in the scriptures.
Some words not considered here will be found briefly treated in the Dictionary under 'Author, Begotten, Children, Eternal, Godhead, Godliness, Hell, Knowledge, Lord, Man, Natural, New, Ordain, Power, Redemption, Servant, Sin, Washing, etc.'
1. TO TOUCH, HANDLE.
The words ἅπτομαι, θιγγάνω, and ψηλαφάω are all translated 'touch' in the A.V.; the two latter are also rendered 'handle.'
ἅπτομαι (from ἅπτω, 'to connect') signifies 'to touch freely, handle.' This was the touch the Lord gave to the leper, but was not defiled, Luke 5:13; and this was the grasp of faith of the woman who touched the border of His garment, and was healed, Luke 8:44-47; and this was the touch that the Lord bade Mary to refrain from after His resurrection. John 20:17.
θιγγάνω is 'to touch lightly.' The sprinkling of the blood prevented the destroying angel from in any way touching the Israelites. Heb. 11:28. ἅπτομαι and θιγγάνω occur in Col. 2:21, but the meanings are transposed in the A.V. The philosophers say "Handle not, taste not, touch not." θιγγάνω occurs elsewhere only in Heb. 12:20.
ψηλαφάω (from ψάλλω, 'to touch,' and ἀφάω, 'to feel') is 'to feel after with the fingers handle.' It is used of what is palpable. It occurs only in Luke 24:39; Acts 17:27; Heb. 12:18; 1 John 1:1.
2. UNLEARNED. IGNORANT.
Both ἀγράμματος and ἰδιώτης are translated 'unlearned,' but there is a difference between them. Both words occur in Acts 4:13; the rulers of Israel perceived Peter and John to be "unlearned (ἀγ.) and ignorant (ἰδ.) men. ἀγράμματος (from a neg. and γράμμα, 'a letter') occurs nowhere else in the N.T., but γράμμα occurs in John 7:15: "how knoweth this man 'letters'?" and in Acts 26:24; "much 'learning' doth make thee mad." These instances show that ἀγράμματος signifies 'unlettered.'
ἰδιώτης (from ἴδιος, 'one's own') has a different signification: it is applied to private persons in distinction from those who are officials or professionals, and so to simple or uninstructed persons. The apostle asks how such a one could say Amen to the giving of thanks by one speaking in a tongue, not understanding what was said, 1 Cor. 14:16; and in 1 Cor. 14:23-24 he is classed with unbelievers. The word occurs also in 2 Cor. 11:6, where Paul maintains that though he may be simple, or untrained, in speech, he is not so in regard to knowledge.
3. TO DRAW, DRAG.
Both ἑλκύω and σύρω are translated 'to draw,' but in the use of the word σύρω there has been observed the character of violence or coercion, which does not necessarily belong to ἑλκύω (from ἕλκω,'to draw').The two words are found in John 21:6-11, in the account of the miraculous draught of fishes. They could not draw (ἑλ.) the net full of fishes: another boat assisted, and they dragged (σύ.) the net towards the shore, and there they drew (ἑλ.) it to land. Saul, in his zeal, dragged (σύ.) men and women for imprisonment, Acts 8:3.
There are two beautiful passages where ἑλκύω is used in the Gospel of John: "No man can come to me except the Father which hath sent me draw him;" and "I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all unto me." John 6:44; John 12:32. The attraction in these two cases is of a moral kind; there is not coercion, but there is power exercised.
4. OLD. ANCIENT.
Both ἀρχαῖος and παλαιός are translated 'old,' but there appears to be a marked distinction between them. ἀρχαῖος is from ἀρχή, 'beginning,' and anything connected with the beginning may often be called 'old.' Now in scripture there are several beginnings referred to, the scope of which can only be arrived at from the context of each passage; but perhaps the word ἀρχαῖος always conveys the idea of 'ancient.'
The Lord in Matt. 5:21, 27, 33 speaks of 'the ancients' ('them of old time,' A.V.), which may well apply to those who taught the law under Moses. The Apostle James referred to Moses having 'from generations of old' ('of old time,' A.V.) those who preached him, Acts 15:21. Peter in Acts 15:7 speaks of God having chosen him to preach the gospel to the nations from the earliest (or ancient) days — here doubtless referring to the beginning of the church at Pentecost. Satan is that 'ancient' serpent, dating back to the beginning of the present creation, if not to an earlier period. Rev. 12:9; Rev. 20:2. One passage may seem to differ: Mnason of Cyprus is called 'an old disciple.' But it may be that his age is not referred to, but his being an ancient disciple — one of long standing. Acts 21:16.
παλαιός (from πάλαι, 'long ago, formerly') on the other hand, refers to things having grown old, or become old by some great recent change. In the Gospels it is employed for the old garments and the old bottles, which had become unfit because of the new order of things which Christ had introduced. It twice refers to the 'old man' in contrast to the 'new man.' Eph. 4:22; Col. 3:9. In Rom. 6:6 the old man is looked at as crucified with Christ, that Christians might be free to walk in newness of life. The saints at Corinth were to purge out the 'old leaven,' which was opposed to the 'new lump' into which they had been formed. 1 Cor. 5:7-8. The Apostle John speaks of an 'old commandment' which they had heard from the beginning of Christianity , but which was now a 'new commandment,' that is, under new conditions. 1 John 2:7, 7. The 'old covenant' ('old testament') is referred to in 2 Cor. 3:14. It is in contrast with the new (καινή) covenant in 2 Cor. 3:6 — the entirely new and different one that had been introduced.
5. COVETOUSNESS. LOVE OF MONEY.
Both πλευνεξία and φιλαργυρία -ρος refer to covetousness, but there appears to be a marked distinction between them. πλευνεξία (from πλέον and ἔχω, 'to have more') is not confined to money, and is often connected with open wickedness, the force of the word being 'desiring more (than is necessary),' and hence 'an over-reaching to get,' and is thus applied to the lusts of the flesh, Rom. 1:29; Eph. 4:19, where it is translated 'greediness'; Eph. 5:3; etc. It is declared to be idolatry, Col. 3:5.
On the other hand, φιλαργυρία (from φίλος and ἄργυρος) literally 'love of money,' is the miser's sin, and may be indulged in with a profession of religion. Thus in Luke 16:14 it is applied to the Pharisees, and in 2 Tim. 3:2 to those who had a form of godliness, but denied the power thereof. This love of money is a root of all kinds of evil, 1 Tim. 6:10, and those who go after it are liable to wander away from the faith, and to pierce themselves through with many sorrows.
6. HOLINESS. SANCTIFICATION.
The word ἁγιασμός is translated in the A.V. both 'sanctification' and 'holiness;' but there is another word, ἁγιωσύνη, always translated 'holiness,' and it is well to see the distinction between them.
Both words may be traced to ἅγιος, 'holy,' but ἁγιωσύνη is holiness in its nature and quality. It occurs but three times: "the Spirit of holiness" in Rom. 1:4; the Christian should be "perfecting holiness in the fear of God," 2 Cor. 7:1; and Paul prayed for the Thessalonian saints that their hearts might be established "unblameable in holiness before God, even our Father, at the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ with all his saints." 1 Thess. 3:13.
ἁγιασμός is more the result and activity of sanctification that produces holiness. It occurs in Rom. 6:19, 22; 1 Cor. 1:30; 1 Thess. 4:3-4, 7; 2 Thess. 2:13; 1 Tim. 2:15; Heb. 12:14; 1 Peter 1:2.
ἁγιότης, a kindred word to the above, also signifies 'holiness' in its essence, perhaps in the most absolute way, ἁγιωσύνη having a kind of middle place between ἁγιότης and ἁγιασμός. It occurs only in Heb. 12:10, unless it should be read in 2 Cor. 1:12, 'holiness' instead of 'simplicity,' as adopted by several Editors and the R.V. It is His holiness, the holiness of God Himself in its own nature, of which believers are to be partakers — the end of all His gracious discipline.
7. TO EAT.
The words φαγεῖω and τρώγω are translated 'to eat,' but the occurrence of both words in John 6 shows a difference in their signification.
φαγεῖν is used in John 6:53 and in that part of John 6:58 where it says "not as the fathers ate and died." It refers to eating for the sake of present hunger. The Lord says in John 6:53, ἐὰν μὴ φάγητε, etc.: their case would be hopeless unless they ate the flesh and drank the blood of the Son of Man.
τρώγω occurs in John 6:54, 56, 57, and in the latter part of John 6:58 ("he that eateth this bread shall live for ever"): it may imply the leisurely and habitual enjoyment of what is eaten. It is applied generally to the grazing of cattle (ruminating), and in the case of human beings supposes a slower process of mastication than merely 'eating.' This would have a peculiar force in these verses where the figure is not merely (as in John 6:49 and John 6:58) that of taking food to keep oneself alive, but the more quiet appreciation and feeding upon what is within reach. Christ is the food.
ἐσθίω 'to eat,' is often used in the general sense of taking food.
βιβρώσκω 'to eat,' occurs but in one place, John 6:13.
8. TO LOVE, HAVE AFFECTION FOR.
For both ἀγαπάω and φιλέω the A.V. translators have only one word 'love'; and, though it might be hard to find another rendering, a very real distinction of scripture is sometimes thus lost. ἀγαπάω is the word of ordinary use, φιλέω being found but seldom. It is not the strength or intensity of the love that makes the difference, but rather the character and scope of it.
The usual meaning of ἀγαπάω in classical Greek in regard to persons is 'to welcome:' it is the broad generic term for loving, capable of many applications. It is used of the love of God toward the world, John 3:16, as well as toward His people, 1 John 4:10-11; also of the love of man toward God, Matt. 22:37; Rom. 8:28; 1 Cor. 2:9; 1 Cor. 8:3. It is the word for Christ's love to His own, John 13:1, to the individual as well as to the church, Gal. 2:20; Eph. 5:25. It is used by the Spirit of God in scripture to express the sovereignty of God's love. God loves because He is love, and apart from any consideration of the worthiness of the object:
φιλέω (from φίλος, 'friend, dear'), on the other hand, is of narrower bearing; it describes the intimacy of love, and is more instinctive and emotional, the love of feeling and endearment, of personal affection: hence this last is never the subject of command as ἀγαπάω often is. The two verbs are found together in Prov. 8:17 (LXX.) Wisdom says, "I love (ἀγ.) them that love (φι.) me." And, once the distinction is grasped, it may be traced through the use of them, even where apparently they are interchangeable. It is used for the expression of love, and may sometimes mean (as καταφιλέω) 'to kiss.'
In John 3:35 we learn that "the Father loveth (ἀγ.) the Son, and hath given all things into his hand:" the English is alike in John 5:20; but here, in presence of the sanguinary enmity of those of Jerusalem, the Lord Jesus retreats into His known place in the most intimate love of the Father: "the Father loveth (φι.) the Son;" and we have the Father's resulting resolve that all men shall honour Him, and the measures taken to secure it. In John 11:5 we have the formal statement of the place the little circle at Bethany had for the heart of the Lord Jesus: "Jesus loved (ἀγ.) Martha," etc. But the sisters' appeal (John 11:3) goes upon the ground of what they had the best right to know, namely, the personal affection of the Lord for their brother "he whom thou lovest (φι.) is sick," and it is this that comes home to the Jews when they see Him weep, "Behold how he loved (φι.) him," John 11:36. In John 14, as all through these wonderful chapters of intercourse with His own, the general word for love, ἀγαπάω, is used except at John 16:27, which makes the change the more marked; indicating the very special character, personal and intimate, of the Father's love for those who have found a common object of love in His beloved Son, "the Father himself loveth (φι.) you because ye have loved (φι.) me," etc.
But perhaps our greatest loss has been in missing, through the one translation 'love,' the delicate and subtle forces of grace that appear in the ways of the Lord with Peter in John 21 by the use of the two words. Peter, though in a way restored after his failure, had need to be restored to communion with the Lord. Not a word had passed as to it during the meal; but now, probably in allusion to Peter's boastful confidence in himself that had been the root of his fall, "Jesus saith, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest (ἀγ.) thou me more than do these?" using the ordinary word. Peter can only cast himself upon the Lord and answer, "Thou knowest that I am attached (φι.) to thee," using the word of endearing affection. Again the Lord puts the question, using still the general word "lovest (ἀγ.) thou me?" Peter replying by φιλέω. "He saith unto him the third time, Simon, son of Jonas" — but now, in grace adopts Peter's word as appropriate — "art thou attached (φι.) to me?" "And he said unto him, Lord, thou knowest all things, thou knowest that I am attached (φι.) to thee."
The force thus given to the word φιλέω, may be further seen in its being used of father and mother in Matt. 10:37, and one's own life in John 12:25. Paul uses it only twice: 1 Cor. 16:22, in full keeping with what we have found to be the rule in other passages, and in Titus 3:15.
There is one other rendering of φιλέω in the three synoptic gospels in the awful case of Judas' 'kiss,' the outward sign of endearment, made possible by the terms of familiar intimacy to which he had been admitted with the Lord: "mine own familiar friend . . . . hath lifted up his heel against me."
It may be noted that the substantive ἀγάπη, 'love,' from the same root as ἀγαπάω, first appears as a current term in the LXX of the Song of Solomon (in eleven places, and also in Jer. 2:2), from which it passes into its full place in the N.T. for "God is love." Divine love was necessarily an unknown thought outside of revelation. It is rendered 'charity' in 1 Cor. 13 and some other places in the A.V., as well as 'love' generally, which ought always to be its translation.
9. HOLY. PIOUS.
Both ἅγιος (connected with ἁγνός, 'pure') and ὅσιος are translated 'holy,' and both are employed in reference to the Lord as "the holy One," Mark 1:24 (ἅγ.) and Acts 2:27 and Acts 13:35 (ὅσ.).
There are two corresponding words in the Hebrew, and both occur in Ps. 89: ὅσιος corresponds with chasid, "thy holy One," Ps. 89:19; and ἅγιος with qadôsh, "the holy One" in Ps. 89:18, the singular of the word translated 'saints' in Ps. 89:5, 7. ὅσιος, in the neuter plural, is rendered 'mercies' in "the sure mercies of David" in Acts 13:34.
The difference of the two words has been well expressed thus: God is holy, knowing good and evil perfectly — wills absolutely good and no evil: and we are separated, set apart from evil or common use to Him that is ἅγιος. ὅσιος, on the contrary, is the exercise of gracious suitable affections in the relationships in which we stand to God, to parents, etc.; also God in mercy to us, and Christ in whom they are displayed. Hence however, as suitable affections towards God practically constitute holiness, it is used in this sense for holiness. Its only occurrences are Acts 2:27; Acts 13:34-35; 1 Tim. 2:8; Titus 1:8; Heb. 7:26; Rev. 15:4; Rev. 16:5. Thus it is, as is its Hebrew equivalent, employed of God and man. It is goodness and grace in God — piety and recognition of Him on man's part, and is so used of Christ as the One in whom all gracious qualities are concentrated.
ἅγιος is of much more frequent use.
10. FORGIVENESS. REMISSION.
There are two words, ἄφεσις and πάρεσις, thus rendered, the former being of very constant use, and the latter occurring but once.
ἄφεσις (from ἀφίημι, to 'let go,' hence 'to let go free from a charge') was to be characteristic of John the Baptist's testimony, "to give knowledge of salvation to his people by the remission of their sins." Luke 1:77. Hence we find him preaching "the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins." Mark 1:4; Luke 3:3. To let go free of charge by God is necessarily in righteousness, hence we read in Heb. 9:22 that "without shedding of blood" there could be "no remission." We also find that the cup at the institution of the Lord's Supper (Matt. 26:28) was the symbol of "the blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins." ἄφεσις is identified with redemption in two passages. Eph. 1:7; and Col. 1:14. In Luke 24:47, the ground having been laid in Christ's death, the testimony of it is sent forth by the risen Christ: "repentance and remission of sins" was henceforth to be "preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem." Hence in Acts 2:38, to those who were reached in conscience by the testimony of Peter, remission of sins was presented as the first characteristic blessing which became theirs, by taking upon them Christ's name. For "Him hath God exalted by his right hand," he further witnesses in Acts 5:31 "to be a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins:" in Acts 10:43, opening the door of the kingdom still wider, to the Gentile audience gathered with Cornelius, he is able to bring forward the testimony of all the prophets "that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins." From Acts 26:18 we know it was part of Paul's commission, even as he first preached it in the Gentile city of Antioch, Acts 13:38-39. One more passage, Heb. 10:18, identifies it with the remembrance of sins no more, now enjoyed by the Christian, and to be made good to Israel under the New Covenant, Heb. 10:16-17. It is ἄφεσις in all these passages, which are all its occurrences save Luke 4:18, where it occurs twice as 'deliverance' and 'liberty,' and Mark 3:29, where it is 'forgiveness.'
ἄφεσις is better translated by 'remission': to forgive, as a gracious act towards another, is χαρίζομαι as in Eph. 4:32; Col. 2:13; Col. 3:13; etc.
πάρεσις (from παρίημι, 'to let pass, relax') occurs only in Rom. 3:25, where the A.V. renders it 'remission,' not observing the distinction that the passage makes between God's ways as to the sins of those before the cross, and after it, now that propitiation has been made through faith in His blood. The more the place of 'remission' is seen, as in the texts quoted above, the more the importance of the change of word will be felt here where we must read "for the passing over [see margin] of sins done aforetime through the forbearance of God." The cross declared God's righteousness in so passing over the sins of past ages, while at the same time it laid the ground for Him now to be "just and the justifier of him that believeth in Jesus."
It was not that under the law there was not provision by which a sinner of Israel might have the forgiveness of sins, but every fresh sin had to be met with fresh sacrifice and fresh forgiveness. And even on the great day of atonement there was a "remembrance again" made of sins every year. Moreover, the Prophets, as David, in Ps. 32; Ps. 85:2; Ps. 103 etc.; Isaiah in many passages; Jeremiah in connection with the New Covenant (Jer. 31.) — all of them, as Peter can say, had borne testimony to the forgiveness of God. But it was not the revealed ground upon which they of old stood; there could not have been declared before the cross God's righteousness in sin's judgement: it would have taken out from Judaism before the time, as Heb. 10:2 shows. Hence the change of word by the apostle in Rom. 3:25. Theirs was not the ἄφεσις of accomplished redemption, not the 'no more conscience of sins' — that is characteristic of the christian position.
11. TO DESIRE, WILL, PURPOSE.
Both βούλομαι and θέλω, which latter word is of much more frequent use, are translated 'to will' and the latter 'to desire,' with other variations of both in the A.V.
The distinction of the two words seems to be justly designated (at least as to their N.T. use) thus: θέλω expresses in general 'to exercise the will' — the will which proceeds from inclination or desire. βούλομαι is the will which follows from deliberation, and involves a carefully-weighed purpose.
They occur together in Matt. 1:19; Joseph not desiring (θέ.) to expose Mary publicly, purposed (βο.) to have put her away secretly. In 1 Tim. 5:11, as to the younger widows not being put on the list, they will (θέ.), their desire is, to marry: in 1 Tim. 5:14 Paul's deliberate judgement and will is that they should; "I will (βο.) therefore."
In Philemon 13 the apostle "would have" (βο.), was desirous of, keeping Onesimus with him, but without Philemon's mind" willed (θέ.) to do nothing." Also in 1 Tim. 2:4, as to "God our Saviour, who desires that all men should be saved," it is θέλω: see Ezek. 18:23 (LXX, Vat.) "Have I any pleasure at all that the wicked should die?" (with which may be compared 1 Cor. 12:18 "as it hath pleased [θέ.] him," and 1 Cor. 15:38): in 1 Tim. 2:8 it is βούλομαι as in 1 Tim. 5:14 "I will therefore," the active wish being implied.
For θέλω see more fully John 6:67, "Will ye also go away?" not simply the act, but the will to do it: 'is it your will or disposition?' 'are ye also disposed to go away?' Luke 15:28: "he was angry, and 'would' not go in." Mark 6:19: "would have killed him." 1 Cor. 10:27: "and ye be 'disposed' to go." Matt. 17:12: "whatsoever they listed." Compare the use of θέλω for 'I would' and 'would not' in Rom. 7:15-16, 18, 19, 20, 21, in opposition to 'I hate,' 'I do.' Also 1 Cor. 7:7: "I would that all men were even as myself." Rom. 9:16: "it is not of him that willeth." Mark 9:35; Mark 12:38, may be added where it is 'desire' and 'love.'
For βούλομαι see Matt. 11:27: "he to whomsoever the Son will (or 'wills to') reveal him." Heb. 6:17: "wherein God, willing more abundantly to show unto the heirs of promise the immutability of his counsel." (The word 'counsel' is the substantive βουλή: it occurs ten times so rendered in the A.V.) So 1 Cor. 12:11 of the "Spirit, dividing to every one severally as he will." James 1:18: "of his own will" — 'having so purposed or willed:' it was the fruit of His own mind, and so a free gift (James 1:17). 2 Peter 3:9: "not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance," thus becomes clear as the expression of His purpose. 2 Peter 3:5 may be referred to for the force of θέλω: "this they are willingly ignorant of," or "this is hidden from them through their own wilfulness."
With the above may be compared the judicial 'will' or 'would' (βούλομαι) of Acts 18:15; Acts 22:30; Acts 23:28; Acts 25:22; Acts 28:18; and Pilate's use of it in putting the momentous decision to the Jews, John 18:39. In 1 Tim. 6:9, it will be seen that "will be rich" (βο.) includes the idea of purpose; as also James 4:4, with regard to the friendship of the world.
Ephesians 1:11 brings together the substantives formed from the two words: "after the counsel (βουλή) of his own will (θέλημα)." The latter is used in Eph. 2:3, "the 'desires' of the flesh and of the mind;" and the consistent distinction of the former is maintained in 1 Cor. 4:5, "and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts."
βούλημα only occurs in Acts 27:43, translated 'purpose,' and Rom 9:19, 'will.'
πρόθεσις is another word connected with 'purpose,' which is its fitting translation: it is, according to the verb προτίθημι, what I set before myself, and so propose and determine. See for the verb Rom. 1:13 and Eph. 1:9. The substantive, πρόθεσις, is found in connection with the 'showbread' in its physical force of setting forth, or placing a thing in view, Heb. 9:2 — the O.T. expression for the rite of the "setting forth of the loaves"; but, following the verb, it is "purpose of heart" in Acts 11:23 (comp. 2 Tim. 3:10), and in five other passages applied to the purposes of God's heart, Rom. 8:28; Rom. 9:11; Eph. 1:11 (where it is closely associated with βουλή and θέλημα); Eph. 3:11; 2 Tim. 1:9.
12. REST. LIBERTY.
The words ἀνάπαυσις and ἄνεσις are both translated 'rest,' but there is a difference in their application.
ἀνάπαυσις (from ἀναπαύω, 'to give rest') is appropriate to refreshment after labour or fatigue, and also to an intermission of action, and is variously applied. It is the word often adopted in the LXX for the 'rest' of the sabbath. The Lord invited all that laboured and were heavy laden to come to Him, and He would give them 'rest' (ἀναπαύω). Also to take His yoke, and such should find 'rest.' Matt. 11:28-29. The unclean spirit walks through dry places, seeking 'rest,' but finds none. Matt. 12:43; Luke 11:24. In Rev. 4:8 the four living creatures 'cease' not day or night in their ascriptions of praise; and in Rev. 14:11 those who do homage to the beast will have no 'respite' to their sufferings.
ἄνεσις (from ἀνίημι, 'to loose') is more the relaxing of cords or bonds, or rest from tribulation. Felix ordered the centurion to let Paul have 'liberty' and that his friends might visit him. Acts 24:23. Paul when waiting for news of the Corinthians, as to the effect of his first epistle to them, had no 'rest' in his spirit until Titus arrived. 2 Cor. 2:13; 2 Cor. 7:5. With regard to the collection for the poor saints, Paul said he did not mean the Corinthian saints to be burdened, and others to be 'eased.' 2 Cor. 8:13. Paul also tenderly speaks of the saints at Thessalonica being delivered from their tribulation, to 'rest' or 'repose' with him and others at the revelation of the Lord Jesus. 2 Thess. 1:7.
13. TO WORSHIP, SERVE.
The word of most frequent use for worship is προσκυνέω, from προσ and κυνέω, 'to fawn or crouch' and 'to kiss.' Its first use in scripture is in Gen. 18:2 (LXX), when Abraham prostrates himself on the ground. See also Gen. 19:1. Job 31:27 may have reference to an act of worship. It takes in (as 'worship' once did in English, see 1 Chr. 29:20) all acts of outward honour, such as kneeling, prostration, which were paid to kings and other superiors, as well as to a divine person, or one regarded as such: compare Matt. 18:26; John 4:22-23; Acts 7:43; Acts 10:25; Rev. 3:9; Rev. 13:12, 15; Rev. 16:2; Rev. 19:10; etc. So that the word in itself does not determine whether the homage is rendered as to God (which is its most constant use) or not. It might in most passages be translated "do homage."
λατρεύω is another word three times translated 'worship,' of which however the usual rendering is 'to serve.' Connected as the word is with λάτρον, 'hire,' its original force is 'serving for hire,' not of compulsion like a slave. But Biblical Greek has raised the word, with its substantive λατρεία, 'service,' to higher use, so as never to express any other service but that of God, or of false gods. Thus it most fully answers to the present sense of 'worship,' and all true service partakes of this character. The Lord meets Satan's proffer of the kingdoms of the world — "if thou wilt fall down and worship (προσκ.) me" — with "it is written, Thou shalt worship (προσκ.) the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve (λατρεύω)," thus using both words. Matt. 4:9-10.
Compare, as to the force of λατρεύω, Luke 1:74; Acts 7:7; Acts 24:14 (worship); Heb. 9:14; Heb. 12:28; Rev. 7:15; Rev. 22:3; for the worship of idols, Acts 7:42; Rom. 1:25. It is applied also to the services connected with the first covenant, Luke 2:37; Acts 26:7; Rom. 9:4; and Heb. 9:1, 6 (λατρεία), with the omission in the original of 'divine' and 'of God' (as if no longer to be recognised as such), obtruded in each case in the A.V. See also Heb. 8:5; Heb. 10:2 ('worshippers'); Heb. 13:10. Other passages are Phil. 3:3; Acts 27:23; Rom. 1:9; 2 Tim. 1:3; Rom. 12:1, and, in total contrast, John 16:2 (λατρεία). These are almost all the occurrences.
'Worship' is also given as the rendering of two words used in Acts 17. In Acts 17:23 it is for εὐσεβέω, with which may be compared the adjective εὐσεβής, 'devout,' Acts 10:2, 7, and Acts 22:12 and the substantive εὐσέβεια so often found as 'godliness,' or perhaps better 'piety' in the Pastoral Epistles and 2 Peter. It embraces not only the reverence well (εὖ) and rightly directed to God, but similarly to parents and others, though the first is the general use of the forms of the word in scripture. It may be rendered in Acts 17:23 "whom therefore ye reverence, not knowing (him)."
θεραπεύω (from θεράπων, 'an attendant') in Acts 17:25 is 'to serve,' 'render service to' (A.V. 'worship'), constantly used for curing and healing in the gospels; it is nowhere else translated 'worship.'
One more word, used in this address of Paul in its substantival form, σέβασμα, 'devotions,' Acts 17:23; and 2 Thess. 2:4,"that is worshipped," leads us to the only passage where the verb occurs, σεβάζομαι, 'worship,' Rom. 1:25, which is from σέβας, 'reverence' or 'awe.' The substantive expresses the object of veneration, altar, image, or shrine, in heathenism, and not 'devotions,' which has ceased to have this meaning in modern English.
14. WORD. WORDS.
Both ῥῆμα and λόγος are translated 'word ' and 'words.' ῥῆμα is the saying, the thing spoken (ἐρῶ, εἴρηκα, 'to speak'); it is more individual than λόγος, standing in relation to it rather as a part to the whole. λόγος includes the thoughts as well as the utterance. Compare the use of the French mot with parole.
The words have been thus distinguished: λόγος is the deeper, fuller word; it is the revelation of what is in God, in His nature and character — His love, His ways — in short, all that He communicates: ῥῆμα is the actual communication. λόγος (from λέγω, 'to speak') is that which is known in the mind, and known by expressing it. I cannot think without having a thought, and λόγος is used for that, and the expression of it: it is the matter and form of thought and expression, as well as the expression of it. It is a word so large in sense as to be very hard to express. ῥῆμα is the actual utterance.
If this distinction be borne in mind, the following passages will be the better apprehended. For λόγος, Matt. 13:19; Mark 14:39, 'word' not 'words' (compared with Matt. 26:44); Mark 7:13; Mark 16:20; Luke 1:2; Acts 4:31; Acts 6:4; Rom. 9:6; Heb. 4:12; Heb. 6:1; James 1:18; 1 Peter 1:23. And it will be understood how characteristic λόγος is of John's writings: John 1:1, 14; John 5:24, 38; John 8:31, 37, 43; and in John 8:51-52, and 55 (where it is the same — 'word,' instead of 'saying' as in the A.V.); John 10:35; John 14:23-24 ('word' and 'words,' not 'words' and 'sayings' as the A.V.); John 15:3, 20; John 17:6, 14, 17; 1 John 1:1.
Yet the apostle also uses ῥῆμα: John 3:34; John 6:63, 68; John 8:47; John 12:47-48; John 14:10; John 17:8. Compare also Matt. 4:4; Eph. 6:17 (not the book merely, but the text); Matt. 26:75; Luke 5:5; Rom. 10:8, 17; Heb. 1:3; Heb. 6:5; Heb. 11:3; 1 Peter 1:25. These will suffice to illustrate the use of the word, which has the force more of individual utterances, divine communications.
λαλία (from λαλέω, 'to talk, utter a sound') is, as a substantive, of much more limited use, as it is of meaning, being in fact only found in Matt. 26:73 = Mark 14:70; John 4:42 (comp. λόγος, John 4:41); and John 8:43. But the constant use of the verb for the fact of uttering human language (Matt. 9:33; Mark 16:17; Acts 2:4; Acts 18:9), and in such expressions as "He spoke saying" (cf. Mark 6:50; Heb. 2:2) sufficiently defines its force. John 8:43 brings λόγος and λαλία together in a way that illustrates their respective meanings: λόγος is the matter of those discourses, the word itself; λαλία the outward form and utterance which His word assumes. They did not understand what He said (λαλία), because they did not take in His thought (λόγος); as it has been said, "In divine things one does not learn the definitions of words and then the things: one learns the things, and then the meaning of the words is evident." There could not be a more important principle.
15. PECULIAR (PEOPLE), PURCHASED POSSESSION.
The word 'peculiar' in the phrase a "peculiar people" occurs twice in the New Testament: Titus 2:14 and 1 Peter 2:9, as the rendering of two Greek words, περιούσιος (from περί and οὐσία, 'being beyond, abundant'), which only occurs in Titus, and περιποίησις (from περιποιέω, 'to acquire, gain'), of more general application in 1 Peter. There is an intimate link between these two texts in that they are but different renderings, as adopted by the LXX, for the same Hebrew word, περιούσιος being in fact unknown outside Biblical Greek. We must turn then to the Old Testament to enter into its force here. It is to be found at Ex. 19:5; Ex. 23:22; Deut. 7:6; Deut. 14:2; Deut. 26:18; and what is but another form of the word (περιουσιασμός) is employed for the same Hebrew in Psalm 135:4 (Ps. 134) and Ecc. 2:8, which last passage is the only one without reference to the chosen people of Israel. These are apparently the only places in the LXX where περιούσιος, -ασμός occur. But for the same Hebrew word they have used περιποίησις (at least the verb of it) in 1 Chr. 29:3 (in the A.V. "of mine own proper good" and in Mal. 3:17, where we may more accurately translate "They shall be unto me for a peculiar treasure, saith the Lord of hosts, in the day that I prepare." Peter's use of the word may be compared with the rendering of the LXX in Isa. 43:21, which may have been in his mind, where for 'formed' they have the verb of περιποίησις, that is, 'acquired' or 'possessed,' "to tell forth my praises."
The Hebrew word signifies 'to surround on all sides,' hence 'to gather together, set apart, reserve, appropriate.' Applied to property, it would be the private treasure acquired or possessed by the person himself, as distinguished from what is shared with others: with kings (cf. the passages in Ecc. and 1 Chr.) it would be the private purse as distinct from the public treasury. Now the word 'peculiar' comes from the Latin peculium, which has very much this force, being used of the private purse which a member of a household was allowed to accumulate and possess for himself, distinct from what must be applied to the good of the family generally. The Greek περιούσιος also has the meaning of 'existing, or possessed over and above,' with the same exception from the common laws of distribution. The Latin word has been used in these passages by more than one translator of the O.T., and hence passed in an English form into our version in all but Deut. 7:6, where 'special' is put for 'peculiar;' and in Malachi 'jewels' (with 'special treasure' in the margin.) Thus the force of these interesting passages in Titus and 1 Peter will be clear — a "people for his own possession."
περιποίησις occurs elsewhere. In Eph. 1:14 it is rendered "purchased possession," referring to Eph. 1:10-11; the inheritance, of all things in heaven and earth which are to be headed up in Christ, and of which in Christ we have been made heirs (not, as in the R.V., "made a heritage," confounding the church with the place of Israel). Till that day of glory the Holy Spirit is given us as the earnest of the inheritance; then redemption will be applied in power to the acquired possession, and Christ and the heavenly saints will formally take the inheritance according to God's purpose (comp. Dan. 7:13-14, and 18): hence the expression in Eph. 1:18 "the riches of the glory of his [that is, God's] inheritance in the saints." In three other passages the word is found much more in its primary meaning of what remains over, is saved, reserved for oneself, and acquired and preserved. We have it thus applied to salvation in 1 Thess. 5:9, and glory in 2 Thess. 2:14; and in Heb. 10:39 to the contrast between those who are "of faith to the saving of the soul" and "the drawers back to perdition."
16. IMAGE. LIKENESS. SIMILITUDE.
The word εἰκών (from ἔοικα, 'to seem, resemble') is translated 'image,' and the words ὁμοίωσις and ὁμοίωμα (from ὅμοιος, 'like') are translated 'likeness, similitude.'
In Genesis 1:26 both εἰκών and ὁμοίωσις occur in the LXX: "Let us make man in our image (εἰ.) and after our likeness (ὁμ.)" In the N.T. these two words occur, in a similar use, with reference to man: he has this place in responsibility still: thus man "is the image (εἰ.) and glory of God" (1 Cor. 11:7); and "men are made after the likeness (ὁμ.) of God." James 3:9.
To be true to the image there must be moral likeness; but this involves for us a new creation. Hence (Col. 3:10): "the new man is renewed unto full knowledge after the image (εἰ.) of him that created him;" and Eph. 4:24 supplies the likeness (though the word is not used) "the new man which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness."
In Rom. 1:23 the words ὁμοίωμα and εἰκών both occur. It is said that men "changed the glory of the incorruptible God into the likeness (ὁμ.) of an image (εἰ.) of corruptible man, and of birds," etc. Both words will also be found in reference to the Lord, He is the image (εἰ.) of God (2 Cor. 4:4; Col. 1:15); and He took a place "in the likneness (ὁμ.) of men" (Phil. 2:7); see also Rom. 8:3.
'Similitude' in Heb. 7:15 is the rendering of another word ὁμοιότης, "after the similitude of Melchizedek."
For further remarks, see IMAGE in this Dictionary.
17. TO WALK.
Both περιπατέω and στοιχέω are translated 'to walk,' but there is a difference between them. The latter means to walk by a rule, the more studied following of a prescribed course; whilst the former is either in a physical sense, or as to the manner of life, the general character of the walk — in its regular and practical manifestations. Cf. John 7:1.
Both words are used for walking by or in the Spirit, Gal. 5:16 (πε.), Gal. 5:25 (στ.); but στοιχέω (from στείχω, 'to go in order') is restricted to walking well. In Rom. 4:12 "in the steps of the faith of Abraham;" by a godly rule, Gal. 6:16; Phil. 3:16; and it is once translated "walk orderly." Acts 21:24. These passages are the only ones in which στοιχέω occurs.
περιπατέω (from περί and πατέω, 'to walk about') is of common occurrence, and is used very generally. For instance, in John 5:12, for taking up his bed and walking; again, both for walking in darkness and in light, 1 John 1:6-7; according to Satan, or according to God. Eph. 2:2; 1 Thess. 2:12.
18. ACCEPTED. ACCEPTABLE.
χαριτόω (from χάρις, 'grace') is translated 'made accepted' in the A.V. in Eph. 1:6; "made accepted in the beloved," where the sense is, 'taken into favour,' or 'made objects of grace.' It has been said that "accepted is too formal a doctrine here." The only other occurrence of χαριτόω is in Luke 1:28, where the angel declared Mary to be the 'highly favoured' one, or, as in the margin, 'graciously accepted, or much graced.'
εὐάρεστος (lit. 'well-pleasing,' from εὖ, 'well,' and ἀρέσκω, 'to please') signifies 'acceptable' to God, Rom. 14:18; 'agreeable' to the Lord, Eph. 5:10; 'well-pleasing' to Him, Col. 3:20. These passages show that the translation "we may be accepted of him," in 2 Cor. 5:9, is incorrect: it should be "agreeable to him."
χαριτόω implies that God has brought the believer into favour. εὐάρεστος in the passages quoted, applies to that which is acceptable, or well-pleasing, to God: cf. Rom. 12:1-2; Rom. 14:18; Heb. 13:21, as of conduct, etc.
δεκτός (lit. 'acceptable,' from δέχομαι, 'to accept') is another word rendered both 'accepted' and 'acceptable' in the A.V. It is associated with εὐάρεστος in Phil. 4:18, where they are translated "acceptable (δε.), well-pleasing (εὐ.) to God." It has nearly the same force as εὐάρεστος, and should be rendered 'acceptable' in Luke 4:24; Acts 10:35; and 2 Cor. 6:2.
19. TO ACCOMPLISH, FINISH, FULFIL.
The word τελέω (from τέλος, 'end') is 'to accomplish anything by bringing it to an end.' So the Lord was straitened until His death was accomplished. Luke 12:50. Comp. Luke 18:31 and John 19:28; and for the general sense of the word, Matt. 11:1; Rev. 10:7; Rev. 11:7.
τελειόω (from τέλειος, 'perfect') is 'to make perfect, complete,' not merely to bring to an end. See John 17:23; Heb. 2:10; Heb. 5:9; Heb. 10:1; Heb. 11:40; James 2:22. In Acts 20:24 the apostle Paul uses it of 'completing ' his course.
πληρόω (from πλήρης, 'full') signifies 'to fill, fill up, fulfil.' The Lord said that He did not come to abolish, or make void, the law and the prophets; He came to fulfil, or give the fulness to them — to make good the whole scope of the law and the prophets. Matt. 5:17. This helps as to the force of Col. 1:25; not only was the circle of truth, the communication of God's mind, as to the subjects of revelation, complete when the doctrine of the assembly was brought out through the apostle; but the truth as to the mystery gave fulness to the whole revelation of God. See also Matt. 1:22; Matt. 2:15, 17, 23, and many other passages. In the sense of 'filling' see Luke 2:40; the house was filled with the scent of the ointment in John 12:3; and the house was filled with the sound, in Acts 2:2.
The apostle prays that the Ephesian saints might be filled unto all the fulness of God. Eph. 3:19; and in Eph. 4:10 we read "He that descended is the same that has also ascended up far above all the heavens that he might fill all things."
For 'filling up' see Matt. 23:32.
20. TO ASK, REQUEST.
Both αἰτέω and ἐρωτάω are translated 'to ask,' and in many passages rightly; but some lose much of their force by the translation not preserving a very real distinction between them. αἰτέω is supplicatory, as of an inferior to a superior — of a beggar seeking alms, Acts 3:2 (Acts 3:3, where ἐρωτάω is used, would perhaps indicate a change in tone from the accustomed begging to the more peremptory demand); of a child asking from his parents, Matt. 7:9; and the disciples from God and the Father. 1 John 3:22; James 1:5-6. John uses the word αἰτέω for 'prayer,' and never the ordinary word προσεύχομαι, nor προσευχή, 'prayer,' save in Rev. 5:8; Rev. 8:3-4.
ἐρωτάω, on the other hand, carries with it a certain equality or familiarity between those of whom it is used, as of king with king, Luke 14:32. The Lord uses this word of His own asking of the Father, John 14:16; John 16:26; John 17:9, 15, 20 — never αἰτέω. Martha reveals her unconsciousness of the dignity of His person in applying this last to Him (John 11:22), which He never uses Himself.
The passage that has suffered most from the obliteration in the A.V. of the distinction between the words is John 16:23, which seems to substitute prayer to the Father in the name of Christ, for prayer to Christ directly. Whereas the 'ask' (ἐρωτάω) of the first part of the verse refers to John 16:19, "Jesus knew that they were desirous to ask (ἐρωτάω) him." Here the word is used in its ordinary classical sense of 'question,' not as 'prayer' at all. The Lord is leading on their hearts, from the hour of travail that was before them in His death, to the dawn of a new and endless day in His resurrection, when they would have no more questions, all difficulties would be solved. There had in fact been two difficulties before them in what the Lord had said in John 16:17. John 16:18 to the first clause of John 16:23 complete the Lord's instruction as to the first difficulty. In the latter clause of John 16:23 He takes up their second difficulty, "Because I go to the Father," and unfolds this first of the consequences of His so going, that now they would be able to 'ask' (αἰτέω) the Father in His name — to come before the Father in the value of His name as they never had done hitherto, as left to represent Him in the place of His rejection.
Help also may be found as to another passage, where there is confessedly more difficulty in preserving the distinction of the Holy Spirit's use of the two words, namely, 1 John 5:16. In the beginning of the verse αἰτέω is used as in the verses preceding (1 John 5:14-15) for prayer. To see a brother sin should lead those who know God's holiness to pray that he might not be cut off as to this life under His government: see 1 Cor. 11:30-32. But there are cases where the heart of the intercessor is checked, and the apostle would not have the sense of the gravity of sin weakened in such a case. "There is a sin unto death:" this may be the reason of the check. [Peter could not have prayed for the life of Ananias and Sapphira.] But he adds "I do not say that he shall pray for it." (A.V.) 'Pray' is here ἐρωτάω, with the same difference from αἰτέω that we have seen, namely, 'question concerning it.' If there was no question, the apostle would have none raised: "All unrighteousness is sin; and there is a sin not unto death."
21. ANOTHER. DIFFERENT.
Both ἄλλος and ἕτεος are translated in the A.V. by 'other' and 'another;' but their signification is not the same, and in some passages there is a marked difference. ἄλλος is 'another' or 'others' numerically: an officer says to one soldier, "Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh." Matt. 8:9.
On the other hand, ἕτεος expresses 'a different kind.' John sent his disciples to ask the Lord if He was the coming one, or were they to look for a different one? Was He the One prophesied of in the O.T. Matt. 11:3? Christ is a priest of a different order, and came of a different tribe from Levi. Heb. 7:11, 13, 15. In Egypt there arose a different king that knew not Joseph, Acts 7:18; doubtless referring to one of a different dynasty. See also Acts 8:34.
Both words occur in Gal. 1:6-7; Paul wondered that the Galatians were so quickly changing to a different (ἕτ.) gospel, which was not another (ἄλ.). Lest it should be supposed that Paul was admitting that there could really be another gospel than that he had preached to them, he uses ἄλλος with an emphatic negative, "which is not another." It is the absolute assertion that there was no other, nor could be: cf. also 2 Cor. 11:4.
22. ENVY. ZEAL. EMULATION. JEALOUSY.
Both ζῆλος and φθόνος are translated 'envy,' but they are not used indiscriminately. ζῆλος is sometimes used in a good and sometimes in a bad sense, whereas φθόνος is perhaps always used in a bad sense in the New Testament.
In Gal. 5:20-21, both words are among the "works of the flesh," as 'emulations' or 'jealousies' (ζῆ.) and 'envyings' (φθ.).
ζῆλος is used of the Lord in "The 'zeal' of thine house hath eaten me up," John 2:17; a quotation from Ps. 69:9, where the LXX (68:9) has the same word. Paul speaks to the Corinthian saints of the 'zeal' ('fervent mind' A.V.) they had for him, and the 'zeal' they manifested in clearing themselves from the evil amongst them. 2 Cor. 7:7, 11. Afterwards he says he was jealous (ζηλόω, the verb) over them with a godly jealousy (ζῆ.) 2 Cor. 11:2; but in 2 Cor. 12:20, he uses the same word for the 'envyings' or 'jealousies' he feared he might find among them.
Above it is said, 'perhaps' φθόνος always has a bad sense in the N.T. because of James 4:5. This is a difficult passage, and has been variously translated. Apparently the A.V. and R.V. assume the 'spirit' to be the human spirit, which naturally lusteth to envy; but others believe the spirit to be the Holy Spirit, and if so, may not the sense be, as given by Bengel, "Does the Spirit, which has taken up his dwelling in us, lust enviously?" This latter interpretation is in all probability the right one.
23. LIFE. LIVING.
The words βίος, ζωή, ψυχή and πνεῦμα are all translated 'life,' but there is a great deal of difference between them.
βίος is the manner or means of life, or subsistence in this world. The poor widow cast in all her living. Mark 12:44. We pray for the powers that be "that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life." 1 Tim. 2:2. "No man that warreth entangleth himself with the affairs of this life." 2 Tim. 2:4. "The pride of life is not of the Father." 1 John 2:16.
ζωή denotes more life in its activity and vigour: not merely existence, but existence in relation to a proper sphere. "In him [Christ] was life." John 1:4. The Holy Spirit is "the Spirit of life," and the Lord Jesus is "the Prince of life." Rom. 8:2; Acts 3:15. The word is often used in conjunction with everlasting or eternal, Matt. 19:29; Matt. 25:46, etc. Of some the Lord said, "Ye have no life in you," John 6:53; they were spiritually dead, "alienated from the life of God." Eph. 4:18.
ψυχή is life in the sense of the living soul. See Matt. 10:28, 39; Matt. 16:25-26; John 10:11, 15, 17; Acts 15:24, 26; Acts 20:10, and other passages, where the word is translated both 'life' and 'soul.'
πνεῦμα (from πνέω, 'to breathe') is 'breath,' 'spirit,' and is only once translated 'life' in the A.V., Rev. 13:15, where it should be 'breath.'
24. TO COMFORT, ENCOURAGE.
The words παρακαλέω and παραμυθέομαι are both translated 'to comfort,' but there is a difference between them. The latter word (from παρά and μῦθος, 'a word, speech') in the four places in which it occurs (John 11:19, 31; 1 Thess. 2:11; 1 Thess. 5:14) is translated 'comfort' in the A.V., and seems to be expressive of more tenderness than the former.
παρακαλέω (καλέω, 'to call'), which it is difficult to render in any uniform way, is calling upon a person in order to stimulate him to something, it may be to comfort; but it often refers to other things — to exhortation in general, as in Rom. 12:8; Titus 2:15; and in some passages may well be translated 'encourage,' as in Heb. 3:13, "Encourage one another daily," also in Heb. 10:25. See 2 Cor. 1:3-7 where the word, with the substantive formed from it, occurs several times with a more active force than 'comfort.' In Acts 4:36 the name Barnabas, υἱὸς παρακλήσεως, should probably be 'son of exhortation' rather than 'of consolation.'
An interesting instance of the two words occurring together is found in 1 Thess. 2:11, we are "exhorted (παρακ.) and comforted (παραμ.)"
25. BURDEN. WEIGHT.
The words βάρος and φορτίον are both translated 'burden.' The difference between the two words is that with βάρος (from βαρύς, 'heavy') the burden is always heavy and oppressive; whereas the idea in φορτίον (from φέρω, 'to carry') is that it has to be carried, as freight, baggage, etc., though it need not be heavy; as the burden was which the Jewish leaders laid on others, Matt. 23:4; Luke 11:46; or it may be light, as the Lord says, "My burden is light." Matt. 11:30.
In Gal. 6:2, 5 both words are employed: "Bear ye one another's burdens (βά.) . . . . for every man shall bear his own burden (φο.)" We may and should in sympathy bear one another's troubles, and so on; but each one is responsible for his own 'bundle:' he cannot transfer it to another.
Those who had laboured for twelve hours complained of the burden (βάρος) they had borne. Matt. 20:12. The word is employed also in 2 Cor. 4:17 for the "exceeding and eternal 'weight' of glory" which the apostle looked forward to in contrast with "our light affliction."
26. TRUE. THE TRUE.
Both ἀληθής and ἀληθινός are translated 'true,' but not with the same sense. The difference may be seen in the two expressions that "God is true" (ἀληθής) in John 3:33; and "the only true (ἀληθινός) God" in John 17:3. The Latin language has two words showing the distinction, verax and verus, as in the Vulgate.
ἀληθής signifies that which is according to truth: "Let God be true!" in contrast to the falsehood of man, Rom. 3:4; but there is no good word in English by which to translate ἀληθινός. In some passages no doubt 'real,' 'genuine,' or the old English word 'very,' might be used, as Wycliffe translated John 15:1; "I am the verri vyne." But 'very' would not suit in many places, as in "He that is holy, he that is true." Rev. 3:7.
Archbishop Trench observes "God is ἀληθής (John 3:33; Rom. 3:4; = verax) inasmuch as He cannot lie, as He is ἀψευδής (Titus 1:2) the 'truth-speaking' and truth-loving God. But He is ἀληθινός (1 Thess. 1:9; John 17:3; Isa. 65:16; = verus) very God, as distinguished from idols or all other false gods." He adds that ἀληθινός is not always the true as opposed to the false. Rather it is very often the substantial as opposed to the shadowy and outlinear: thus in Heb. 8:2 we have the σκηνὴ ἀληθινή, 'true tabernacle,' into which our great High Priest entered, implying that the one in the wilderness was only an earthly copy of that which had a most real existence in heaven. So too Christ is said to be τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινόν, 'the true light,' (John 1:9), though John the Baptist was also "a burning and shining light" (λύχνος), John 5:35. Christ is also ἡ ἄμπελος ἡ ἀληθινή, 'the true vine' (John 15:1), not denying that Israel was God's vine, but implying that none but He realised the name to the full.
Summing up, the Archbishop says, "We may affirm of the ἀληθής that He fulfils the promise of His lips; but of the ἀληθινός, the wider promise of His name. Whatever that name imports, taken in its highest, deepest, widest sense — whatever according to that He ought to be — that He is to the full."
27. TO CORRUPT, HANDLE DECEITFULLY.
Both καπηλεύω and δολόω are used to express wrong treatment of the word of God. Each occurs but once, in the Second Epistle to the Corinthians. Doubtless the Apostle Paul as led of the Holy Spirit had some reason for employing different words, though others deem the two words to signify the same; as in both places in the Vulgate they are translated adulterantes. They both convey the thought of 'falsifying.'
δολόω (from δόλος, 'guile, cunning') occurs in 2 Cor. 4:2, where "falsifying the word" gives the true meaning. καπηλεύω conveys more than this. The noun κάπηλος signifies one who sells wine, as may be seen in the LXX in Isa. 1:22, "wine merchants," but it is immediately added, they "mix the wine with water." This became so common a practice that the word καπηλεύω came to imply 'making a gain by adulterating.' The word occurs in 2 Cor. 2:17, which may therefore be translated "traffic in," or "make gain by corrupting the word of God." The passage consequently implies that those referred to falsified the word of God with a view to some advantage to themselves. It is possible therefore that Paul in each passage refers to a different class of persons.
28. TO FEED, SHEPHERD.
Both βόσκω and ποιμαίνω are translated 'feed.' The former word (except in John 21:15-17) is used for the feeding of swine. Matt. 8:30, 33; Mark 5:11, 14; Luke 8:32, 34; and Luke 15:15.
ποιμαίνω refers to the feeding of cattle, as in Luke 17:7, but is used figuratively, as of feeding the flock or church of God. Acts 20:28; 1 Peter 5:2. It is four times translated 'rule' as applied to the people of Israel and to the nations in a future day. Matt. 2:6; Rev. 2:27; Rev. 12:5; Rev. 19:15. It is from the root ποιμήν, 'a shepherd,' and may be translated 'to shepherd,' as implying care or oversight as well as feeding.
In John 21:15-17, both βόσκω and ποιμαίνω occur, though the force of this is lost in the A.V. In these verses we should read "Feed my lambs;" "Shepherd my sheep;" " Feed my sheep." It has sometimes been asked (since 'to shepherd' implies more than 'to feed') why the Lord went back in the last case to βόσκω. Perhaps it may refer to the tendency of professed shepherds to be occupied with the flock without really leading the sheep to the true pasture provided for them in Christ, and consequent failure to feed them.
29. LIGHT. LAMP. CANDLE.
The words φῶς, φέγγος, φωστήρ, λύχνος, and λαμπάς are all translated 'light.' Originally φῶς was the light of the sun, and φέγγος the light of the moon and planets (reflection): so in the N.T. φῶς is used for the light of the sun, Rev. 22:5, and φέγγος for the light of the moon. Matt. 24:29; Mark 13:24. This latter word occurs but once more, in Luke 11:33, for the light of a candle or lamp, where however recent editors read φῶς.
φῶς stands in the first rank and is used for "God is light," 1 John 1:5; for "the light" and the "true light" when Christ appeared on earth, John 1:4-9; "the light of the world," John 8:12. This word is employed from Matthew to Revelation. It is the true opposite to darkness.
φωστήρ occurs but twice in the N.T., Phil. 2:15; Rev. 21:11; and in the LXX is found only in Gen. 1:14, 16, besides two or three times in the Apocrypha — the use being confined to the heavenly luminaries, sun, moon, and stars. This gives a beautiful force to the N.T. passages. In Phil. 2:14-16 is seen the reproduction of the characteristic traits of Christ in His people here, who are set as children of God, to shine as heavenly luminaries in the world, holding forth the word of life. In Rev. 21, which from Rev. 21:9 to Rev. 22:5 carries us on to the display of the church as the bride, the Lamb's wife, in the glory of the kingdom, we find what is true now by the grace of her calling, there brought out in all the perfection of the communicated glory of Christ: "her light (φωστήρ) was like unto a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone," which in Rev. 4:3 is one of the symbols of divine glory. It is not a question of the light which the heavenly city diffuses, but herself the luminary or diffuser through which the light of the glory is shed down upon the earthly Jerusalem.
λύχνος, besides 'light,' which it never really means, is rendered 'candle:' it is properly 'lamp' — a hand-lamp fed with oil. The connection of the truth in some passages is better seen by a uniform translation: as, for instance, Luke 8:16, where the 'lamp' is used as an illustration of the testimony of the word by Christ. In Luke 11:33 it is applied to those who have come in and seen the light as it shone perfectly in Him, and who are now left in His place, with the single eye (the eye being the 'lamp' of the body) as the means by which the whole body is "lightsome, having no part dark," and to be so as when the bright shining of a 'lamp' gives light. Then in Luke 12:35 the exhortation is that the 'lamp' should be burning. The fitness of this word being used of John the Baptist in John 5:35, as a 'lamp,' kindled by another for temporary shining, is lost in the A.V., and the difference between him and Christ obliterated, who is in Himself the light (φῶς), of which John was but witness. John 1:8-9. Rev. 21:23 is no exception, for, if the glory of God did lighten (φωτίζω) the heavenly city, the Lamb is the 'lamp' through whom the glory shines, as even now all the rays of it shine concentrated upon His face for faith (2 Cor. 3:18): only thus mediately could the divine glory be ever seen.
λαμπάς in the plural is only once translated 'lights,' Acts 20:8; several times 'lamps,' and once 'torches.' John 18:3. Perhaps torches would suit in all places. The word occurs five times in the Parable of the Ten Virgins, Matt. 25:1-8, and it is known that in India and other parts of the East torches are kept burning by oil, so that the same rendering would suit here.
30. TO DO, PRACTISE.
The word ποιέω signifies 'to make' or 'to do,' but indicates design and acquired habit of life: it is often applied to 'practising' what is good. Matt. 12:12; Matt. 19:16; John 8:29; but also to the reverse, Matt. 13:41; Rom. 3:8. The word πράσσω is applied to what we do naturally, easily, and is frequently connected with what is evil, though not absolutely restricted to this, see Rom. 9:11. Still the tendency is (where the words are used morally) to employ πο. in a good, and πρ. in an evil sense. In several passages both words occur. "Every one that doeth (πρ.) evil hateth the light . . . . but he that practises (πο.) the truth cometh to the light." John 3:20-21. These "shall come forth, they that have practised (πο.) good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done (πρ.) evil unto the resurrection of judgement," John 5:29. Paul thought he ought to do (πρ.) many things contrary to the name of Jesus, which he also practised (πο.) in Jerusalem. Acts 26:9-10. See both words also in Rom. 2:3; Rom. 7:15, 19; Rom. 13:4.
31. TO DO, WORK, LABOUR.
The word ἐργάζομαι (from ἔργον, 'work') is 'to work,' and supposes activity of service as connected with life, natural or spiritual: thus the Thessalonians were exhorted to work with their own hands for a livelihood. 1 Thess. 4:11. See also Gal. 6:10, where there is positive labour expended in doing good to all.
ποιέω, 'to do, practise,' has more the character of conduct. In several passages both words occur. "He that doeth (πο.) truth cometh to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest, that they are wrought (ἐρ.) in God." John 3:21. The Jews sought to slay the Lord "because he had done (πο.) these things on the Sabbath day. But Jesus answered them, My Father worketh (ἐρ.) hitherto, and I work (ἐρ.)" John 5:16-17. "Then said they unto him, What shall we do (πο.) that we might work (ἐρ.) the works (ἔργα) of God?" John 6:28. "Whatsoever ye do (πο.), labour (ἐρ.) at it heartily, as to the Lord, and not unto men." Col . 3:23. "Beloved, thou doest (πο.) faithfully whatsoever thou mayest have wrought (ἐρ.) to the brethren, and those strangers." 3 John 5.
The words βωμός and θυσιαστήριον both signify 'altar,' but it is interesting to notice that while the former is employed when Paul spoke of the heathen altar at Athens (Acts 17:23, the only occurrence of the word in the N.T.), the latter is always used by him when speaking of the altar of the temple, and also when referring to Christ as the believer's altar in Heb. 13:10. James also uses the same word when speaking of the altar on which Abraham offered his son Isaac.
The LXX always preserves the same difference in the use of the two words in the canonical books: indeed, it has been judged by scholars that the word θυσιαστήριον was coined by the translators of the LXX for the purpose of making the distinction. It is derived from θυσιάζω 'to sacrifice;' whereas βωμός signifies simply 'a raised place.'
33. PATIENCE. LONG-SUFFERING. FORBEARANCE.
It is important to distinguish between ὑπομονή and μακροθυμία, -έω. Both are rendered 'patience' and 'long-suffering'; the latter once 'bear long,' and once 'suffer long.' They are found together in Col. 1:11 and in 2 Cor. 6:4, 6, where ὑπομονή is given as the first mark of what commends the "servants of God," as it is the first sign of apostolic power in 2 Cor. 12:12. They are together in reverse order, 2 Tim. 3:10, in the apostle's manner of life. James 5:11 speaks of the 'patience' (ὑπ.) of Job, and in James 5:10 of the prophets as an example of 'long-suffering' (μα.), 'patience' A.V.
ὑπομονή (from ὑπομένω 'to sustain') is once rendered 'enduring,' 2 Cor. 1:6; 'patient continuance,' Rom. 2:7; and this fully enters into the thought of the word: it is a 'patient endurance,' that does not succumb under trial and suffering. See Luke 8:15; Luke 21:19 (comp. Ps. 39:7, where "what wait I for" is ὑπομονή in the LXX, 38:8); Rev. 13:10; Rev. 14:12, and in the expression "he that endureth to the end," Matt. 10:22 and Matt. 24:13 (the verb); see also Rom. 5:3-4; James 1:3-4; Heb. 10:36; Heb.12:1. In Rom. 15:5 it is traced to its divine source for us; and, though never applied to God directly, because there could be no such testing or pressure in regard to Him, the Lord Jesus in the place He has taken as Man is our perfect example in it, Heb. 12:2-3 (the verb), who 'endured' the cross, and the contradiction of sinners against Himself; with which may be compared 2 Thess. 3:5 and Rev. 3:10.
μακροθυμία is from μακρόθυμος, 'long-suffering.' What has been observed as to God in connection with ὑπομονή just serves to bring out the distinction between this word and μακροθυμία, which if a trait of grace in the saint, is most fully an attribute of God. The distinction has been put thus by Archbishop Trench: "μακροθυμία will be found to express patience in respect of persons, ὑπομονή in respect of things;" and scriptural usage, it is believed, confirms this. From Ex. 34:6 μακρόθυμος is constantly used of God in the LXX: for μακροθυμία, in the N.T. in the same way, see Rom. 2:4; Rom. 9:22; 1 Tim. 1:16; 1 Peter 3:20; 2 Peter 3:15; it is the verb μακροθυμέω in 2 Peter 3:9 'is long-suffering,' and Luke 18:7 'bear long.' We may see much of the force of μακρόθυμος in Prov. 15:18; Prov. 16:32, where in the LXX it answers to our "slow to anger," though the patient restraint of spirit expressed in the word is not confined to anger. For μακροθυμέω see Matt. 18:26, 29; James 5:7, 7, 8, 10 ('be patient' and 'have patience' in A.V.); and more generally 1 Cor. 13:4; 1 Thess. 5:14 ('be patient,' A.V.). For μακροθυμία, similarly, see 2 Tim. 4:2; Heb. 6:12 ('patience'). In Eph. 4:2 and Col. 3:12-13, it is followed by ἀνέχομαι "forbearing one another," which would be its manifestation. Expressing then 'a long holding out of the mind before it gives room to action or passion,' it is applied to God, in His forbearance towards those who provoke Him.
ἀνοχή, 'forbearance,' the substantive, is only found in Rom. 2:4; Rom. 3:25; but the verb ἀνέχομαι, as we have seen, occurs in Eph. 4:2; Col. 3:13, and in some other places, generally rendered 'suffer' in the sense of 'bearing with.' (It is a compound of this word with κακός that is used in 2 Tim. 2:24 only — 'patient of ills and wrongs.') But as a substantive it has a little more defined sense, being according to classic usage an armistice or suspension of hostilities, and hence of a temporary character. Its fitness will then be seen in Rom. 3:25-26 to express the difference between the 'passing-over' of sins in the forbearance (ἀνοχή) of God before the cross, and the 'justification' of the believer as the result of its finished work. (See πάρεσιςand ἄφεσις, No. 10.)
ἐπιεικής (from ἐπι and εἴκω, 'to yield') is another word translated 'patient' in A.V. in 1 Tim. 3:3 — associated there with ἄμαχος 'not a brawler,' or 'not addicted to contention,' as in Titus 3:2, where it is 'gentle,' also James 3:17 and 1 Peter 2:18. In Phil. 4:5 (in a substantive form) it is 'moderation.' See also 2 Cor. 10:1 for the noun, 'gentleness,' and Acts 24:4 'clemency.' Difficult to represent by any one word in English, it is 'equity' in contrast to the strict letter of the law, hence readiness to waive all rigour and severity even as to just legal redress (as Bishop Ellicot expresses it); it is the opposite of standing upon one's rights, 'mild,' 'gentle.' As compared with πρᾳότης (for which see No. 34) in the expression "meekness (πρ.) and gentleness (ἐπ.) of Christ," 2 Cor. 10:1; the first would be more the state of the inner mind, the second must necessarily express itself in relation to others. ἐπιεικής is used by the LXX in Ps. 86:5 (Ps. 85, LXX) of the Lord for what answers to our 'ready to forgive.'
34. MEEKNESS. QUIETNESS.
The words πρᾳος (πραΰς) and πρᾳότης (πραΰτης), always rendered 'meek' and 'meekness,' is a characteristic of those who inherit the earth, Matt. 5:5; and, part of the fruit of the Spirit in the Christian, Gal. 5:23 — it is seen in its perfection in the blessed Lord in the place He took as man. Matt. 11:29; 2 Cor. 10:1. It is the spirit and bearing of the pious in relation to men (Titus 3:2), as lowliness marks them in relation to God. It is in meekness that the engrafted word is received, James 1:21 — a contrast to the pride and wrath of man, James 1:20.
The 'meekness of wisdom' will be one mark of the behaviour of the wise, James 3:13. It is associated with lowliness and long-suffering in Eph. 4:2; Col. 3:12. See it in varied exercise in Gal. 6:1; 2 Tim. 2:25; 1 Cor. 4:21; 1 Peter 3:15. In 1 Peter 3:4-5 it is part of the incorruptible ornament of the wife, of great price before God, in her subjection to her husband.
ἡσύχιος, 'quiet,' occurs with πραΰς in 1 Peter 3:4, to which the end of 1 Peter 3:6 may refer: it is translated 'peaceable' in 1 Tim. 2:2. From it comes ἡσυχία, expressing the general idea of 'quietness,' as that which is enjoined upon the woman in 1 Tim. 2:11-12 of the same chapter (rather than 'silence' A.V.) See also 2 Thess. 3:12, where it is in contrast to officious meddling with other people's matters.
ἤρεμος (perhaps from ἥμερος, 'gentle') is only found in 1 Tim. 2:2, 'quiet' or 'tranquil.'
35. REVELATION. APPEARING. MANIFESTATION.
The words ἀποκάλυψις, ἐπιφάνεια, and φανέρωσις have somewhat similar meanings: the first and second are translated 'appearing,' and the first and third 'manifestation.'
ἀποκάλυψις (from ἀποκαλύπτω, 'to remove a covering, reveal') is the title of the Book of Revelation, and this gives the character of the word. The Apocalypse is not exactly a prophecy, but a revelation: it was not to be sealed up, as the prophecy of Daniel, and a blessing is pronounced on him that readeth and them that hear and keep the things written. The word is mostly translated 'revelation.' In Luke 2:32 the A.V. has "a light to lighten the Gentiles," but a more exact rendering is "a light for revelation of the Gentiles." In 1 Cor. 1:7 it is rendered 'coming' and in 1 Peter 1:7 'appearing,' but 'revelation' would be better in both places.
ἐπιφάνεια (from ἐπιφαίνομαι, 'to come into light, appear') occurs six times in Paul's writings and refers to the appearing of "our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ," 2 Thess. 2:8; 1 Tim. 6:14; 2 Tim. 4:1, 8; Titus 2:13. In the first passage it is rendered 'brightness' in the A.V., but this is not its meaning. It might be translated 'appearance (or, appearing) of His coming' with earlier English versions. In 2 Tim. 1:10 it is applied to Christ's first appearing; in the other passages to His appearing in glory, hence not to the moment when the raised and changed saints will meet Him in the air (1 Thess. 4:15, 18) before He appears. Note, that in 2 Tim. 4:1, the judgement of living and dead is not said to be "at his appearing and his kingdom" as in A.V.; but that, according to the correct reading, the last clause is a second ground of the apostle's charge to Timothy, "and by his appearing and his kingdom." The force of the word is rather 'appearance' than 'revelation.'
φανέρωσις (from φανερόω, 'to make manifest') occurs but twice in the N.T. and is not applied to the appearing of Christ, but to what is manifested in the Christian. In 1 Cor. 12:7 it is the "manifestation of the Spirit," and in 2 Cor. 4:2 the "manifestation of the truth."
The verb (φανερόω) occurs often: God was manifested in the flesh, 1 Tim. 3:16; "when the Christ is manifested who is our life, then shall ye also be manifested with him in glory." Col. 3:4. Again, in 1 Peter 5:4: "when the chief Shepherd is manifested, ye shall receive the unfading crown of glory." See also 1 John 2:28, and 1 John 3:2. It is applied to the saints in Col. 3:4, where it is in contrast with their life being hidden (as now) with Christ in God; but, flowing out of the same wonderful identification with Him, when He is manifested they shall be manifested with Him in glory: thus the word has its force by contrast with the being previously hidden, though known to exist.
In Heb. 9:26 it is His first coming, "hath he been manifested": noting in connection with this passage that the A.V. has the same rendering, 'appear,' for two other words; at Heb. 9:24 for ἐμφανισθῆναι(ἐμφανίζω), where Bengel notes the fitness of the original word in respect to God — 'he appears before the face of God for us;' and in Heb. 9:28 for ὀφθήσεται (ὄπτομαι), lit., 'he shall be seen' — leaving open, as so many other passages in the epistle, a double application — to the saints now at His coming for us, and to Israel at His appearing in glory.
36. OUGHT. MUST.
The words δεῖ, ὀφείλει (ὀφείλω) and χρή are all translated 'ought,' with other variations as to the first two. But there is a difference in their signification. Bengel says ὀφείλω denotes 'obligation;' δει, 'necessity.' ὀφείλω is to be under moral obligation, bound by duty, one ought, etc., and specially in personal aspects. See Eph. 5:28; 2 Cor. 12:11, 14; Acts 17:29; Rom. 15:1; 1 John 2:6; 1 John 3:16; 1 John 4:11. Compare Luke 11:4 'indebted,' Matt. 18:28, 30. ὀφείλω (with its compounds) is with one exception the word for 'owing,' and what is owed, Philemon 18; Rom. 8:8; Rom. 15:27, 27, translated 'debtor' and 'duty.' In Luke 17:10 it is "that which was our duty": Heb. 2:17, "it behoved him": 2 Thess. 1:3; 2 Thess. 2:13, "are bound."
δει is more general, denoting any kind of necessity, as that which lies in the nature of the case, or specially that which arises by divine appointment, and this gives it a greater strength: 'must' is its most frequent rendering. See 2 Tim. 2:6; Luke 22:7; John 3:7, 14, 30; John 4:4 ('must needs'), John 4:24; Acts 16:30; 1 Cor. 15:53; Heb. 9:26; Heb. 11:6; Mark 14:31 ('should,' 'should have to'); Acts 5:29 'ought.' These may illustrate the general use, and the following passages, out of many, the necessity established by the will and word of God: Matt. 16:21; Matt. 17:10; Matt. 24:6; Matt. 26:54; Luke 2:49; Luke 4:43; Luke 22:37; Luke 24:7, 26 ('ought'), Luke 24:44; John 9:4; John 20:9; Acts 1:16, 22 (21); Acts 3:21; Acts 4:12; Acts 9:16; Acts 14:22; Acts 23:11; Acts 27:24; 1 Cor. 15:25; 2 Cor. 5:10; 1 Tim. 3:7; Rev. 1:1.
χρή occurs but once, James 3:10; coming from the root of χράω, 'to deliver an oracle,' 'to be fated,' it passes into the sense of what is necessary, what behoves or is fitting (or the reverse with οὐ, negative, as in James 3:10). Compared with the other words, it is rather a necessity of time or circumstance, and has not the same moral force. Compare the kindred verb χρήζω (from χρεία, 'need, necessity'): 'to have need of,' Matt. 6:32; Rom. 16:2; 'need,' Luke 11:8; 2 Cor. 3:1.
37. SLOW. SLOTHFUL. IDLE.
The words βραδύς, νωθρός, and ἀργός have similar meanings. βραδύς occurs but three times in the N.T.; it differs from the other words in that it is used in a good as well as a bad sense, having only reference to time: 'slow,' in the sense of tardy. The Lord said, "O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken," Luke 24:25; but in James 1:19 the exhortation is "be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath."
νωθρός seems to imply more habitual slothfulness. It occurs but twice in the N.T. The Hebrew saints were "dull of hearing" when they ought by diligence to have been teachers, Heb. 5:11; and are exhorted not to be 'slothful,' but followers of those that inherit the promises. Heb. 6:12. It occurs once in the LXX: it is not fit that one diligent in business should attend on slothful men, Prov. 22:29.
ἀργός (perhaps from ἀεργός, α neg., and ἔργον, 'work') differs from the above in that it is applied to things as well as to persons, and involves blameworthiness. In Matt. 12:36, "every 'idle' word that men shall speak" will have to be accounted for. It is translated 'idle' in Matt. 20:3, 6, 6; 1 Tim. 5:13, 13. In Titus 1:12 the Cretans are said to be 'slow bellies,' or 'lazy gluttons.' In 2 Peter 1:8, in "using all diligence . . . . . they would be "neither idle nor unfruitful."
In the LXX ἀργός occurs in 1 Kings 6:7 (11), applied to the stones for the temple, but in what sense is not clear, unless it be that there was no more work to be done upon them. Sir C. Brenton translates 'rough hewn stones.'
38. MURDERER. MANSLAYER. ASSASSIN.
The words φονεύς, ἀνθρωποκτόνος, and σικάριος are all translated 'murderer.' φονεύω, the kindred verb to φονεύς (from φόνος, 'murder') is employed in the LXX in the commandment "Thou shalt not kill," and is repeated in the N.T. This shows that it embraces 'murder' in general, and those guilty of it are 'murderers,' Matt. 22:7; 1 Peter 4:15. Barabbas was a murderer, and the people of Israel were the murderers of Jesus. Acts 3:14; Acts 7:52; Acts 28:4.
ἀνθρωποκτόνος (from ἄνθρωπος, 'man,' and κτείνω, 'to slay' agrees more with our word 'man-slayer,' and is applied when murder may not have been committed. "Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer: and ye know that no murderer hath eternal life abiding in him." 1 John 3:15. The devil "was a murderer [mansleer, Wickliffe] from the beginning." John 8:44. This word serves to bring into contrast the slaying of MAN, and eternal life for man through our Lord Jesus Christ.
σικάριος (the Latin sicarius) is so called from sica, a short dagger or poniard. There was a secret society called Sicarii, the members of which carried daggers under their garments, and killed any who opposed them. Perhaps 'assassin' is the best equivalent. It occurs only in Acts 21:38.
39. WAR. FIGHTING.
The words πόλεμος and μάχη are translated 'fight,' or 'fighting.' They both occur in James 4:1; "From whence come wars (πό.) and fightings (μά.)?" and in the next verse occur the verbs to which these words belong: "Ye fight (μάχομαι) and war (πολεμέω)." These passages show the distinction between the words, and they may be said to correspond to the English words 'war' (πόλεμος), and actual fighting (μάχη, compare the Hebrew makkah, slaughter), though the war may be moral, and the fighting be by word of mouth, as "strifes of words" (λογομαχία), 1 Tim. 6:4, and the "strivings (μά.) about the law," Titus 3:9. Besides the above quoted passages the word μάχη occurs only in 2 Cor. 7:5; 2 Tim. 2:23.
πόλεμος is found nine times in the Revelation: in Rev. 9:7, 9; Rev. 16:14; Rev. 20:8, it is in the A.V. translated 'battle;' and in Rev. 11:7; Rev. 12:7, 17; Rev. 13:7; Rev. 19:19, it is 'war.' It would be more correct to render it 'war' in all the places, while μάχη is rather the actual shock of 'battle.'
40. FOUNDED. STEADFAST.
The words τεθεμελιωμένος (θεμελιόω) and ἑδραῖος have similar meanings. They both occur in Col. 1:23; "grounded (τε) and settled (ἑδ)," or "founded and firm." τεθεμελιωμένος (from θεμέλιος, 'a foundation') suggests the idea of being 'secured to the foundation:' thus in Matt. 7:25; Luke 6:48, it is "founded on a rock." In Heb. 1:10 the Lord "founded the earth;" Eph. 3:17, "rooted and founded in love;" and 1 Peter 5:10, "make you perfect, strengthen, 'found' you."
ἑδραῖος (from ἕδρα 'a seat or sitting') has more the thought of being 'stable, firm, within.' Besides Col. 1:23 it occurs only in 1 Cor. 7:37, "he that stands firm in his heart;" and in 1 Cor. 15:58, "my beloved brethren, be ye firm."
41. COMMON. UNCLEAN. DEFILED. PROFANE.
The words βέβηλος and κοινός, though of kindred meaning, have different applications. They both seem to have started with the signification 'common.' βέβηλος is connected with βηλός, 'a threshold,' which may be trodden on by all comers and be defiled. It stands in contrast to a consecrated spot or shrine, which is enclosed and guarded from desecration. In the LXX it once occurs in the sense of 'common:' common bread in contrast to the showbread in the tabernacle, 1 Sam. 21:4. In the N.T. it is always 'profane' in the A.V. It represents those for whom the law was made, 1 Tim. 1:9; three times it characterises babblings or vain talking, 1 Tim. 4:7; 1 Tim. 6:20; 2 Tim. 2:16; and in Heb. 12:16 it describes Esau as a profane person.
κοινός also is used in the LXX for 'common,' but more in the sense of fellowship: thus "Let us have a common purse," Prov. 1:14; a bad man does nothing for the common weal, Prov. 15:23. It is also employed to signify a 'wide or open' house, as if accessible to all, Prov. 21:9; Prov. 25:24. The word is used only in these senses in the LXX.
In the N.T. also it occurs in the sense of having "all things common," Acts 2:44; Acts 4:32; "the common faith," Titus 1:4; and the "common salvation," Jude 3. It may mean 'unclean' in reference to animals forbidden by the law as food, or to Gentiles in contrast with Jews, Acts 10:14, 28; they were not sanctified. It is rendered 'unclean' in respect to food, Rom. 14:14; of unwashed hands it is 'defiled,' Mark 7:2; and an apostate virtually treats the blood of Christ as a 'common' thing ('unholy' A.V.), Heb. 10:29.
It will be seen, as regards profanity or uncleanness, that βέβηλος refers to what is moral, whereas κοινός descends more to what is ceremonial.
An interesting instance of the use of these words occurs in the charge made against Paul of defiling the temple by bringing in Greeks. The Jews use the verb of κοινός, but Tertullus before the Roman governor uses the verb of βέβηλος, Acts 21:28; Acts 24:6.
42. EVIL. WICKED.
Both πονηρός and φαῦλος are translated 'evil,' but their application in scripture is different, though they may seem to blend. φαῦλος occurs but four times, referring to doing evil, John 3:20; John 5:29; and to the character of what is done as being evil. Titus 2:8; James 3:16.
πονηρός (from πόηος, 'labour, sorrow') often refers to the evil nature of the one acting, and the active working out of it. Thus Satan is called that 'wicked' one. Matt. 13:19, 38; Eph. 6:16; 1 John 2:13-14; 1 John 3:12. The demons are evil spirits. Luke 7:21; Luke 8:2; Acts 19:12-16. The same word is used in reference to the man living in sin in the church at Corinth — "put away . . . . that wicked person." 1 Cor. 5:13.
κακός, with its many compounds, is a common word for evil and (like πονηρός) may apply to the nature or character of those who commit evil. Matt. 21:41; Matt. 24:48; Phil. 3:2; Rev. 2:2; as well as to their acts and principles, Mark 7:21; 1 Cor. 15:33; Col. 3:5; Rom. 1:30; Rom. 8:3; 2 Cor. 13:7; though not always with this moral force: see Acts 16:28; Acts 28:5; 'harm'; and Luke 16:25, 'evil things.'
πονηρός would in Latin be industriâ malus, malignus. So the enemy of souls is emphatically, ὁ πονηρός, "the evil one." κακός in Latin is malus, improbus, etc., and is used in a very general way, opposed to both καλός and ἀγαθός, 'good:' 3 John 11. Both κακός and πονηρός occur in Rev. 16:2; "noisome (κα.) and grievous (πο.)"; and their nouns κακία and πονηρία, "malice and wickedness." 1 Cor. 5:8.
43. BUILDER. MAKER. ARTIFICER.
The two words to be considered are τεκνίτης and δημιουργός, and principally in their signification in Heb. 11:10, where of Abraham it is said "he looked for a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God." The words 'builder' and 'maker' are somewhat indefinite as applied to a city.
The word δημιουργός, 'a worker for the people,' hence 'a skilled workman,' (from δῆμος, 'a people,' and ἔργον, 'work') translated 'maker,' does not occur again in the N.T. nor is it found in the LXX except in 2 Mac. 4:1, where it is used symbolically for a 'worker' of evil. Outside of scripture it has been used for the 'Maker of the world,' and of almost everything else. We never speak of making a city: builder or constructor gives the true sense.
τεκνίτης (from τέχνη, 'art') translated 'builder,' occurs also in Acts 19:24, 38, for the 'artificers' (craftsmen, A.V.) who made the silver shrines of the temple at Ephesus; and in Rev. 18:22, alluding to no artificer of any art being found in spiritual Babylon. This seems to give the key to the signification of τεκνίτης in Heb. 11:10; the arts would embrace the planning of a city, descending to the bricklayers and masons, who also have to learn the art of their several employments.
The same word is used by the LXX in 1 Chr. 22:15; 1 Chr. 29:5, for the artificers who worked with the masons in building the temple. Our word 'artificer' is now commonly confined in its application to workmen, but its meaning is 'one who uses art,' quite agreeing with the signification of τεκνίτης, 'one who does or handles a thing by the rules of art' (Liddell and Scott), which applies as much to the higher branches of the arts as to the lower. Delitzsch explains τεκνίτης as 'having laid down its plan;' and δημιουργός as 'having framed it accordingly,' that is, the city. Bengel has 'contriver and founder;' Alford, 'architect and master-builder'; J. N. Darby, 'artificer and constructor.'
44. PEOPLE. NATIONS. GENTILES.
The words λαός, ἔθνος, δῆμος, and ὄχλος are all translated 'people.' λαός, 'a people,' is employed often in the LXX to point out God's chosen people Israel, in contrast to the nations around them, for which ἔθνος is used. Thus in Ex. 15:13-14, "Thou hast led forth by thy mercy the people (λαός), whom thou hast redeemed. . . . . The nations (ἔθνη) heard and were afraid." Moses said, "Both I and thy people (λαός) shall be glorified beyond all the nations (ἔθνη) as many as are upon the earth." Ex. 33:16. When Israel is spoken of as a nation, then ἔθνος is used, see Ex. 33:13.
In the N.T. ἔθνος is twice rendered 'people': Acts 8:9, referring to the Samaritans, who could not well be called a nation, and who differed from the Gentiles; and Rom. 10:19, which is a quotation from Deut. 32:21. In the plural it is commonly translated 'Gentiles' as a proper name, and 'nation' or 'nations' as an appellative; in a few instances 'heathen,' but it would be better 'nations.'
λαός occurs often in the N.T. and is always translated 'people,' probably with the same general idea, as in the O.T.: see Titus 2:14.
δῆμος occurs only in Acts 12:22; Acts 17:5; Acts 19:30, 33. It answers to the Latin populus, free citizens, and is thus employed in these passages.
ὄχλος is the contrast to this, and refers more to the unorganised multitude. It is five times translated 'press' and many times 'multitude' for the people who thronged around the Lord. It is also often translated 'people.'
45. PAIN. TRAVAIL. LABOUR. WEARINESS.
The words κόπος, πόνος, μόχθος, and ὠδίν have similar meanings, but there are different ideas connected with them. ὠδίν occurs but four times in the N.T. It refers literally to the pangs of a woman in child-birth, in which sense it occurs in 1 Thess. 5:3; twice it refers to the pangs that will seize the wicked when God's judgements are poured out upon the earth, Matt. 24:8; Mark 13:8; and once in reference to the pains of death endured by the Lord. Acts 2:24.
μόχθος (from μογέω, 'to labour, be in distress') occurs three times in the N.T. It has been judged to refer to the toil which is the lot of man in this world of sin, answering to "in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread." This seems to be confirmed by Paul's twice using it in reference to his labours (travail, A.V.), having to work night and day in addition to his apostolic work. 1 Thess. 2:9; 2 Thess. 3:8. In 2 Cor. 11:27 it is joined with κόπος, where Paul describes his life of labour and toil ("weariness [κό.] and painfulness [μό.]" A.V.), as well as the dangers he passed through.
πόνος (from πένομαι, 'to labour') occurs three times in the N.T., twice referring to the 'distress' that will attend the pouring out of God's judgements, and once to when there will be no distress or pain. Rev. 16:10-11; Rev. 21:4. (Some editors read πόνος in Col. 4:13 instead of ζῆλος.) The word is used by the LXX for the rigorous bondage of the Israelites in Egypt. Ex. 2:11. It seems to express the extremity of distress.
-κόπος (from κόπτω, 'to strike') occurs often in the N.T. In the A.V. it is translated 'weariness' in 2 Cor. 11:27; 'trouble' and 'labour' often. Perhaps the weariness of labour and trouble marks this word.
In the LXX three of the above words are attributed to Job's wife in her despair under the dealings of Satan. "The pangs (ὠδῖνες) and pains (πόνοι) of my womb which I bore in vain with sorrows (μόχθων)" — having lost her sons and daughters. Job. 2:9.
46. BLAMELESS. UNBLAMEABLE. UNREPROVEABLE. WITHOUT SPOT.
Various Greek words are thus translated and with other similar meanings, but the renderings in the A.V. are not uniform: thus ἄμωμος, which occurs but seven times in the N.T., is translated in six different ways. ἄμωμος (from α, neg. and μωμος, 'spot') signifies 'without spot or blemish'; and in this sense it is employed in the LXX three times, in Num. 6:14 respecting the offerings: the animals must be without blemish. From this it came to be used in a moral sense. It occurs in Col. 1:22 along with ἀνέγκλητος: "to present you holy and unblameable (ἄμ.) and unimpeachable (ἀν.) before him."
ἀμώμητος is a kindred word and has the same signification. It occurs but twice, namely, Phil. 2:15 and 2 Peter 3:14: in the latter it is accompanied by ἄσπιλος, "be diligent . . . . without spot (ἄσ.) and unblameable (ἀμ.)"
ἄμεμπτος (from α, neg. and μέμφομαι, 'to blame,') signifies 'without blame.' Paul in his former life had nothing to accuse himself of as to the righteousness of the law. Phil. 3:6; Zacharias and his wife were irreproachable, Luke 1:6; the saints also should be irreproachable. Phil. 2:15; 1 Thess. 3:13. Had the first covenant been 'faultless' there had been no place for a second. Heb. 8:7.
ἀνέγκλητος (from α, neg. and ἐγκαλέω, 'to accuse'), beside Col. 1:22 mentioned above, occurs only in 1 Tim. 3:10; Titus 1:6-7, where elders and deacons should be unimpeachable; and in 1 Cor. 1:8, where the Lord Jesus will confirm the saints unimpeachable in His own day. There will be no room for any possible accusation.
ἀνεπίληπτος (from α, neg. and ἐπίληπτος, 'blameable') occurs only in 1 Tim. 3:2; 1 Tim. 5:7, translated 'blameless' in the A.V.; and in 1 Tim. 6:14, 'unrebukeable.' Archbishop Trench suggests 'irreprehensible' for this word, which rendering was given in the Rheims Edition in 1 Tim. 3:2. It implies that there is nothing that an enemy can lay hold of.
47. TO HAVE COMPASSION, SYMPATHY, FORBEARANCE.
Both συμπαθέω and μετριοπαθέω are translated 'have compassion,' but there is a marked difference between the words. μετριοπαθέω (from μετριοπαθής, 'moderate in passions') occurs but once in the N.T., Heb. 5:2, referring to the Levitical priest, who "exercised forbearance" (the true meaning of the word: 'reasonably bear with' margin) on the ignorant and the erring, being himself clothed with infirmity. Hence if 'compassion' is admissible, it is as on the ignorant and erring.
συμπαθέω (from σύν, 'with,' and πάσχω, 'to suffer') is to have sympathy with others who are suffering. The blessed Lord, having been tempted in all points apart from sin, can sympathise, not with sin, but with the infirmities of the saints (have 'a fellow-feeling,' as Bengel expresses it), Heb. 4:15. Paul was able to say that the believing Hebrews sympathised with him in his bonds, Heb. 10:34; and all are exhorted to be sympathising ('have compassion' A.V., συμπαθής), full of brotherly love, etc. 1 Peter 3:8. The thought of compassion, not sympathy, can be connected with God: Christ can sympathise because, having become man, He has passed through trials: He has a fellow-feeling.
Neither of the words occurs in the LXX Vat., but the Alex. codex has συμπαθής in Job 29:25. Job says 'I sat chief, and dwelt as a king in the midst of warriors, as one comforting fellow-mourners:' he was as one with them.
48. TO KNOW, PERCEIVE, UNDERSTAND.
By these and other renderings in the A.V. several words in the original are expressed, with no attempt to distinguish them. This may not be always possible in an English version, yet the differences are not unimportant.
γινώσκω (with its substantive γνῶσις), ἐπιγινώσκω (with its substantive ἐπίγινωσις), οἶδα, and ἐπίσταμαι are the ordinary Greek words. The first two are found together in 1 Cor. 13; in 1 Cor. 13:8 there is a knowledge (γνῶσις) that shall vanish away, for it is explained (1 Cor. 13:9) "we know (γιν.) in part," so different is this knowledge in its present fragmentary character from what will be "when that which is perfect is come" (1 Cor. 13:10); which leads to the contrast of 1 Cor. 13:12 "now I know (γιν.) in part, but then shall I fully know (ἐπιγιν.) even as also I am fully known (ἐπιγιν.)." The difference between the two words is the intensive character given to γνῶσις, 'knowledge' (or its verb) by the preposition ἐπί which is added to it, making it 'a deeper and more intimate knowledge, and acquaintance.' Yet only in one passage in the A.V. is this recognised, 2 Cor. 6:9, where ἐπιγινώσκω is rendered 'well-known.' But the following passages in which the compound ἐπίγινωσις or ἐπιγινώσκω is found will confirm the distinctive force of it: Rom. 3:20; Rom. 10:2; Eph. 1:17; Eph. 4:13; Phil. 1:9; Col. 1:6, 9, 10; Col. 2:2 ('acknowledgement' A.V.); Col. 3:10; 1 Tim. 2:4; 1 Tim. 4:3; Titus 1:1; 2 Peter 1:2-3, 8: comp. Matt. 11:27.
In some passages the compound word, specially in the verb, gives the meaning of 'certain personal knowledge, and the consequent recognition of the truth of a thing,' 'recognising because we know;' see Matt. 7:16, 20; Matt. 14:35 ('had knowledge of Him' A.V.); Mark 5:30; Mark 6:33, 54; Luke 1:4, 22 ('perceived' A.V., so Luke 5:22; Mark 2:8); Luke 24:16, 31; Acts 4:13 ('took knowledge of ' A.V. so Acts 24:8); Rom. 1:32; 1 Cor. 14:37 ('acknowledge' A.V. so 1 Cor. 16:18; 2 Cor. 1:13); 2 Cor. 13:5. This may help as to the use of ἐπίγινωσις in such passages as Rom. 1:28 (compare the simple form of the word γνωστός in Rom. 1:19 as to how the certain knowledge was to be had); 2 Tim. 2:25; 2 Tim. 3:7; Heb. 10:26.
γινώσκω and οἶδα are found together, John 3:10-11; John 8:55; John 21:17; Heb. 8:11; 1 John 2:29; 1 John 5:19-20, with the same rendering of the different words used. γινώσκω is 'to come to know' and is used of knowledge acquired and communicated objectively, a true apprehension of external impressions; as compared with οἶδα which (from ἰδεῖν, 'to see with the mind's eye') is inward consciousness, knowledge of in one's own mind (hence a derivative of it signifies 'conscience') it is the more inclusive term. We read, Heb. 8:11, that there will be no need to say "know (γιν.) the Lord, for all shall know (οἶδα) me" — of consciousness in oneself, internal knowledge. So 1 John 2:29 "if ye know (οἶδα)" — knowledge realised inwardly — "that he is righteous, ye know (γιν.)" — have the knowledge from without by witness borne — "that every one that doeth righteousness is born of him." In 1 John 5:20 "we know" is the inwardly realised (οἶδα) as in 1 John 5:18-19, while the second 'know' is the knowledge we have come to by the Son of God having come. In John 3:10 it was such acquired knowledge (γιν.) as a teacher of Israel ought to have had, while John 3:11 is that of the Lord Jesus and those He associated with Him, "we speak that we do know (οἶδα);" with the same difference at John 8:55 — between the Jews who had no objective knowledge (γιν.) of God, and the knowledge of the Lord (οἶδα three times repeated in the verse). 1 Cor. 8:1; "we know" — conscious knowledge (οἶδα) that all have knowledge (γν.) — objective; similarly (γν.) of that which "puffs up." In 1 Cor. 8:2 "think that he knoweth" of the ordinary text is οἶδα, but ἐγνωκέναι (from γιν.) is better attested, as twice in the last clause — "he knows nothing," namely objectively, "as he ought to know (γιν.)" — so 1 Cor. 8:3: in 1 Cor. 8:4 "we know" is inward conscious knowledge (οἶδα), 1 Cor. 8:10 what a man has learned, acquired (γν.)
For οἶδα see Matt. 12:25 (Matt. 12:15 is γνούς, 'having known it'); Mark 1:34; demons had the inward conscious knowledge of who He was. 1 Cor. 2:11 shows its force clearly (note that in the second clause the reading γινώσκω of knowing the things of God seems best attested). 1 Cor. 13:2, know inwardly in my mind (οἶδα), (stronger than if γιν. had been used); 2 Cor. 12 all through. In Eph. 5:5 the true reading ἴστε (from οἶδα) γινώσκοντες brings both words interestingly together — the objectively acquired knowledge had passed into internal conscious knowledge — what they were well aware of, knowing — a process that as to the use of the words could not be reversed. In 2 Tim. 1:15, the apostle had no need to inform Timothy because of conscious knowledge, οἶδα. Compare 2 Tim. 3:1 where in "this know (γιν.) also" he communicates what could not have been otherwise known. 2 Tim. 1:12 was his own inward realisation (οἶδα) as 2 Tim. 3:14 was Timothy's (οἶδα).
ἐπίσταμαιis primarily 'to know' with such a knowledge as is gained by proximity to the thing known, being also used for fixing the mind or thoughts on something; it is thus the knowledge gained by experience — as that of an expert (ἐπιστήμων, an adjective formed from it, found only in James 3:13, is rendered "endued with knowledge"). The verb is found in Mark 14:68 ('understand' A.V.) where it is associated with οἶδα in Peter's denial of the Lord. It occurs often in the Acts. Acts 18:25; Acts 19:25; Acts 20:18; Acts 26:26; also in Jude 10, there is what they know not (had no conscious knowledge of οἶδα) and know naturally, ἐπίστ. In Acts 19:15 it is found with γινώσκω, "Jesus I know, and Paul I am acquainted with (ἐπίστ.)." See for the same word 1 Tim. 6:4; Heb. 11:8; Abraham had no knowledge as of experience of where he was going, nor we of what shall be on the morrow. James 4:14.
συνίημι is another word found for 'understand,' being indeed always so rendered in the A.V. save Mark 6:52 'considered' and 2 Cor. 10:12 'be wise' (though γινώσκω and οἶδα are also occasionally translated 'understand'). συνίημι (from σύν and ἵημι) is 'to bring or set together' (even originally in a hostile sense), it becomes metaphorically the expression of the soul's innate capacity to do so, connecting the outward object with the inward sense; it is to weigh, consider attentively, and so comprehend the meaning of a thing. See Matt. 13:13-14 and parallel passages, also Matt. 13:19, 23, 51; Mark 7:14; Mark 8:17, 21; Luke 24:45; Acts 7:25. Outside the Gospels and Acts it is only found at Rom. 3:11; Rom. 15:21; Eph. 5:17 and 2 Cor. 10:12; in the last text "are not intelligent" would better preserve the sense. The corresponding substantive σύνεσις, 'intelligence' or 'understanding,' occurs in Eph. 3:4, "my knowledge in the mystery;" Col. 1:9, "spiritual understanding;" also Col. 2:2; 2 Tim. 2:7; and elsewhere, 'understanding.'